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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: B. Männel; F. Zus; G. Dick; S. Glaser; +8 Authors

    Within the transpolar drifting expedition MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate), the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) was used among other techniques to monitor variations in atmospheric water vapor. Based on 15 months of continuously tracked GNSS data including GPS, GLONASS and Galileo, epoch-wise coordinates and hourly zenith total delays (ZTDs) were determined using a kinematic precise point positioning (PPP) approach. The derived ZTD values agree to 1.1 ± 0.2 mm (root mean square (rms) of the differences 10.2 mm) with the numerical weather data of ECMWF's latest reanalysis, ERA5, computed for the derived ship's locations. This level of agreement is also confirmed by comparing the on-board estimates with ZTDs derived for terrestrial GNSS stations in Bremerhaven and Ny-Ålesund and for the radio telescopes observing very long baseline interferometry in Ny-Ålesund. Preliminary estimates of integrated water vapor derived from frequently launched radiosondes are used to assess the GNSS-derived integrated water vapor estimates. The overall difference of 0.08 ± 0.04 kg m−2 (rms of the differences 1.47 kg m−2) demonstrates a good agreement between GNSS and radiosonde data. Finally, the water vapor variations associated with two warm-air intrusion events in April 2020 are assessed.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2021
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2021
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . Preprint . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
      Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . Preprint . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Susanne Adams; Reinhold Spang; Peter Preusse; Günther Heinemann;

    Abstract. Advances in detector technology enable a new generation of infrared limb sounders to measure 2-D images of the atmosphere. A proposed limb cloud imager (LCI) mode will detect clouds with a spatial resolution unprecedented for limb sounding. For the inference of temperature and trace gas distributions, detector pixels of the LCI have to be combined into super-pixels which provide the required signal-to-noise and information content for the retrievals. This study examines the extent to which tropospheric coverage can be improved in comparison to limb sounding using a fixed field of view with the size of the super-pixels, as in conventional limb sounders. The study is based on cloud topographies derived from (a) IR brightness temperatures (BT) of geostationary weather satellites in conjunction with ECMWF temperature profiles and (b) ice and liquid water content data of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling-Europe (COSMO-EU) of the German Weather Service. Limb cloud images are simulated by matching the cloud topography with the limb sounding line of sight (LOS). The analysis of the BT data shows that the reduction of the spatial sampling along the track has hardly any effect on the gain in information. The comparison between BT and COSMO-EU data identifies the strength of both data sets, which are the representation of the horizontal cloud extent for the BT data and the reproduction of the cloud amount for the COSMO-EU data. The results of the analysis of both data sets show the great advantage of the cloud imager. However, because both cloud data sets do not present the complete fine structure of the real cloud fields in the atmosphere it is assumed that the results tend to underestimate the increase in information. In conclusion, real measurements by such an instrument may result in an even higher benefit for tropospheric limb retrievals.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Article . 2009
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2018
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2009
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    Authors: Schmitt, J.; Schneider, R.; Fischer, H.;

    In order to provide high precision stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13CO2 or δ13C of CO2) from small bubbly, partially and fully clathrated ice core samples we developed a new method based on sublimation coupled to gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). In a first step the trapped air is quantitatively released from ~30 g of ice and CO2 together with N2O are separated from the bulk air components and stored in a miniature glass tube. In an off-line step, the extracted sample is introduced into a helium carrier flow using a minimised tube cracker device. Prior to measurement, N2O and organic sample contaminants are gas chromatographically separated from CO2. Pulses of a CO2/N2O mixture are admitted to the tube cracker and follow the path of the sample through the system. This allows an identical treatment and comparison of sample and standard peaks. The ability of the method to reproduce δ13C from bubble and clathrate ice is verified on different ice cores. We achieve reproducibilities for bubble ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.07 ‰ and for clathrate ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.09 ‰ (dependent on the ice core used). A comparison of our data with measurements on bubble ice from the same ice core but using a mechanical extraction device shows no significant systematic offset. In addition to δ13C, the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios can be volumetrically derived with a precision of 2 ppmv and 8 ppbv, respectively.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Measurem...arrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2011
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-...
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Measurem...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2011
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-...
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: N. V. Rokotyan; V. I. Zakharov; K. G. Gribanov; M. Schneider; +8 Authors

