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  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
  • European Marine Science

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juniper L. Simonis;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Tools for interacting with the publicly available California Delta Fish Salvage Database, including continuous deployment of data access, analysis, and presentation.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Serge Tcherkézoff;
    Publisher: Dipartimento Culture e Società - Università di Palermo

    L’Océanie, peu après avoir été inventée par les géographes européens comme la «cinquième» région du monde, autrement dit simplement un ‘reste’ après les quatre continents, fut divisée en compartiments étanches, à la suite du privilège donné au début du 19e siècle à la théorie des ‘races’ humaines dans le monde. Il fallut attendre 1993 pour une déclaration, désormais célébrée comme historique, par un enseignant et écrivain océanien, Epeli Hau‘ofa, qui proclamait l’unité de l’Océanie par le fait même d’être une région “océanique”. On rappellera cette évolution, la discussion des appellations “Pacifique”/“Océanie”, et la postérité historique aujourd’hui, ainsi qu’une évocation de la vie et de l’œuvre de Epeli Hau‘ofa. Enfin, la comparaison entre deux visions du continent (d’Urville et Hau‘ofa) permettra également de réfléchir aux différentes interprétations et représentations de la mer et de l'océan en tant qu'espaces qui, dans un cas, divisent et, dans l'autre, unissent. Oceania, shortly after being invented by European geographers as the «fifth» region of the world, in other words simply a ‘remnant’ after the four continents, was divided into watertight compartments as a result of the privilege given in the early 19th century to the theory of human ‘races’ in the world. It was not until 1993 that a declaration, now celebrated as historic, by an Oceanian teacher and writer, Epeli Hau‘ofa, proclaimed the unity of Oceania by the very fact of being an “oceanic” region. This development, the discussion of the terms “Pacific”/“Oceania”, and the historical legacy today will be recalled, as well as an evocation of the life and work of Epeli Hau'ofa. Finally, the comparison between two different visions of the continent (d'Urville and Hau'ofa) will allow us to reflect on the different interpretations and representations of the sea and the ocean as spaces that in one case divide and, in the other, unite. In seguito all’affermazione all’inizio del XIX secolo della teoria delle ‘razze’ umane nel mondo, l’Oceania è stata divisa in compartimenti stagni. Ciò avvenne poco dopo che i geografi europei l’avevano identificata come la «quinta» parte del mondo, in altre parole semplicemente come un ‘resto’ dei quattro continenti. Fu soltanto nel 1993 che la ormai celebre dichiarazione di un insegnante scrittore oceaniano, Epeli Hau‘ofa, proclamò l’unità dell’Oceania in quanto regione “oceanica” a tutti gli effetti. In questo saggio farò riferimento a tale processo evolutivo, alla discussione delle denominazioni “Pacifico”/“Oceania” e ai loro esiti contemporanei, senza tralasciare il racconto della vita e dell’opera dello stesso Epeli Hau‘ofa. Inoltre, il confronto tra due diverse visioni del continente (d’Urville e Hau‘ofa) mi consentirà di riflettere sulle differenti interpretazioni e rappresentazioni del mare e dell’oceano in quanto spazi che in un caso dividono e, nell’altro, uniscono.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bocar Sabaly Baldé; Patrice Brehmer; Penda Diop Diaw;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PREFACE (603521)

    Fisheries management is an important strategy for ensuring sustainable use of resources. However, in West Africa, in the absence of quality data for many stocks and effective stock assessment models, the cases where this has been truly successful are notable for their rarity. In West Africa, small pelagic fish are of great socio-economic importance, as well as good indicators of fish stressors. Here, historical data (2004–2019) of five small pelagic species (Sardina pilchardus, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Trachurus trecae, Scomber colias and Mugil cephalus) were collected in Senegalese waters. The B/BMSY results showed stocks to be collapsed (B/BMSY = 0.13 and 0.1 for M. cephalus and S. pilchardus, respectively) and heavily overfished (B/BMSY = 0.24; E. fimbriata). Only S. colias and T. trecae stock were considered to be in good condition (B/BMSY = 1.7 and 1.4 respectively). The Lc/Lc_opt ratio was ≤ 1 for E. fimbriata and M. cephalus, suggesting that the individuals caught for these species were too small. To reverse these bad stock statuses, catching individuals at Lc_opt, 25, 21, 43 and 18 cm for S. colias, E. fimbriata, M. cephalus and S. pilchardus, respectively should be a natural guarantee against recruitment failure and allow individuals to ensure the long-term survival of populations, in a context of data poor fisheries. In conclusion, this study shows that, despite limitations, the LBB model can provides indicators of stock status for species to encourage management measures, especially in data poor countries. It is hoped that these results can help to better assess many stocks currently considered too data poor to be assessed or at least encourage data collection effort on stocks discerned as in bad or critical status.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Bruno Saura;
    Publisher: Dipartimento Culture e Società - Università di Palermo

