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16 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
  • EU
  • FR
  • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT)
  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sofieva, Svetlana; Asmi, Eija; Atanasova, Nina S.; Heikkinen, Aino E.; +8 Authors

    A new bubble-generating glass chamber with an extensive set of aerosol production experiments is presented. Compared to the experiments described in the literature since the ground-setting works of Edward C.​​​​​​​ Monahan et al. in 1980s, the current setup is among the medium-sized installations allowing for accurate control of the air discharge, water temperature, and salinity. The size and material of the chamber offer a variety of applications due to its portability, measurement setup adjustability, and sterilization option. The experiments have been conducted in a cylindrical bubbling tank of 10 L volume that was filled by ∼ 30 %–40 % with water of controlled salt content and temperature and covered with a hermetic lid. The chamber was used to study the characteristics of aerosols produced by bursting bubbles under different conditions. In line with previous findings, the sea spray aerosol production was shown to depend linearly on the surface area covered by the bubbles, which in turn is a near-linear function of the air discharge through the water. Observed dependencies of the aerosol size spectra and particle fluxes on water salinity and temperature, being qualitatively comparable with the previous experiments, substantially refined the existing parameterizations. In particular, the bubble size was practically independent from the air discharge through the water body, except in the case of very small flows. Also, the dependence of aerosol spectrum and amount on salinity was much weaker than suggested in some previous experiments. The temperature dependence, to the contrary, was significant and consistent, with a transition in the spectrum shape at ∼ 10 ∘C. Theoretical analysis based on the basic conservation laws supported the main results of the experiments but also highlighted the need for a better understanding of the aerosol production from a cold water surface.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Measurem...arrow_drop_down
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gunter Stober; Alan Liu; Alexander Kozlovsky; Zishun Qiao; +12 Authors

    Meteor radars have become widely used instruments to study atmospheric dynamics, particularly in the 70 to 110 km altitude region. These systems have been proven to provide reliable and continuous measurements of horizontal winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Recently, there have been many attempts to utilize specular and/or transverse scatter meteor measurements to estimate vertical winds and vertical wind variability. In this study we investigate potential biases in vertical wind estimation that are intrinsic to the meteor radar observation geometry and scattering mechanism, and we introduce a mathematical debiasing process to mitigate them. This process makes use of a spatiotemporal Laplace filter, which is based on a generalized Tikhonov regularization. Vertical winds obtained from this retrieval algorithm are compared to UA-ICON model data. This comparison reveals good agreement in the statistical moments of the vertical velocity distributions. Furthermore, we present the first observational indications of a forward scatter wind bias. It appears to be caused by the scattering center's apparent motion along the meteor trajectory when the meteoric plasma column is drifted by the wind. The hypothesis is tested by a radiant mapping of two meteor showers. Finally, we introduce a new retrieval algorithm providing a physically and mathematically sound solution to derive vertical winds and wind variability from multistatic meteor radar networks such as the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster (NORDIC) and the Chilean Observation Network De meteOr Radars (CONDOR). The new retrieval is called 3DVAR+DIV and includes additional diagnostics such as the horizontal divergence and relative vorticity to ensure a physically consistent solution for all 3D winds in spatially resolved domains. Based on this new algorithm we obtained vertical velocities in the range of w = ± 1–2 m s−1 for most of the analyzed data during 2 years of collection, which is consistent with the values reported from general circulation models (GCMs) for this timescale and spatial resolution.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2022
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.48350/17442...
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Measurem...arrow_drop_down
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2022
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.48350/17442...
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: David A. Newnham; Mark A. Clilverd; William D. J. Clark; Michael Kosch; +2 Authors

