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933 Research products, page 1 of 94

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ruifang Ma; Sophie Sépulcre; Laetitia Licari; Frédéric Haurine; Franck Bassinot; Zhaojie Yu; Christophe Colin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    We have measured Cd/Ca ratios of several benthic foraminiferal species and studied benthic foraminiferal assemblages on two cores from the northern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea and northern Bay of Bengal, BoB), in order to reconstruct variations in intermediate-water circulation and paleo-nutrient content since the last deglaciation. Intermediate water Cdw records estimated from the benthic Cd/Ca reflect past changes in surface productivity and/or intermediate–bottom-water ventilation. The benthic foraminiferal assemblages are consistent with the geochemical data. These results suggest that during the last deglaciation, Cdw variability was primarily driven by changes in intermediate-water properties, indicating an enhanced ventilation of intermediate–bottom water masses during both Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas (HS1 and YD, respectively). During the Holocene, however, surface primary productivity appears to have influenced Cdw more than intermediate water mass properties. This is evident during the early Holocene (from 10 to 6 cal ka) when benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate that surface primary productivity was low, resulting in low intermediate-water Cdw at both sites. Then, from ∼ 5.2 to 2.4 cal ka, surface productivity increased markedly, causing a significant increase in the intermediate-water Cdw in the southeastern Arabian Sea and the northeastern BoB. The comparison of intermediate-water Cdw records with previous reconstructions of past Indian monsoon evolution during the Holocene suggests a direct control of intermediate-water Cdw by monsoon-induced changes in upper-water stratification and surface primary productivity.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefan Mulitza; Torsten Bickert; Helen C Bostock; Cristiano Mazur Chiessi; Barbara Donner; Aline Govin; Naomi Harada; Enqing Huang; Heather J H Johnstone; Henning Kuhnert; +18 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Germany
    Project: NSF | NSFGEO-NERC: Quantifying ... (1924215)

    We present a global atlas of downcore foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope ratios available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.936747 (Mulitza et al., 2021). The database contains 2,108 published and previously unpublished stable isotope downcore records with 362,067 stable isotope values of various planktonic and benthic species of foraminifera from 1,265 sediment cores. Age constraints are provided by 6,153 uncalibrated radiocarbon ages from 598 (47 %) of the cores. Each stable isotope and radiocarbon series is provided in a separate netCDF file containing fundamental meta data as attributes. The data set can be managed and explored with the free software tool PaleoDataView. The atlas will provide important data for paleoceanographic analyses and compilations, site surveys, or for teaching marine stratigraphy. The database can be updated with new records as they are generated, providing a live ongoing resource into the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fengguan Gu; Qinghua Yang; Frank Kauker; Changwei Liu; Guanghua Hao; Chaoyuan Yang; Jiping Liu; Petra Heil; Xuewei Li; Bo Han;

    Single-column sea ice models are used to focus on the thermodynamic evolution of the ice. Generally these models are forced by atmospheric reanalysis in absence of atmospheric in situ observations. Here we assess the sea ice thickness (SIT) simulated by a single-column model (ICEPACK) with in situ observations obtained off Zhongshan Station for the austral winter of 2016. In the reanalysis the surface air temperature is about 1 °C lower, the total precipitation is about 2 mm day−1 larger, and the surface wind speed is about 2 m s−1 higher compared to the in situ observations, respectively. Using sensitivity experiments we evaluate the simulation bias in sea ice thickness due to the uncertainty in the individual atmospheric forcing variables. We show that the unrealistic precipitation in the reanalysis leads to a bias of 14.5 cm in sea ice thickness and of 17.3 cm in snow depth. In addition, our data show that increasing snow depth works to gradually inhibits the growth of sea ice associated with thermal blanketing by the snow due to changing the vertical heat flux. Conversely, given suitable conditions, the sea ice thickness may grow suddenly when the snow load gives rise to flooding and leads to snow-ice formation. A potential mechanism to explain the different characteristics of the precipitation bias on snow and sea ice is discussed. The flooding process for landfast sea ice might cause different effect compared to pack ice, thus need to be reconsidered in ICEPACK. Meanwhile, the overestimation in surface wind speed in reanalysis is likely responsible for the underestimation in simulated snow depth, however this had little influence on the modelled ice thickness.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Yaping Lin; Olja Vidjak; Daria Ezgeta-Balić; Dubravka Bojanić Varezić; Tanja Šegvić-Bubić; Nika Stagličić; Aibin Zhan; Elizabeta Briski;
    Countries: Germany, Croatia