    L’appellation «(Te) moana nui a Hiva» est usitée de plus en plus largement, depuis une génération, à Tahiti, pour désigner, de manière extensive, l’océan Pacifique. Elle semble une adaptation tahitienne contemporaine d’une appellation maorie (Nouvelle-Zélande) plus ancienne, «(Te) moana nui a Kiwa». Après un retour vers les traditions polynésiennes, il sera procédé à une analyse du terme moana (océan) ainsi que de la nomenclature mā’ohi (autochtone) relative à la mer, à l’océan. Puis, on procèdera à un retour vers le terme Hiva, récurrent dans la toponymie et dans la culture ancienne des îles de la Polynésie de l’est, porteur de significations multiples. Notre ultime question aura trait à l’existence - ou non - d’une vision large, extensive, de l’océan, par les anciens Polynésiens de cette aire culturelle. For a generation, the name « (Te) moana nui a Hiva» has been used more and more widely, in Tahiti, to designate, in an extensive way, the Pacific Ocean. It seems to be a contemporary Tahitian adaptation of an older Maori - New Zealand - name, «(Te) moana nui a Kiwa». After an exploration of Polynesian traditions, an analysis of the term moana (ocean) and the mā’ohi (native Tahitian) nomenclature related to the sea, the ocean, will be made. Then, we will proceed to a return to the term Hiva, recurrent in the toponymy and in the ancient culture of the islands of Eastern Polynesia, bearing multiple meanings. The ultimate question that will be asked is related to the existence - or not - of a broad, extensive vision of the ocean, by the ancient Polynesians of this cultural area. A Tahiti, da una generazione, l’appellativo «(Te) moana nui a Hiva» viene sempre più spesso impiegato per indicare l’Oceano Pacifico in modo ampio. Esso sembra essere l’adattamento tahitiano contemporaneo di un nome Maori (Nuova Zelanda) più antico, «(Te) moana nui a Kiwa». Dopo aver esplorato alcune tradizioni polinesiane, l’articolo analizza il termine moana (oceano) e la classificazione mā’ohi (indigena tahitiana) del mare, dell’oceano. In seguito, sottolinea il termine Hiva, che ricorre nella toponomastica e nella cultura antica delle isole della Polinesia Orientale, carico di molteplici significati. Infine, l’ultima questione trattata riguarda l’esistenza - o meno - di una visione ampia ed estesa dell’oceano da parte degli antichi polinesiani di quest’area culturale.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bruno Senghor; Eglantine Mathieu-Begné; Olivier Rey; Souleymane Doucouré; Doudou Sow; Bocar Diop; Mariama Sène; Jérôme Boissier; Cheikh Sokhna;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: France

    Abstract Background Urogenital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. In the Senegal river basin, the construction of the Diama dam led to an increase and endemicity of schistosomiasis. Since 2009, praziquantel has frequently been used as preventive chemotherapy in the form of mass administration to Senegalese school-aged children without monitoring of the treatment efficacy and the prevalence after re-infection. This study aims to determine the current prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis (caused by Schistosoma haematobium), the efficacy of praziquantel, and the re-infection rates in children from five villages with different water access. Methods The baseline prevalence of S. haematobium was determined in August 2020 in 777 children between 5 and 11 years old and a single dose of praziquantel (40 mg/kg) was administered to those positive. The efficacy of praziquantel and the re-infection rates were monitored 4 weeks and 7 months after treatment, respectively, in 226 children with a high intensity of infection at baseline. Results At the baseline, prevalence was low among children from the village of Mbane who live close to the Lac de Guiers (38%), moderate among those from the villages of Dioundou and Khodit, which neighbor the Doue river (46%), and very high at Khodit (90.6%) and Guia (91.2%) which mainly use an irrigation canal. After treatment, the observed cure rates confirmed the efficacy of praziquantel. The lowest cure rate (88.5%) was obtained in the village using the irrigation canal, while high cure rates were obtained in those using the lake (96.5%) and the river (98%). However, high egg reduction rates (between 96.7 and 99.7%) were obtained in all the villages. The re-infection was significantly higher in the village using the canal (42.5%) than in the villages accessing the Lac de Guiers (18.3%) and the Doue river (14.8%). Conclusion Praziquantel has an impact on reducing the prevalence and intensity of urogenital schistosomiasis. However, in the Senegal river basin, S. haematobium remains a real health problem for children living in the villages near the irrigation canals, despite regular treatment, while prevalence is declining from those frequenting the river and the Lac de Guiers. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04635553. Registered 19 November 2020 retrospectively registered, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04635553?cntry=SN&draw=2&rank=4