    This paper investigates the scientific value of retrieving H218O and HDO columns in addition to H216O columns from high-resolution ground-based near-infrared spectra. We present a set of refined H216O, H218O, and HDO spectral windows. The retrieved H216O, H218O, and HDO columns are used for an a posteriori calculation of columnar δD and δ18O. We estimate the uncertainties for the so-calculated columnar δD and δ18O values. These estimations include uncertainties due to the measurement noise, errors in the a priori data, and uncertainties in spectroscopic parameters. Time series of δ18O obtained from ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra are presented for the first time. For our study we use a full physics isotopic general circulation model (ECHAM5-wiso). We show that the full physics simulation of HDO and H218O can already be reasonably predicted from the H216O columns by a simple linear regression model (scatter values between full physics and linear regression simulations are 35 and 4‰ for HDO and H218O, respectively). We document that the columnar δD and δ18O values as calculated a posteriori from the retrievals of H216O, H218O, and HDO show a better agreement with the ECHAM5-wiso simulation than the δD and δ18O values as calculated from the H216O retrievals and the simple linear regression model. This suggests that the H218O and HDO column retrievals add complementary information to the H216O retrievals. However, these data have to be used carefully, because of the different vertical sensitivity of the H216O, H218O, and HDO columnar retrievals. Furthermore, we have to note that the retrievals use reanalysis humidity profiles as a priori input and the results are thus not independent of the reanalysis data.

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    Article . 2014
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    Authors: Jonas Witthuhn; Hartwig Deneke; Andreas Macke; Germar Bernhard;

    Abstract. The 19-channel rotating shadowband radiometer GUVis-3511 built by Biospherical Instruments provides automated shipborne measurements of the direct, diffuse and global spectral irradiance components without a requirement for platform stabilization. Several direct sun products, including spectral direct beam transmittance, aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent and precipitable water, can be derived from these observations. The individual steps of the data analysis are described, and the different sources of uncertainty are discussed. The total uncertainty of the observed direct beam transmittances is estimated to be about 4 % for most channels within a 95 % confidence interval for shipborne operation. The calibration is identified as the dominating contribution to the total uncertainty. A comparison of direct beam transmittance with those obtained from a Cimel sunphotometer at a land site and a manually operated Microtops II sunphotometer on a ship is presented. Measurements deviate by less than 3 and 4 % on land and on ship, respectively, for most channels and in agreement with our previous uncertainty estimate. These numbers demonstrate that the instrument is well suited for shipborne operation, and the applied methods for motion correction work accurately. Based on spectral direct beam transmittance, aerosol optical depth can be retrieved with an uncertainty of 0.02 for all channels within a 95 % confidence interval. The different methods to account for Rayleigh scattering and gas absorption in our scheme and in the Aerosol Robotic Network processing for Cimel sunphotometers lead to minor deviations. Relying on the cross calibration of the 940 nm water vapor channel with the Cimel sunphotometer, the column amount of precipitable water can be estimated with an uncertainty of ±0.034 cm.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2017
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    https://doi.org/10.34657/10564...
    Article . 2017
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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      https://doi.org/10.34657/10564...
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    Authors: J. Steinheuer; J. Steinheuer; C. Detring; F. Beyrich; +6 Authors