    Abstract Coastal ecosystems globally are exposed to the most pervasive anthropogenic activities, caused by a suite of human infrastructure and enterprises such as shipping ports, aquaculture facilities, fishing, and tourism. These anthropogenic activities may lead to changes in ecosystem biodiversity, followed by loss of ecosystem functioning and services. Shipping industry and aquaculture have also been recognized as the main vectors for introduction of marine non-indigenous species (NIS) worldwide. In this study, we used DNA metabarcoding-based methods to investigate plankton biodiversity under varying anthropogenic pressures (shipping and bivalve aquaculture) along the eastern Adriatic coast (the northernmost part of the Mediterranean Sea). Our comparative assessment revealed similar community structures among investigated coastal locations (Northern, Central and Southern Adriatic). When the whole plankton communities were considered, they did not differ significantly between port and aquaculture sites. However, the proportion of the unique zOTUs in the port samples was remarkably higher than that in aquaculture sites (40.5% vs 8.2%), indicating that port areas may receive higher abundance and species richness of NIS than aquaculture sites. Further important difference between the two types of anthropogenically impacted habitats was a high abundance of three notorious invaders – M. leidyi, M. gigas, and H. elegans in late summer at the aquaculture site in Northern Adriatic. Therefore, the plankton community of the area is under pressure not only from aquaculture activities, but also establishment of NIS. Port areas are probably under greater introduction pressure from NIS, but aquaculture sites may experience greater community changes due to their establishment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abhishek Savita; Catia M. Domingues; Timothy P. Boyer; Viktor Gouretski; Masayoshi Ishii; Gregory C. Johnson; John M. Lyman; Josh K. Willis; Simon J. Marsland; Will Hobbs; +5 more
    Publisher: AMS (American Meteorological Society)
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom

    Abstract The Earth system is accumulating energy due to human-induced activities. More than 90% of this energy has been stored in the ocean as heat since 1970, with ∼60% of that in the upper 700 m. Differences in upper-ocean heat content anomaly (OHCA) estimates, however, exist. Here, we use a dataset protocol for 1970–2008—with six instrumental bias adjustments applied to expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data, and mapped by six research groups—to evaluate the spatiotemporal spread in upper OHCA estimates arising from two choices: 1) those arising from instrumental bias adjustments and 2) those arising from mathematical (i.e., mapping) techniques to interpolate and extrapolate data in space and time. We also examined the effect of a common ocean mask, which reveals that exclusion of shallow seas can reduce global OHCA estimates up to 13%. Spread due to mapping method is largest in the Indian Ocean and in the eddy-rich and frontal regions of all basins. Spread due to XBT bias adjustment is largest in the Pacific Ocean within 30°N–30°S. In both mapping and XBT cases, spread is higher for 1990–2004. Statistically different trends among mapping methods are found not only in the poorly observed Southern Ocean but also in the well-observed northwest Atlantic. Our results cannot determine the best mapping or bias adjustment schemes, but they identify where important sensitivities exist, and thus where further understanding will help to refine OHCA estimates. These results highlight the need for further coordinated OHCA studies to evaluate the performance of existing mapping methods along with comprehensive assessment of uncertainty estimates.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jiawang Wu; Zhifei Liu; Annie Michard; Kazuyo Tachikawa; Amalia Filippidi; Zhiwei He; Rick Hennekam; Shouye Yang; Gareth Davies; Gert J. de Lange;
    Countries: France, Netherlands, France, France, France

