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306 Research products, page 1 of 31

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michaud, Alexander B; Laufer, Katja; Findlay, Alyssa; Pellerin, Andre; Antler, Gilad; Turchyn, Alexandra V; Røy, Hans; Wehrmann, Laura Mariana; Jørgensen, Bo Barker;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | MICROENERGY (294200)

    In the summer of 2016, we collected sediment cores from three fjords (Smeerenburgfjorden, stn. J; Kongsfjorden, stn. P; and Van Keulenfjorden, stn. AC). These cores were both long cores (~80 cm) and short (~25 cm) where we conducted porewater geochemistry and incubation experiments to quantify the rate of sulfide oxidation and changes to the reactive Fe(III)-oxide pool over time. All coordinates of sampling sites are in the data file. The methods are included in the manuscript doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.12.033.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stumpp, Meike; Wren, J; Melzner, Frank; Thorndyke, Mike; Dupont, Sam;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions are acidifying the world's oceans. A growing body of evidence is showing that ocean acidification impacts growth and developmental rates of marine invertebrates. Here we test the impact of elevated seawater pCO2 (129 Pa, 1271 µatm) on early development, larval metabolic and feeding rates in a marine model organism, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Growth and development was assessed by measuring total body length, body rod length, postoral rod length and posterolateral rod length. Comparing these parameters between treatments suggests that larvae suffer from a developmental delay (by ca. 8%) rather than from the previously postulated reductions in size at comparable developmental stages. Further, we found maximum increases in respiration rates of + 100 % under elevated pCO2, while body length corrected feeding rates did not differ between larvae from both treatments. Calculating scope for growth illustrates that larvae raised under high pCO2 spent an average of 39 to 45% of the available energy for somatic growth, while control larvae could allocate between 78 and 80% of the available energy into growth processes. Our results highlight the importance of defining a standard frame of reference when comparing a given parameter between treatments, as observed differences can be easily due to comparison of different larval ages with their specific set of biological characters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Strauss, Jens; Grosse, Guido; Overduin, Pier Paul; Kholodov, Alexander L; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PETA-CARB (338335)

    We here present lithological, geochronological, and geochemical data from a core drilled in 1999 in the Ivashkina Lagoon on the Bykovsky Peninsula, Northeast Siberia.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Oliver S. Ashford; Andrew J. Kenny; Christopher R. S. Barrio Froján; Michael B. Bonsall; Tammy Horton; Angelika Brandt; Graham J. Bird; Sarah Gerken; Alex D. Rogers;
    Publisher: Figshare
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    An understanding of the balance of interspecific competition and the physical environment in structuring organismal communities is crucial because those communities structured primarily by their physical environment typically exhibit greater sensitivity to environmental change than those structured predominantly by competitive interactions. Here, using detailed phylogenetic and functional information, we investigate this question in macrofaunal assemblages from Northwest Atlantic Ocean continental slopes, a high seas region projected to experience substantial environmental change through the current century. We demonstrate assemblages to be both phylogenetically and functionally under-dispersed and thus conclude that the physical environment, not competition, may dominate in structuring deep-ocean communities. Further, we find temperature and bottom trawling intensity to be amongst the environmental factors significantly related to assemblage diversity. These results hint that deep-ocean communities are highly sensitive to their physical environment and vulnerable to environmental perturbation, including by direct disturbance through fishing, and indirectly through the changes brought about by climate change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liu, Sisi; Stoof-Leichsenring, Kathleen Rosmarie; Kruse, Stefan; Pestryakova, Luidmila A; Herzschuh, Ulrike;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | GlacialLegacy (772852)

    Here, we provide the raw pollen data archived in three Siberian lake sediment cores spanning the mid-Holocene to the present (7.6-0 cal ka BP), from northern typical tundra to southern open larch forest in the Omoloy region. There are three cores: 1. 14-OM-20B, Lat. / °: 70.53, Lon. / °: 132.91, Ele. / m a.s.l.: 52, Modern vegetation: open larch forest, Lake area / km2: 0.26, Maximal depth / m: 3.4 2. 14-OM-02B, Lat. / °: 70.72, Lon. / °: 132.67, Ele. / m a.s.l.: 58, Modern vegetation: forest tundra, Lake area / km2: 0.08, Maximal depth / m: 3.5 3. 14-OM-12A, Lat. / °: 70.96, Lon. / °: 132.57, Ele. / m a.s.l.: 60, Modern vegetation: tundra, Lake area / km2: 0.09, Maximal depth / m: 4.5 Three lake sediment cores, 14OM12A (33 cm long), 14OM02B (49.5 cm long) and 14OM20B (86 cm long), were recovered from three sites using a UWITEC gravity corer (6 cm internal diameter) equipped with a hammer tool in July 2014. From the three cores, 16 bulk organic carbon samples were selected because of the lack of macrofossil remains and radiocarbon dated using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Poznań radiocarbon laboratory of Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland. In addition, 30 freeze-dried samples per core at 0.25 or 0.5 cm intervals between 0 and 15 cm were analysed for 210Pb/137Cs at the Liverpool University Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory. In this project, we analyse pollen and sedaDNA (Liu et al., 2020; doi:10.5061/dryad.69p8cz900) from three lake sediment cores from the Omoloy region in north-eastern Siberia (northern Yakutia), which are currently surrounded by different vegetation types ranging from typical tundra to open larch forest. First, our aim is to compare sedaDNA with the pollen data to see whether both methods track the same pattern with respect to compositional changes and diversity changes across the northern Russian treeline zone or are complementary to each other. Second, we reconstruct the mid- to late-Holocene changes of vegetation composition along a north–south transect. Third, we use the sedaDNA data to reconstruct variations in species richness and relate this to vegetation and climate change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bayon, Germain; Schefuß, Enno; Dupont, Lydie M; Borges, Alberto Vieira; Dennielou, Bernard; Lambert, Thibault; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Monin, Laurence; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Skonieczny, Charlotte; +1 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | AMECO (327778)