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ana Riesgo; Nadia Santodomingo; Vasiliki Koutsouveli; Lars Kumala; Michelle M. Leger; Sally P. Leys; Peter Funch;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Germany

    Sponges are interesting animal models for regeneration studies, since even from dissociated cells, they are able to regenerate completely. In particular, explants are model systems that can be applied to many sponge species, since small fragments of sponges can regenerate all elements of the adult, including the oscula and the ability to pump water. The morphological aspects of regeneration in sponges are relatively well known, but the molecular machinery is only now starting to be elucidated for some sponge species. Here, we have used an explant system of the demosponge Halichondria panicea to understand the molecular machinery deployed during regeneration of the aquiferous system. We sequenced the transcriptomes of four replicates of the 5–day explant without an osculum (NOE), four replicates of the 17–18–day explant with a single osculum and pumping activity (PE) and also four replicates of field–collected individuals with regular pumping activity (PA), and performed differential gene expression analysis. We also described the morphology of NOE and PE samples using light and electron microscopy. Our results showed a highly disorganised mesohyl and disarranged aquiferous system in NOE that is coupled with upregulated pathways of ciliogenesis,organisation of the ECM, and cell proliferation and survival. Once the osculum is formed, genes involved in“response to stimulus in other organisms” were upregulated. Interestingly, the main molecular machinery of vasculogenesisdescribed in vertebrates was activated during the regeneration of the aquiferous system. Notably, vasculogenesismarkers were upregulated when the tissue was disorganised and about to start forming canals (NOE) andangiogenic stimulators and ECM remodelling machineries were differentially expressed once the aquiferous systemwas in place (PE and PA). Our results are fundamental to better understanding the molecular mechanisms involved inthe formation of the aquiferous system in sponges, and its similarities with the early onset of blood-vessel formationin animal evolution. Sponges are interesting animal models for regeneration studies, since even from dissociated cells, they are able to regenerate completely. In particular, explants are model systems that can be applied to many sponge species, since small fragments of sponges can regenerate all elements of the adult, including the oscula and the ability to pump water. The morphological aspects of regeneration in sponges are relatively well known, but the molecular machinery is only now starting to be elucidated for some sponge species. Here, we have used an explant system of the demosponge Halichondria panicea to understand the molecular machinery deployed during regeneration of the aquiferous system. We sequenced the transcriptomes of four replicates of the 5-day explant without an osculum (NOE), four replicates of the 17-18-day explant with a single osculum and pumping activity (PE) and also four replicates of field-collected individuals with regular pumping activity (PA), and performed differential gene expression analysis. We also described the morphology of NOE and PE samples using light and electron microscopy. Our results showed a highly disorganised mesohyl and disarranged aquiferous system in NOE that is coupled with upregulated pathways of ciliogenesis, organisation of the ECM, and cell proliferation and survival. Once the osculum is formed, genes involved in "response to stimulus in other organisms" were upregulated. Interestingly, the main molecular machinery of vasculogenesis described in vertebrates was activated during the regeneration of the aquiferous system. Notably, vasculogenesis markers were upregulated when the tissue was disorganised and about to start forming canals (NOE) and angiogenic stimulators and ECM remodelling machineries were differentially expressed once the aquiferous system was in place (PE and PA). Our results are fundamental to better understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of the aquiferous system in sponges, and its similarities with the early onset of blood-vessel formation in animal evolution.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juniper L. Simonis;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Tools for interacting with the publicly available California Delta Fish Salvage Database, including continuous deployment of data access, analysis, and presentation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Karsten Reise; Dagmar Lackschewitz; K. Mathias Wegner;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Germany