    Abstract. Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) have increasingly been used over the last decade to derive the mean wind in the atmospheric boundary layer. DWLs allow the determination of wind vector profiles with high vertical resolution and provide an alternative to classic meteorological tower observations. They also receive signals from higher altitudes than a tower and can be set up flexibly in any power-supplied location. In this work, we address the question of whether and how wind gusts can be derived from DWL observations. The characterization of wind gusts is one central goal of the Field Experiment on Sub-Mesoscale Spatio-Temporal Variability in Lindenberg (FESSTVaL). Obtaining wind gusts from a DWL is not trivial because a monostatic DWL provides only a radial velocity per line-of-sight, i.e., only one component of a three-dimensional vector, and measurements in at least three linearly independent directions are required to derive the wind vector. Performing them sequentially limits the achievable time resolution, while wind gusts are short-lived phenomena. This study compares different DWL configurations in terms of their potential to derive wind gusts. For this purpose, we develop a new wind retrieval method that is applicable to different scanning configurations and various time resolutions. We test eight configurations with StreamLine DWL systems from Halo Photonics and evaluate gust peaks and mean wind over 10 minutes at 90 m a.g.l. against a sonic anemometer at the meteorological tower in Falkenberg, Germany. The best performing configuration for retrieving wind gusts proves to be a fast continuous scanning mode (CSM) that completes a full observation cycle within 3.4 s. During this time interval, about eleven radial Doppler velocities are measured, which are then used to retrieve single gusts. The fast CSM configuration was successfully operated over a three-month period in summer 2020. The CSM paired with our new retrieval technique provides gust peaks that compare well to classic sonic anemometer measurements from the meteorological tower.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    Authors: G. Jozef; G. Jozef; G. Jozef; J. Cassano; +6 Authors

    During the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition, meteorological conditions over the lowest 1 km of the atmosphere were sampled with the DataHawk2 (DH2) fixed-wing uncrewed aircraft system (UAS). These in situ observations of the central Arctic atmosphere are some of the most extensive to date and provide unique insight into the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structure. The ABL is an important component of the Arctic climate, as it can be closely coupled to cloud properties, surface fluxes, and the atmospheric radiation budget. The high temporal resolution of the UAS observations allows us to manually identify the ABL height (ZABL) for 65 out of the total 89 flights conducted over the central Arctic Ocean between 23 March and 26 July 2020 by visually analyzing profiles of virtual potential temperature, humidity, and bulk Richardson number. Comparing this subjective ZABL with ZABL identified by various previously published automated objective methods allows us to determine which objective methods are most successful at accurately identifying ZABL in the central Arctic environment and how the success of the methods differs based on stability regime. The objective methods we use are the Liu–Liang, Heffter, virtual potential temperature gradient maximum, and bulk Richardson number methods. In the process of testing these objective methods on the DH2 data, numerical thresholds were adapted to work best for the UAS-based sampling. To determine if conclusions are robust across different measurement platforms, the subjective and objective ZABL determination processes were repeated using the radiosonde profile closest in time to each DH2 flight. For both the DH2 and radiosonde data, it is determined that the bulk Richardson number method is the most successful at identifying ZABL, while the Liu–Liang method is least successful. The results of this study are expected to be beneficial for upcoming observational and modeling efforts regarding the central Arctic ABL.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    Authors: James France; Prudence Bateson; Pamela Dominutti; Grant Allen; +18 Authors

    Emissions of methane (CH4) from offshore oil and gas installations are poorly ground-truthed and quantification relies heavily on the use of emission factors and activity data. As part of the United Nations Climate and Clean Air Coalition (UN CCAC) objective to study and reduce short-lived climate pollutants (SLCP) a Twin Otter aircraft was used to survey CH4 emissions from UK and Dutch offshore oil and gas installations. The aims of the surveys were to i) identify installations that are significant CH4 emitters, ii) separate installation emissions from other emissions using carbon-isotopic fingerprinting and other 25 chemical proxies, iii) estimate CH4 emission rates, and iv) improve flux estimation (and sampling) methodologies for rapid quantification of major gas leaks. In this paper, we detail the instrument and aircraft set up for two campaigns flown in the springs of 2018 and 2019 over the southern North Sea and describe the developments made in both planning and sampling methodology in order to maximise the quality and value of the data collected. We present example data collected from both campaigns to demonstrate the challenges 30 encountered during offshore surveys, focussing on the complex meteorology of the marine boundary layer, and sampling discrete plumes from an airborne platform. The uncertainties of CH4 flux calculations from measurements under varying boundary layer conditions are considered, as well as recommendations for attribution of sources through either spot sampling for VOCs / δ 13 CCH4 or using in-situ instrumental data to determine C2H6-CH4 ratios. A series of recommendations for both planning and measurement techniques for future offshore work within the marine boundary layers are provided. International audience

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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    Authors: M. Pikridas; S. Bezantakos; G. Močnik; G. Močnik; +21 Authors