    There is increasing evidence that abrupt vegetation shifts and large-scale erosive phases occurred in Central Africa during the third millennium before present. Debate exists as to whether these events were caused by climate change and/or intensifying human activities related to the Bantu expansion. In this study, we report on a multi-proxy investigation of a sediment core (KZR-23) recovered from the Congo submarine canyon. Our aim was to reconstruct climate, erosion and vegetation patterns in the Congo Basin for the last 10,000 yrs, with a particular emphasis on the late Holocene period. Samples of modern riverine suspended particulates were also analyzed to characterize sediment source geochemical signatures from across the Congo watershed. We find that a sudden increase of bulk sediment aluminium-to-potassium (Al/K) ratios and initial radiocarbon ages of bulk organic matter occurred after 2,200 yrs ago, coincident with a pollen-inferred vegetation change suggesting forest retreat and development of savannas. Although hydrogen isotope compositions of plant waxes (δDwax) do not reveal a substantial hydroclimate shift during this period, neodymium isotopes and rare earth elements in detrital fractions indicate provenance changes for the sediment exported from the Congo Basin at that time, hence suggesting a reorganization of spatial rainfall patterns across Central Africa during this event. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for changing landscapes in Central Africa from about 2,200 yrs ago, associated with synchronous events of vegetation changes and enhanced erosion of pre-aged and highly weathered soils. These events coincided remarkably well with the arrival of Iron Age communities into the rainforest, as inferred from comparison to regional archaeological syntheses. While the human impact on the environment remains difficult to quantify at the scale of the vast Congo Basin, we tentatively propose that strengthening of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability at that time played a key role in triggering the observed environmental changes, and possibly acted as a driver for the eastward migration of Bantu-speaking peoples across Central Africa.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fischer, Jürgen; Karstensen, Johannes; Oltmanns, Marilena; Schmidtko, Sunke;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | AtlantOS (633211)

    A long-term mean flow field for the subpolar North Atlantic region with a horizontal resolution of approximately 25km is created by gridding Argo-derived velocity vectors using two different topography-following interpolation schemes. The 10-day float displacements in the typical drift depths of 1000 to 1500m represent the flow in the Labrador Sea Water density range. Both mapping algorithms separate the flow field into potential vorticity (PV) conserving, i.e., topography-following contribution and a deviating part, which we define as the eddy contribution. To verify the significance of the separation, we compare the mean flow and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE), derived from both mapping algorithms, with those obtained from multiyear mooring observations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; Jansen, Eystein; Kuijpers, Antoon; Troelstra, Simon; Prins, Maarten Arnoud;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    Expansion of fresh and sea-ice loaded surface waters from the Arctic Ocean into the sub-polar North Atlantic is suggested to modulate the northward heat transport within the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The Reykjanes Ridge south of Iceland is a suitable area to reconstruct changes in the mid- to late Holocene fresh and sea-ice loaded surface water expansion, which is marked by the Subarctic Front (SAF). Here, shifts in the location of the SAF result from the interaction of freshwater expansion and inflow of warmer and saline (NAC) waters to the Ridge. Using planktic foraminiferal assemblage and concentration data from a marine sediment core on the eastern Reykjanes Ridge elucidates SAF location changes and thus, changes in the water-mass composition (upper ~200 m) during the last c. 5.8 ka BP. Our foraminifer data highlight a late Holocene shift (at c. 3.0 ka BP) in water-mass composition at the Reykjanes Ridge, which reflects the occurrence of cooler and fresher surface waters when compared to the mid-Holocene. We document two phases of SAF presence at the study site: from (i) c. 5.5 to 5.0 ka BP and (ii) c. 2.7 to 1.5 ka BP. Both phases are characterized by marked increases in the planktic foraminiferal concentration, which coincides with freshwater expansions and warm subsurface water conditions within the sub-polar North Atlantic. We link the SAF changes, from c. 2.7 to 1.5 ka BP, to a strengthening of the East Greenland Current and awarming in the NAC, as identified by various studies underlying these two currents. From c. 1.5 ka BP onwards, we record a prominent subsurface cooling and continued occurrence of fresh and sea-ice loaded surface waters at the study site. This implies that the SAF migrated to the southeast of our core site during the last millennium.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Felis, Thomas; McGregor, Helen V; Linsley, Braddock K; Tudhope, Alexander W; Gagan, Michael K; Suzuki, Atsushi; Inoue, Mayuri; Thomas, Alexander L; Esat, Tezer M; Thompson, William G; +5 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | Sea level and climate cha... (NE/H014268/1), UKRI | The timing and amplitude ... (NE/H014136/1)

    Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and d18O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1-2 °C larger temperature decrease between 17° and 20°S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial meridional temperature change during the last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous deglacial drying of northeastern Australia. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and may be more resilient than previously thought.