    AbstractBare sandy flats at and below low tide level of the Wadden Sea (eastern North Sea, European Atlantic) were observed in 2020 to have been invaded by an introduced grass-like alga, Vaucheria cf. velutina (Xanthophyceae). A dense algal turf accumulated and stabilized mud, where resident seniors of the lugworm Arenicola marina had reworked rippled sand. Algae and worms were incompatible. Initially, rising patches with algal turf alternated with bare pits where lugworms crowded. Their bioturbation inhibited young algae, while the felt of established algal rhizoids clogged feeding funnels of worm burrows. Eventually, a mosaic pattern of competitors gave way to a coherent algal turf without lugworms. Concomitantly, a rich small-sized benthic fauna took advantage of the novel algal turf. This exotic Vaucheria may have the potential for drastically altering the ecological web at the lower shore.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juniper L. Simonis;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Tools for interacting with the publicly available California Delta Fish Salvage Database, including continuous deployment of data access, analysis, and presentation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José P. Queirós; Aurora Bartolomé; Uwe Piatkowski; José C. Xavier; Catalina Perales-Raya;
    Publisher: Springer
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom

    AbstractSquid play a major role in the Southern Ocean food web. However, their age and growth remain poorly studied. Here, using upper and lower beaks of Moroteuthopsis longimana collected from the diet of Dissostichus mawsoni from Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean, we studied: (1) Feasibility of using beaks collected from predators’ stomachs to study the age of Southern Ocean oceanic squid; and (2) Age estimation and growth patterns of M. longimana. The rostrum sagittal section (RSS) of both beaks had micro-increments, with the lower beak being the best to observe and count a readable sequence of increments to estimate the age. Assuming a daily deposition of increments, our results suggest that M. longimana can live up to 820 days and may hatch throughout the year. Studied individuals presented a consistent growth rate from hatching to death but with, at least, one period of faster growth. A novel pattern of regular cycles, composed of 7–10 lighter increments followed by a darker one, was found in the medium-anterior region of the RSS. Differences were found in the growth rate and size reached at the same age between individuals from the Pacific and Atlantic sectors, which might be related with different environmental conditions between both capture sites. This study shows that lower beaks from predators’ stomachs can be used to study the age of Southern Ocean squids and that M. longimana hatches in all seasons, being available year round to predators that feed of this species.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
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Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
40,909 Research products, page 1 of 4,091
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juniper L. Simonis;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Tools for interacting with the publicly available California Delta Fish Salvage Database, including continuous deployment of data access, analysis, and presentation.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Serge Tcherkézoff;
    Publisher: Dipartimento Culture e Società - Università di Palermo

    L’Océanie, peu après avoir été inventée par les géographes européens comme la «cinquième» région du monde, autrement dit simplement un ‘reste’ après les quatre continents, fut divisée en compartiments étanches, à la suite du privilège donné au début du 19e siècle à la théorie des ‘races’ humaines dans le monde. Il fallut attendre 1993 pour une déclaration, désormais célébrée comme historique, par un enseignant et écrivain océanien, Epeli Hau‘ofa, qui proclamait l’unité de l’Océanie par le fait même d’être une région “océanique”. On rappellera cette évolution, la discussion des appellations “Pacifique”/“Océanie”, et la postérité historique aujourd’hui, ainsi qu’une évocation de la vie et de l’œuvre de Epeli Hau‘ofa. Enfin, la comparaison entre deux visions du continent (d’Urville et Hau‘ofa) permettra également de réfléchir aux différentes interprétations et représentations de la mer et de l'océan en tant qu'espaces qui, dans un cas, divisent et, dans l'autre, unissent. Oceania, shortly after being invented by European geographers as the «fifth» region of the world, in other words simply a ‘remnant’ after the four continents, was divided into watertight compartments as a result of the privilege given in the early 19th century to the theory of human ‘races’ in the world. It was not until 1993 that a declaration, now celebrated as historic, by an Oceanian teacher and writer, Epeli Hau‘ofa, proclaimed the unity of Oceania by the very fact of being an “oceanic” region. This development, the discussion of the terms “Pacific”/“Oceania”, and the historical legacy today will be recalled, as well as an evocation of the life and work of Epeli Hau'ofa. Finally, the comparison between two different visions of the continent (d'Urville and Hau'ofa) will allow us to reflect on the different interpretations and representations of the sea and the ocean as spaces that in one case divide and, in the other, unite. In seguito all’affermazione all’inizio del XIX secolo della teoria delle ‘razze’ umane nel mondo, l’Oceania è stata divisa in compartimenti stagni. Ciò avvenne poco dopo che i geografi europei l’avevano identificata come la «quinta» parte del mondo, in altre parole semplicemente come un ‘resto’ dei quattro continenti. Fu soltanto nel 1993 che la ormai celebre dichiarazione di un insegnante scrittore oceaniano, Epeli Hau‘ofa, proclamò l’unità dell’Oceania in quanto regione “oceanica” a tutti gli effetti. In questo saggio farò riferimento a tale processo evolutivo, alla discussione delle denominazioni “Pacifico”/“Oceania” e ai loro esiti contemporanei, senza tralasciare il racconto della vita e dell’opera dello stesso Epeli Hau‘ofa. Inoltre, il confronto tra due diverse visioni del continente (d’Urville e Hau‘ofa) mi consentirà di riflettere sulle differenti interpretazioni e rappresentazioni del mare e dell’oceano in quanto spazi che in un caso dividono e, nell’altro, uniscono.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bocar Sabaly Baldé; Patrice Brehmer; Penda Diop Diaw;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PREFACE (603521)