    Ground-based observations of 11.072 GHz atmospheric ozone (O3) emission have been made using the Ny-Ålesund Ozone in the Mesosphere Instrument (NAOMI) at the UK Arctic Research Station (latitude 78∘55′0′′ N, longitude 11∘55′59′′ E), Spitsbergen. Seasonally averaged O3 vertical profiles in the Arctic polar mesosphere–lower thermosphere region for night-time and twilight conditions in the period 15 August 2017 to 15 March 2020 have been retrieved over the altitude range 62–98 km. NAOMI measurements are compared with corresponding, overlapping observations by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite instrument. The NAOMI and SABER version 2.0 data are binned according to the SABER instrument 60 d yaw cycles into nominal 3-month “winter” (15 December–15 March), “autumn” (15 August–15 November), and “summer” (15 April–15 July) periods. The NAOMI observations show the same year-to-year and seasonal variabilities as the SABER 9.6 µm O3 data. The winter night-time (solar zenith angle, SZA ≥ 110∘) and twilight (75∘ ≤ SZA ≤ 110∘) NAOMI and SABER 9.6 µm O3 volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles agree to within the measurement uncertainties. However, for autumn twilight conditions the SABER 9.6 µm O3 secondary maximum VMR values are higher than NAOMI over altitudes 88–97 km by 47 % and 59 %, respectively in 2017 and 2018. Comparing the two SABER channels which measure O3 at different wavelengths and use different processing schemes, the 9.6 µm O3 autumn twilight VMR data for the three years 2017–2019 are higher than the corresponding 1.27 µm measurements with the largest difference (58 %) in the 65–95 km altitude range similar to the NAOMI observation. The SABER 9.6 µm O3 summer daytime (SZA < 75∘) mesospheric O3 VMR is also consistently higher than the 1.27 µm measurement, confirming previously reported differences between the SABER 9.6 µm channel and measurements of mesospheric O3 by other satellite instruments.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: J. L. France; J. L. France; P. Bateson; P. Dominutti; +24 Authors

    Emissions of methane (CH4) from offshore oil and gas installations are poorly ground-truthed, and quantification relies heavily on the use of emission factors and activity data. As part of the United Nations Climate & Clean Air Coalition (UN CCAC) objective to study and reduce short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), a Twin Otter aircraft was used to survey CH4 emissions from UK and Dutch offshore oil and gas installations. The aims of the surveys were to (i) identify installations that are significant CH4 emitters, (ii) separate installation emissions from other emissions using carbon-isotopic fingerprinting and other chemical proxies, (iii) estimate CH4 emission rates, and (iv) improve flux estimation (and sampling) methodologies for rapid quantification of major gas leaks. In this paper, we detail the instrument and aircraft set-up for two campaigns flown in the springs of 2018 and 2019 over the southern North Sea and describe the developments made in both the planning and sampling methodology to maximise the quality and value of the data collected. We present example data collected from both campaigns to demonstrate the challenges encountered during offshore surveys, focussing on the complex meteorology of the marine boundary layer and sampling discrete plumes from an airborne platform. The uncertainties of CH4 flux calculations from measurements under varying boundary layer conditions are considered, as well as recommendations for attribution of sources through either spot sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ∕ δ13CCH4 or using in situ instrumental data to determine C2H6–CH4 ratios. A series of recommendations for both planning and measurement techniques for future offshore work within marine boundary layers is provided. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14 (1) ISSN:1867-8548 ISSN:1867-1381

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    Article . 2021
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2021
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
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    Authors: Defratyka, Sara M.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Yver-Kwok, Camille; Loeb, Daniel; +5 Authors

    Atmospheric ethane can be used as a tracer to distinguish methane sources, both at the local and global scale. Currently, ethane can be measured in the field using flasks or in situ analyzers. In our study, we characterized the CRDS Picarro G2201-i instrument, originally designed to measure isotopic CH4 and CO2, for measurements of ethane-to-methane ratio in mobile-measurement scenarios, near sources and under field conditions. We evaluated the limitations and potential of using the CRDS G2201-i to measure the ethane-to-methane ratio, thus extending the instrument application to simultaneously measure two methane source proxies in the field: carbon isotopic ratio and the ethane-to-methane ratio. First, laboratory tests were run to characterize the instrument in stationary conditions. Subsequently, the instrument performance was tested in field conditions as part of a controlled release experiment. Finally, the instrument was tested during mobile measurements focused on gas compressor stations. The results from the field were afterwards compared with the results obtained from instruments specifically designed for ethane measurements. Our study shows the potential of using the CRDS G2201-i instrument in a mobile configuration to determine the ethane-to-methane ratio in methane plumes under measurement conditions with an ethane uncertainty of 50 ppb. Assuming typical ethane-to-methane ratios ranging between 0 and 0.1 ppb ppb−1, we conclude that the instrument can accurately estimate the “true” ethane-to-methane ratio within 1σ uncertainty when CH4 enhancements are at least 1 ppm, as can be found in the vicinity of strongly emitting sites such as natural gas compressor stations and roadside gas pipeline leaks.