    In marine sediments, the Sr content and isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr) of the terrigenous detrital component are widely used to track changes in provenance and related transport and weathering processes. Accurately separating detrital-Sr from other sedimentary Sr-phases is a prerequisite for such studies. Conventionally, it is assumed that Sr in the carbonate-free residue corresponds to detrital Sr alone. However, the decarbonated residue may contain barite with significant Sr content and a non-detrital 87Sr/86Sr composition; this may substantially affect the measured Sr signal. To examine this chronically overlooked phenomenon, the Mediterranean Sea is an ideal area because 1) detailed provenance studies have been done using Sr and 87Sr/86Sr of the residual fraction, and 2) enhanced levels of barite repeatedly occurred in association with distinct, organic-rich sapropel sediments. Here, we use the most-recent sapropel S1 interval to evaluate the effect of barite-bound Sr in the residual fraction after decarbonation. A total of 130 samples were taken from 10 cores in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) and 1 core in the western Mediterranean Sea. This selection represents a geographic and bathymetric coverage of the EMS and permits the basin-wide comparison between organic-rich and -lean sediments. After decarbonation using 1 M HCl solution, the residual sediments were subject to NH4Cl extraction (2 M, pH 7), known to selectively dissolve barite. Our results demonstrate the presence of Sr-bearing barite after traditional carbonate removal and its effect on the derived “detrital” Sr signature. This barite-Sr effect is considerable for samples with barite-Ba >400 μg/g in bulk sediment. The impact of barite is prominent if accompanied by a detrital provenance background of high 87Sr/86Sr (>0.713) or low Sr/Al (<1.0 mg/g). In such cases, removal of remaining barite is required to obtain an unbiased detrital Sr signal. We recommend an improved procedure for detrital Sr separation in marine sediments, with an additional NH4Cl leaching step to eliminate any remaining barite after decarbonation. This approach is particularly important for areas/times of high biological productivity, where sediments are often characterized by abundant barite content.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Cristina Mangano; M. Berlino; L. Corbari; Giacomo Milisenda; M. Lucchese; S. Terzo; Mar Bosch-Belmar; M. S. Azaza; José M. F. Babarro; R. Bakiu; +41 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Spain, Turkey, Portugal, Spain
    Project: EC | MIRROR (835589)

    The COVID-19 global pandemic has had severe, unpredictable and synchronous impacts on all levels of perishable food supply chains (PFSC), across multiple sectors and spatial scales. Aquaculture plays a vital and rapidly expanding role in food security, in some cases overtaking wild caught fisheries in the production of high-quality animal protein in this PFSC. We performed a rapid global assessment to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related emerging control measures on the aquaculture supply chain. Socio-economic effects of the pandemic were analysed by surveying the perceptions of stakeholders, who were asked to describe potential supply-side disruption, vulnerabilities and resilience patterns along the production pipeline with four main supply chain components: a) hatchery, b) production/processing, c) distribution/logistics and d) market. We also assessed different farming strategies, comparing land- vs. sea-based systems; extensive vs. intensive methods; and with and without integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, IMTA. In addition to evaluating levels and sources of economic distress, interviewees were asked to identify mitigation solutions adopted at local / internal (i.e., farm-site) scales, and to express their preference on national / external scale mitigation measures among a set of a priori options. Survey responses identified the potential causes of disruption, ripple effects, sources of food insecurity, and socio-economic conflicts. They also pointed to various levels of mitigation strategies. The collated evidence represents a first baseline useful to address future disaster-driven responses, to reinforce the resilience of the sector and to facilitate the design reconstruction plans and mitigation measures, such as financial aid strategies M.C.M.'s research activity was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action (Grant agreement no. 835589, MIRROR Project). People at the Laboratory of Ecology have been funded by the PRIN-MAHRES project (Ministry of Italian Research; MUR - 017MHHWBN_003 Linea C) and by the Interreg Italia-Malta HARMONY 2016 (Grant C1-3.1-31). C. Pita and A. Nogueira would like to thank FCT/MCTES for the financial support to CESAM (UIDP/50017/2020+UIDB/50017/2020), through national funds. J.M.F. Babarro thanks project PID2019-106008RB-C21 for support through Spanish Government funds. The authors would like to thank also the ERASMUS+-FISHAQU project (No. 610071-EPP-1-2019-1-PT-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP) 13 pages, 3 tables, 5 figures Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xin Wang; Meng Qu; Yali Liu; Ralf F. Schneider; Yue Song; Zelin Chen; Hao Zhang; Yanhong Zhang; Haiyan Yu; Suyu Zhang; +10 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Germany