    Fisheries management is an important strategy for ensuring sustainable use of resources. However, in West Africa, in the absence of quality data for many stocks and effective stock assessment models, the cases where this has been truly successful are notable for their rarity. In West Africa, small pelagic fish are of great socio-economic importance, as well as good indicators of fish stressors. Here, historical data (2004–2019) of five small pelagic species (Sardina pilchardus, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Trachurus trecae, Scomber colias and Mugil cephalus) were collected in Senegalese waters. The B/BMSY results showed stocks to be collapsed (B/BMSY = 0.13 and 0.1 for M. cephalus and S. pilchardus, respectively) and heavily overfished (B/BMSY = 0.24; E. fimbriata). Only S. colias and T. trecae stock were considered to be in good condition (B/BMSY = 1.7 and 1.4 respectively). The Lc/Lc_opt ratio was ≤ 1 for E. fimbriata and M. cephalus, suggesting that the individuals caught for these species were too small. To reverse these bad stock statuses, catching individuals at Lc_opt, 25, 21, 43 and 18 cm for S. colias, E. fimbriata, M. cephalus and S. pilchardus, respectively should be a natural guarantee against recruitment failure and allow individuals to ensure the long-term survival of populations, in a context of data poor fisheries. In conclusion, this study shows that, despite limitations, the LBB model can provides indicators of stock status for species to encourage management measures, especially in data poor countries. It is hoped that these results can help to better assess many stocks currently considered too data poor to be assessed or at least encourage data collection effort on stocks discerned as in bad or critical status.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Bruno Saura;
    Publisher: Dipartimento Culture e Società - Università di Palermo

    L’appellation «(Te) moana nui a Hiva» est usitée de plus en plus largement, depuis une génération, à Tahiti, pour désigner, de manière extensive, l’océan Pacifique. Elle semble une adaptation tahitienne contemporaine d’une appellation maorie (Nouvelle-Zélande) plus ancienne, «(Te) moana nui a Kiwa». Après un retour vers les traditions polynésiennes, il sera procédé à une analyse du terme moana (océan) ainsi que de la nomenclature mā’ohi (autochtone) relative à la mer, à l’océan. Puis, on procèdera à un retour vers le terme Hiva, récurrent dans la toponymie et dans la culture ancienne des îles de la Polynésie de l’est, porteur de significations multiples. Notre ultime question aura trait à l’existence - ou non - d’une vision large, extensive, de l’océan, par les anciens Polynésiens de cette aire culturelle. For a generation, the name « (Te) moana nui a Hiva» has been used more and more widely, in Tahiti, to designate, in an extensive way, the Pacific Ocean. It seems to be a contemporary Tahitian adaptation of an older Maori - New Zealand - name, «(Te) moana nui a Kiwa». After an exploration of Polynesian traditions, an analysis of the term moana (ocean) and the mā’ohi (native Tahitian) nomenclature related to the sea, the ocean, will be made. Then, we will proceed to a return to the term Hiva, recurrent in the toponymy and in the ancient culture of the islands of Eastern Polynesia, bearing multiple meanings. The ultimate question that will be asked is related to the existence - or not - of a broad, extensive vision of the ocean, by the ancient Polynesians of this cultural area. A Tahiti, da una generazione, l’appellativo «(Te) moana nui a Hiva» viene sempre più spesso impiegato per indicare l’Oceano Pacifico in modo ampio. Esso sembra essere l’adattamento tahitiano contemporaneo di un nome Maori (Nuova Zelanda) più antico, «(Te) moana nui a Kiwa». Dopo aver esplorato alcune tradizioni polinesiane, l’articolo analizza il termine moana (oceano) e la classificazione mā’ohi (indigena tahitiana) del mare, dell’oceano. In seguito, sottolinea il termine Hiva, che ricorre nella toponomastica e nella cultura antica delle isole della Polinesia Orientale, carico di molteplici significati. Infine, l’ultima questione trattata riguarda l’esistenza - o meno - di una visione ampia ed estesa dell’oceano da parte degli antichi polinesiani di quest’area culturale.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bruno Senghor; Eglantine Mathieu-Begné; Olivier Rey; Souleymane Doucouré; Doudou Sow; Bocar Diop; Mariama Sène; Jérôme Boissier; Cheikh Sokhna;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: France