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Other literature type . Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Other literature type . Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: M. Thomas; M. Thomas; J. France; J. France; +13 Authors

    Sea ice is difficult, expensive, and potentially dangerous to observe in nature. The remoteness of the Arctic Ocean and Southern Ocean complicates sampling logistics, while the heterogeneous nature of sea ice and rapidly changing environmental conditions present challenges for conducting process studies. Here, we describe the Roland von Glasow Air-Sea-Ice Chamber (RvG-ASIC), a laboratory facility designed to reproduce polar processes and overcome some of these challenges. The RvG-ASIC is an open-topped 3.5 m3 glass tank housed in a cold room (temperature range: −55 to +30 ∘C). The RvG-ASIC is equipped with a wide suite of instruments for ocean, sea ice, and atmospheric measurements, as well as visible and UV lighting. The infrastructure, available instruments, and typical experimental protocols are described. To characterise some of the technical capabilities of our facility, we have quantified the timescale over which our chamber exchanges gas with the outside, τl=(0.66±0.07) d, and the mixing rate of our experimental ocean, τm=(4.2±0.1) min. Characterising our light field, we show that the light intensity across the tank varies by less than 10 % near the centre of the tank but drops to as low as 60 % of the maximum intensity in one corner. The temperature sensitivity of our light sources over the 400 to 700 nm range (PAR) is (0.028±0.003) W m−2 ∘C−1, with a maximum irradiance of 26.4 W m−2 at 0 ∘C; over the 320 to 380 nm range, it is (0.16±0.1) W m−2 ∘C−1, with a maximum irradiance of 5.6 W m−2 at 0 ∘C. We also present results characterising our experimental sea ice. The extinction coefficient for PAR varies from 3.7 to 6.1 m−1 when calculated from irradiance measurements exterior to the sea ice and from 4.4 to 6.2 m−1 when calculated from irradiance measurements within the sea ice. The bulk salinity of our experimental sea ice is measured using three techniques, modelled using a halo-dynamic one-dimensional (1D) gravity drainage model, and calculated from a salt and mass budget. The growth rate of our sea ice is between 2 and 4 cm d−1 for air temperatures of (-9.2±0.9) ∘C and (-26.6±0.9) ∘C. The PAR extinction coefficients, vertically integrated bulk salinities, and growth rates all lie within the range of previously reported comparable values for first-year sea ice. The vertically integrated bulk salinity and growth rates can be reproduced well by a 1D model. Taken together, the similarities between our laboratory sea ice and observations in nature, as well as our ability to reproduce our results with a model, give us confidence that sea ice grown in the RvG-ASIC is a good representation of natural sea ice.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    MPG.PuRe
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . Preprint . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    Authors: Möhler, Ottmar; Adams, Michael; Lacher, Larissa; Vogel, Franziska; +9 Authors

    Atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) play an important role in determining the phase of clouds, which affects their albedo and lifetime. A lack of data on the spatial and temporal variation of INPs around the globe limits our predictive capacity and understanding of clouds containing ice. Automated instrumentation that can robustly measure INP concentrations across the full range of tropospheric temperatures is needed in order to address this knowledge gap. In this study, we demonstrate the functionality and capacity of the new Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE) to study ice nucleation processes and to measure INP concentrations under conditions pertinent for mixed-phase clouds, with temperatures from about −10 °C to about −38 °C. PINE is a cloud expansion chamber which avoids frost formation on the cold walls, and thereby omits frost fragmentation and related background ice signals during the operation. The development, working principle, and treatment of data for the PINE instrument is discussed in detail. We present extensive laboratory based tests where PINE measurements were compared with those from the established AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber. The results show good agreement of PINE with AIDA for homogeneous freezing of pure water droplets and the immersion freezing activity of mineral aerosols. Results from a first field campaign conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) observatory in Oklahoma, USA, from October 1 to November 14, 2019 with the latest PINE design (a commercially available PINE chamber) are also shown, demonstrating PINE’s ability to make automated field measurements of INP concentrations at high time resolution of about 8 minutes with continuous wall temperature scans between −5 and −35 °C. During this field campaign, PINE was continuously operated for 45 days in a fully automated and semi-autonomous way, demonstrating the capability of this new instrument to be also used for longer term field measurements and INP monitoring activities in observatories.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    KITopen
    Article . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
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      KITopen
      Article . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
      Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: James France; Prudence Bateson; Pamela Dominutti; Grant Allen; +18 Authors

    Emissions of methane (CH4) from offshore oil and gas installations are poorly ground-truthed and quantification relies heavily on the use of emission factors and activity data. As part of the United Nations Climate and Clean Air Coalition (UN CCAC) objective to study and reduce short-lived climate pollutants (SLCP) a Twin Otter aircraft was used to survey CH4 emissions from UK and Dutch offshore oil and gas installations. The aims of the surveys were to i) identify installations that are significant CH4 emitters, ii) separate installation emissions from other emissions using carbon-isotopic fingerprinting and other chemical proxies, iii) estimate CH4 emission rates, and iv) improve flux estimation (and sampling) methodologies for rapid quantification of major gas leaks. In this paper, we detail the instrument and aircraft set up for two campaigns flown in the springs of 2018 and 2019 over the southern North Sea and describe the developments made in both planning and sampling methodology in order to maximise the quality and value of the data collected. We present example data collected from both campaigns to demonstrate the challenges encountered during offshore surveys, focussing on the complex meteorology of the marine boundary layer, and sampling discrete plumes from an airborne platform. The uncertainties of CH4 flux calculations from measurements under varying boundary layer conditions are considered, as well as recommendations for attribution of sources through either spot sampling for VOCs / δ13CCH4 or using in-situ instrumental data to determine C2H6-CH4 ratios. A series of recommendations for both planning and measurement techniques for future offshore work within the marine boundary layers are provided.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2020
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
      Preprint . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Larysa Istomina; Henrik Marks; Marcus Huntemann; Georg Heygster; +1 Authors

    The historic MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor on board Envisat (Environmental Satellite, operation 2002–2012) provides valuable remote sensing data for the retrievals of summer sea ice in the Arctic. MERIS data together with the data of recently launched successor OLCI (Ocean and Land Colour Instrument) on board Sentinel 3A and 3B (2016 onwards) can be used to assess the long-term change of the Arctic summer sea ice. An important prerequisite to a high-quality remote sensing dataset is an accurate separation of cloudy and clear pixels to ensure lowest cloud contamination of the resulting product. The presence of 15 visible and near-infrared spectral channels of MERIS allows high-quality retrievals of sea ice albedo and melt pond fraction, but it makes cloud screening a challenge as snow, sea ice and clouds have similar optical features in the available spectral range of 412.5–900 nm. In this paper, we present a new cloud screening method MECOSI (MERIS Cloud Screening Over Sea Ice) for the retrievals of spectral albedo and melt pond fraction (MPF) from MERIS. The method utilizes all 15 MERIS channels, including the oxygen A absorption band. For the latter, a smile effect correction has been developed to ensure high-quality screening throughout the whole swath. A total of 3 years of reference cloud mask from AATSR (Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) (Istomina et al., 2010) have been used to train the Bayesian cloud screening for the available limited MERIS spectral range. Whiteness and brightness criteria as well as normalized difference thresholds have been used as well. The comparison of the developed cloud mask to the operational AATSR and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) cloud masks shows a considerable improvement in the detection of clouds over snow and sea ice, with about 10 % false clear detections during May–July and less than 5 % false clear detections in the rest of the melting season. This seasonal behavior is expected as the sea ice surface is generally brighter and more challenging for cloud detection in the beginning of the melting season. The effect of the improved cloud screening on the MPF–albedo datasets is demonstrated on both temporal and spatial scales. In the absence of cloud contamination, the time sequence of MPFs displays a greater range of values throughout the whole summer. The daily maps of the MPF now show spatially uniform values without cloud artifacts, which were clearly visible in the previous version of the dataset. The developed cloud screening routine can be applied to address cloud contamination in remote sensing data over sea ice. The resulting cloud mask for the MERIS operating time, as well as the improved MPF–albedo datasets for the Arctic region, is available at https://www.seaice.uni-bremen.de/start/ (Istomina et al., 2017).