    Few fishes have evolved elevated body temperatures compared with ambient temperatures, and only in opah (Lampris spp) is the entire body affected. To understand the molecular basis of endothermy, we analyzed the opah genome and identified 23 genes with convergent amino acid substitutions across fish, birds, and mammals, including slc8b1, which encodes the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and is essential for heart function and metabolic heat production. Among endothermic fishes, 44 convergent genes with suggestive metabolic functions were identified, such as glrx3, encoding a crucial protein for hemoglobin maturation. Numerous genes involved in the production and retention of metabolic heat were also found to be under positive selection. Analyses of opah's unique inner-heat-producing pectoral muscle layer (PMI), an evolutionary key innovation, revealed that many proteins were co-opted from dorsal swimming muscles for thermogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, the opah genome provides valuable resources and opportunities to uncover the genetic basis of thermal adaptations in fish. Public summary • Endothermy has evolved multiple times in fishes (teleosts and chondrichthyans) • Opah genome explaining genetic changes in heat production and the sensory and immune system • Convergent evolution of genes in endothermic vertebrate lineages was investigated • Analyses of the pectoral muscle of opah revealed numerous highly expressed genes for thermogenesis Graphical abstract

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yu Han; Mu Zhang; Xiaofeng Chen; Weidong Zhai; Ehui Tan; Kai Tang;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract Eutrophication-induced water deoxygenation occurs continually in coastal oceans, and alters community structure, metabolic processes, and the energy shunt, resulting in a major threat to the ecological environment. Seasonal deoxygenation events have occurred in the Bohai Sea (China), however, how these affect the functional activity of microorganisms remains unclear. Here, through the use of absolute quantification of 16S rRNA genes amplicon sequencing and metatranscriptomics approaches, we investigated the structure of the microbial community and the patterns of transcriptional activity in deoxygenated seawaters. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (average value, 1.4 × 106 copies ml−1), Cyanobacteria (3.7 × 105 copies ml−1), Bacteroidetes (2.7 × 105 copies ml−1), and the ammonia-oxidizing archaea Thaumarchaeota (1.9 × 105 copies ml−1). Among the various environmental factors, dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature displayed the most significant correlation with microbial community composition and functional activity. Metatranscriptomic data showed high transcriptional activity of Thaumarchaeota in the deoxygenated waters, with a significant increase in the expression of core genes representing ammonia oxidation, ammonia transport, and carbon fixation (3-hydroxypropionic acid/4-hydroxybutyric acid cycle) pathways. The transcripts of Cyanobacteria involved in photosynthesis and carbon fixation (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) significantly decreased in low oxygen waters. Meanwhile, the transcripts for the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-encoding gene shifted from being assigned to photoautotrophic to chemoautotrophic organisms in surface and bottom waters, respectively. Moreover, the transcription profile indicated that heterotrophs play a critical role in transforming low-molecular-weight dissolved organic nitrogen. Elevated abundances of transcripts related to microbial antioxidant activity corresponded to an enhanced aerobic metabolism of Thaumarchaeota in the low oxygen seawater. In general, our transcriptional evidences showed a population increase of Thaumarchaeota, especially the coastal ecotype of ammonia oxidizers, in low oxygen aquatic environments, and indicated an enhanced contribution of chemolithoautotrophic carbon fixation to carbon flow.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexander Jueterbock; Bernardo Duarte; Bernardo Duarte; James Coyer; Jeanine L. Olsen; Martina Elisabeth Luise Kopp; Irina Smolina; Sophie Arnaud-Haond; Zi-Min Hu; Galice Hoarau;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Countries: Norway, France, Netherlands