    Abstract Background Urogenital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. In the Senegal river basin, the construction of the Diama dam led to an increase and endemicity of schistosomiasis. Since 2009, praziquantel has frequently been used as preventive chemotherapy in the form of mass administration to Senegalese school-aged children without monitoring of the treatment efficacy and the prevalence after re-infection. This study aims to determine the current prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis (caused by Schistosoma haematobium), the efficacy of praziquantel, and the re-infection rates in children from five villages with different water access. Methods The baseline prevalence of S. haematobium was determined in August 2020 in 777 children between 5 and 11 years old and a single dose of praziquantel (40 mg/kg) was administered to those positive. The efficacy of praziquantel and the re-infection rates were monitored 4 weeks and 7 months after treatment, respectively, in 226 children with a high intensity of infection at baseline. Results At the baseline, prevalence was low among children from the village of Mbane who live close to the Lac de Guiers (38%), moderate among those from the villages of Dioundou and Khodit, which neighbor the Doue river (46%), and very high at Khodit (90.6%) and Guia (91.2%) which mainly use an irrigation canal. After treatment, the observed cure rates confirmed the efficacy of praziquantel. The lowest cure rate (88.5%) was obtained in the village using the irrigation canal, while high cure rates were obtained in those using the lake (96.5%) and the river (98%). However, high egg reduction rates (between 96.7 and 99.7%) were obtained in all the villages. The re-infection was significantly higher in the village using the canal (42.5%) than in the villages accessing the Lac de Guiers (18.3%) and the Doue river (14.8%). Conclusion Praziquantel has an impact on reducing the prevalence and intensity of urogenital schistosomiasis. However, in the Senegal river basin, S. haematobium remains a real health problem for children living in the villages near the irrigation canals, despite regular treatment, while prevalence is declining from those frequenting the river and the Lac de Guiers. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04635553. Registered 19 November 2020 retrospectively registered, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04635553?cntry=SN&draw=2&rank=4

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ana Riesgo; Nadia Santodomingo; Vasiliki Koutsouveli; Lars Kumala; Michelle M. Leger; Sally P. Leys; Peter Funch;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Germany