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
      Preprint . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: G. C. E. Porter; G. C. E. Porter; S. N. F. Sikora; M. P. Adams; +7 Authors

    Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) affect cloud development, lifetime, and radiative properties, hence it is important to know the abundance of INPs throughout the atmosphere. A critical factor in determining the lifetime and transport of INPs is their size; however very little size-resolved atmospheric INP concentration information exists. Here we present the development and application of a radio-controlled payload capable of collecting size-resolved aerosol from a tethered balloon for the primary purpose of offline INP analysis. This payload, known as the SHARK (Selective Height Aerosol Research Kit), consists of two complementary cascade impactors for aerosol size-segregation from 0.25 to 10 µm, with an after-filter and top stage to collect particles below and above this range at flow rates of up to 100 L min−1. The SHARK also contains an optical particle counter to quantify aerosol size distribution between 0.38 and 10 µm, and a radiosonde for the measurement of temperature, pressure, GPS altitude, and relative humidity. This is all housed within a weatherproof box, can be run from batteries for up to 11 h, and has a total weight of 9 kg. The radio control and live data link with the radiosonde allow the user to start and stop sampling depending on meteorological conditions and height, which can, for example, allow the user to avoid sampling in very humid or cloudy air, even when the SHARK is out of sight. While the collected aerosol could, in principle, be studied with an array of analytical techniques, this study demonstrates that the collected aerosol can be analysed with an offline droplet freezing instrument to determine size-resolved INP concentrations, activated fractions, and active site densities, producing similar results to those obtained using a standard PM10 aerosol sampler when summed over the appropriate size range. Test data, where the SHARK was sampling near ground level or suspended from a tethered balloon at 20 m altitude, are presented from four contrasting locations having very different size-resolved INP spectra: Hyytiälä (southern Finland), Leeds (northern England), Longyearbyen (Svalbard), and Cardington (southern England).

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2019
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sofieva, Svetlana; Asmi, Eija; Atanasova, Nina S.; Heikkinen, Aino E.; +8 Authors

    A new bubble-generating glass chamber with an extensive set of aerosol production experiments is presented. Compared to the experiments described in the literature since the ground-setting works of Edward C.​​​​​​​ Monahan et al. in 1980s, the current setup is among the medium-sized installations allowing for accurate control of the air discharge, water temperature, and salinity. The size and material of the chamber offer a variety of applications due to its portability, measurement setup adjustability, and sterilization option. The experiments have been conducted in a cylindrical bubbling tank of 10 L volume that was filled by ∼ 30 %–40 % with water of controlled salt content and temperature and covered with a hermetic lid. The chamber was used to study the characteristics of aerosols produced by bursting bubbles under different conditions. In line with previous findings, the sea spray aerosol production was shown to depend linearly on the surface area covered by the bubbles, which in turn is a near-linear function of the air discharge through the water. Observed dependencies of the aerosol size spectra and particle fluxes on water salinity and temperature, being qualitatively comparable with the previous experiments, substantially refined the existing parameterizations. In particular, the bubble size was practically independent from the air discharge through the water body, except in the case of very small flows. Also, the dependence of aerosol spectrum and amount on salinity was much weaker than suggested in some previous experiments. The temperature dependence, to the contrary, was significant and consistent, with a transition in the spectrum shape at ∼ 10 ∘C. Theoretical analysis based on the basic conservation laws supported the main results of the experiments but also highlighted the need for a better understanding of the aerosol production from a cold water surface.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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