    The present study investigates and compares the ground and in-flight performance of three miniaturized aerosol absorption sensors integrated on board small-sized Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs). These sensors were evaluated during two contrasted field campaigns performed at an urban site, impacted mainly by local traffic and domestic wood burning sources (Athens, Greece), and at a remote regional background site, impacted by long-range transported sources including dust (Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory, Agia Marina Xyliatou, Cyprus). The miniaturized sensors were first intercompared at the ground-level against two commercially available instruments used as a reference. The measured signal of the miniaturized sensors was converted into the absorption coefficient and equivalent black carbon concentration (eBC). When applicable, signal saturation corrections were applied, following the suggestions of the manufacturers. The aerosol absorption sensors exhibited similar behavior against the reference instruments during the two campaigns, despite the diversity of the aerosol origin, chemical composition, sources, and concentration levels. The deviation from the reference during both campaigns concerning (eBC) mass was less than 8 %, while for the absorption coefficient it was at least 15 %. This indicates that those sensors that report black carbon mass are tuned and corrected to measure eBC more accurately than the absorption coefficient. The overall potential use of miniature aerosol absorption sensors on board small UASs is also illustrated. UAS-based absorption measurements were used to investigate the vertical distribution of eBC over Athens up to 1 km above sea level during January 2016, exceeding the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Our results reveal a heterogeneous boundary layer concentration of absorbing aerosol within the PBL intensified in the early morning hours due to the concurrent peak traffic emissions at ground-level and the fast development of the boundary layer. After the full development of the PBL, homogenous concentrations are observed from 100 m a.g.l. to the PBL top.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2019
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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      Article . 2019
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    Authors: Konstantina Nakoudi; Elina Giannakaki; A. Dandou; Maria Tombrou; +1 Authors

    In this work, the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBLH) is investigated over Gwal Pahari (Gual Pahari), New Delhi, for almost a year. To this end, ground-based measurements from a multiwavelength Raman lidar were used. The modified wavelet covariance transform (WCT) method was utilized for PBLH retrievals. Results were compared to data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In order to examine the difficulties of PBLH detection from lidar, we analyzed three cases of PBLH diurnal evolution under different meteorological and aerosol load conditions. In the presence of multiple aerosol layers, the employed algorithm exhibited high efficiency (r=0.9) in the attribution of PBLH, whereas weak aerosol gradients induced high variability in the PBLH. A sensitivity analysis corroborated the stability of the utilized methodology. The comparison with CALIPSO observations yielded satisfying results (r=0.8), with CALIPSO slightly overestimating the PBLH. Due to the relatively warmer and drier winter and, correspondingly, colder and rainier pre-monsoon season, the seasonal PBLH cycle during the measurement period was slightly weaker than the cycle expected from long-term climate records.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Copernicus Publications
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      Article . 2019
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: B. Männel; F. Zus; G. Dick; S. Glaser; +8 Authors

    Within the transpolar drifting expedition MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate), the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) was used among other techniques to monitor variations in atmospheric water vapor. Based on 15 months of continuously tracked GNSS data including GPS, GLONASS and Galileo, epoch-wise coordinates and hourly zenith total delays (ZTDs) were determined using a kinematic precise point positioning (PPP) approach. The derived ZTD values agree to 1.1 ± 0.2 mm (root mean square (rms) of the differences 10.2 mm) with the numerical weather data of ECMWF's latest reanalysis, ERA5, computed for the derived ship's locations. This level of agreement is also confirmed by comparing the on-board estimates with ZTDs derived for terrestrial GNSS stations in Bremerhaven and Ny-Ålesund and for the radio telescopes observing very long baseline interferometry in Ny-Ålesund. Preliminary estimates of integrated water vapor derived from frequently launched radiosondes are used to assess the GNSS-derived integrated water vapor estimates. The overall difference of 0.08 ± 0.04 kg m−2 (rms of the differences 1.47 kg m−2) demonstrates a good agreement between GNSS and radiosonde data. Finally, the water vapor variations associated with two warm-air intrusion events in April 2020 are assessed.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DepositOnce
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: DepositOnce
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . Preprint . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2021
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