    Sponges are interesting animal models for regeneration studies, since even from dissociated cells, they are able to regenerate completely. In particular, explants are model systems that can be applied to many sponge species, since small fragments of sponges can regenerate all elements of the adult, including the oscula and the ability to pump water. The morphological aspects of regeneration in sponges are relatively well known, but the molecular machinery is only now starting to be elucidated for some sponge species. Here, we have used an explant system of the demosponge Halichondria panicea to understand the molecular machinery deployed during regeneration of the aquiferous system. We sequenced the transcriptomes of four replicates of the 5–day explant without an osculum (NOE), four replicates of the 17–18–day explant with a single osculum and pumping activity (PE) and also four replicates of field–collected individuals with regular pumping activity (PA), and performed differential gene expression analysis. We also described the morphology of NOE and PE samples using light and electron microscopy. Our results showed a highly disorganised mesohyl and disarranged aquiferous system in NOE that is coupled with upregulated pathways of ciliogenesis,organisation of the ECM, and cell proliferation and survival. Once the osculum is formed, genes involved in“response to stimulus in other organisms” were upregulated. Interestingly, the main molecular machinery of vasculogenesisdescribed in vertebrates was activated during the regeneration of the aquiferous system. Notably, vasculogenesismarkers were upregulated when the tissue was disorganised and about to start forming canals (NOE) andangiogenic stimulators and ECM remodelling machineries were differentially expressed once the aquiferous systemwas in place (PE and PA). Our results are fundamental to better understanding the molecular mechanisms involved inthe formation of the aquiferous system in sponges, and its similarities with the early onset of blood-vessel formationin animal evolution. Sponges are interesting animal models for regeneration studies, since even from dissociated cells, they are able to regenerate completely. In particular, explants are model systems that can be applied to many sponge species, since small fragments of sponges can regenerate all elements of the adult, including the oscula and the ability to pump water. The morphological aspects of regeneration in sponges are relatively well known, but the molecular machinery is only now starting to be elucidated for some sponge species. Here, we have used an explant system of the demosponge Halichondria panicea to understand the molecular machinery deployed during regeneration of the aquiferous system. We sequenced the transcriptomes of four replicates of the 5-day explant without an osculum (NOE), four replicates of the 17-18-day explant with a single osculum and pumping activity (PE) and also four replicates of field-collected individuals with regular pumping activity (PA), and performed differential gene expression analysis. We also described the morphology of NOE and PE samples using light and electron microscopy. Our results showed a highly disorganised mesohyl and disarranged aquiferous system in NOE that is coupled with upregulated pathways of ciliogenesis, organisation of the ECM, and cell proliferation and survival. Once the osculum is formed, genes involved in "response to stimulus in other organisms" were upregulated. Interestingly, the main molecular machinery of vasculogenesis described in vertebrates was activated during the regeneration of the aquiferous system. Notably, vasculogenesis markers were upregulated when the tissue was disorganised and about to start forming canals (NOE) and angiogenic stimulators and ECM remodelling machineries were differentially expressed once the aquiferous system was in place (PE and PA). Our results are fundamental to better understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of the aquiferous system in sponges, and its similarities with the early onset of blood-vessel formation in animal evolution.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juniper L. Simonis;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Tools for interacting with the publicly available California Delta Fish Salvage Database, including continuous deployment of data access, analysis, and presentation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Karsten Reise; Dagmar Lackschewitz; K. Mathias Wegner;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Germany

    AbstractBare sandy flats at and below low tide level of the Wadden Sea (eastern North Sea, European Atlantic) were observed in 2020 to have been invaded by an introduced grass-like alga, Vaucheria cf. velutina (Xanthophyceae). A dense algal turf accumulated and stabilized mud, where resident seniors of the lugworm Arenicola marina had reworked rippled sand. Algae and worms were incompatible. Initially, rising patches with algal turf alternated with bare pits where lugworms crowded. Their bioturbation inhibited young algae, while the felt of established algal rhizoids clogged feeding funnels of worm burrows. Eventually, a mosaic pattern of competitors gave way to a coherent algal turf without lugworms. Concomitantly, a rich small-sized benthic fauna took advantage of the novel algal turf. This exotic Vaucheria may have the potential for drastically altering the ecological web at the lower shore.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juniper L. Simonis;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Tools for interacting with the publicly available California Delta Fish Salvage Database, including continuous deployment of data access, analysis, and presentation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José P. Queirós; Aurora Bartolomé; Uwe Piatkowski; José C. Xavier; Catalina Perales-Raya;
    Publisher: Springer
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom

    AbstractSquid play a major role in the Southern Ocean food web. However, their age and growth remain poorly studied. Here, using upper and lower beaks of Moroteuthopsis longimana collected from the diet of Dissostichus mawsoni from Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean, we studied: (1) Feasibility of using beaks collected from predators’ stomachs to study the age of Southern Ocean oceanic squid; and (2) Age estimation and growth patterns of M. longimana. The rostrum sagittal section (RSS) of both beaks had micro-increments, with the lower beak being the best to observe and count a readable sequence of increments to estimate the age. Assuming a daily deposition of increments, our results suggest that M. longimana can live up to 820 days and may hatch throughout the year. Studied individuals presented a consistent growth rate from hatching to death but with, at least, one period of faster growth. A novel pattern of regular cycles, composed of 7–10 lighter increments followed by a darker one, was found in the medium-anterior region of the RSS. Differences were found in the growth rate and size reached at the same age between individuals from the Pacific and Atlantic sectors, which might be related with different environmental conditions between both capture sites. This study shows that lower beaks from predators’ stomachs can be used to study the age of Southern Ocean squids and that M. longimana hatches in all seasons, being available year round to predators that feed of this species.