    Due to rising global surface temperatures, Arctic habitats are becoming thermally suitable for temperate species. Whether a temperate species can immigrate into an ice-free Arctic depends on its ability to tolerate extreme seasonal fluctuations in daylength. Thus, understanding adaptations to polar light conditions can improve the realism of models predicting poleward range expansions in response to climate change. Plant adaptations to polar light have rarely been studied and remain unknown in seagrasses. If these ecosystem engineers can migrate polewards, seagrasses will enrich biodiversity, and carbon capture potential in shallow coastal regions of the Arctic. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is the most widely distributed seagrass in the northern hemisphere. As the only seagrass species growing as far north as 70°N, it is the most likely candidate to first immigrate into an ice-free Arctic. Here, we describe seasonal (and diurnal) changes in photosynthetic characteristics, and in genome-wide gene expression patterns under strong annual fluctuations of daylength. We compared PAM measurements and RNA-seq data between two populations at the longest and shortest day of the year: (1) a Mediterranean population exposed to moderate annual fluctuations of 10–14 h daylength and (2) an Arctic population exposed to high annual fluctuations of 0–24 h daylength. Most of the gene expression specificities of the Arctic population were found in functions of the organelles (chloroplast and mitochondrion). In winter, Arctic eelgrass conserves energy by repressing respiration and reducing photosynthetic energy fluxes. Although light-reactions, and genes involved in carbon capture and carbon storage were upregulated in summer, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and chlorophyll-synthesis were upregulated in winter, suggesting that winter metabolism relies not only on stored energy resources but also on active use of dim light conditions. Eelgrass is unable to use excessive amounts of light during summer and demonstrates a significant reduction in photosynthetic performance under long daylengths, possibly to prevent photoinhibition constrains. Our study identified key mechanisms that allow eelgrass to survive under Arctic light conditions and paves the way for experimental research to predict whether and up to which latitude eelgrass can potentially migrate polewards in response to climate change.

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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
933 Research products, page 1 of 94
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ruifang Ma; Sophie Sépulcre; Laetitia Licari; Frédéric Haurine; Franck Bassinot; Zhaojie Yu; Christophe Colin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    We have measured Cd/Ca ratios of several benthic foraminiferal species and studied benthic foraminiferal assemblages on two cores from the northern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea and northern Bay of Bengal, BoB), in order to reconstruct variations in intermediate-water circulation and paleo-nutrient content since the last deglaciation. Intermediate water Cdw records estimated from the benthic Cd/Ca reflect past changes in surface productivity and/or intermediate–bottom-water ventilation. The benthic foraminiferal assemblages are consistent with the geochemical data. These results suggest that during the last deglaciation, Cdw variability was primarily driven by changes in intermediate-water properties, indicating an enhanced ventilation of intermediate–bottom water masses during both Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas (HS1 and YD, respectively). During the Holocene, however, surface primary productivity appears to have influenced Cdw more than intermediate water mass properties. This is evident during the early Holocene (from 10 to 6 cal ka) when benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate that surface primary productivity was low, resulting in low intermediate-water Cdw at both sites. Then, from ∼ 5.2 to 2.4 cal ka, surface productivity increased markedly, causing a significant increase in the intermediate-water Cdw in the southeastern Arabian Sea and the northeastern BoB. The comparison of intermediate-water Cdw records with previous reconstructions of past Indian monsoon evolution during the Holocene suggests a direct control of intermediate-water Cdw by monsoon-induced changes in upper-water stratification and surface primary productivity.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefan Mulitza; Torsten Bickert; Helen C Bostock; Cristiano Mazur Chiessi; Barbara Donner; Aline Govin; Naomi Harada; Enqing Huang; Heather J H Johnstone; Henning Kuhnert; +18 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Germany
    Project: NSF | NSFGEO-NERC: Quantifying ... (1924215)

    We present a global atlas of downcore foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope ratios available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.936747 (Mulitza et al., 2021). The database contains 2,108 published and previously unpublished stable isotope downcore records with 362,067 stable isotope values of various planktonic and benthic species of foraminifera from 1,265 sediment cores. Age constraints are provided by 6,153 uncalibrated radiocarbon ages from 598 (47 %) of the cores. Each stable isotope and radiocarbon series is provided in a separate netCDF file containing fundamental meta data as attributes. The data set can be managed and explored with the free software tool PaleoDataView. The atlas will provide important data for paleoceanographic analyses and compilations, site surveys, or for teaching marine stratigraphy. The database can be updated with new records as they are generated, providing a live ongoing resource into the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fengguan Gu; Qinghua Yang; Frank Kauker; Changwei Liu; Guanghua Hao; Chaoyuan Yang; Jiping Liu; Petra Heil; Xuewei Li; Bo Han;

    Single-column sea ice models are used to focus on the thermodynamic evolution of the ice. Generally these models are forced by atmospheric reanalysis in absence of atmospheric in situ observations. Here we assess the sea ice thickness (SIT) simulated by a single-column model (ICEPACK) with in situ observations obtained off Zhongshan Station for the austral winter of 2016. In the reanalysis the surface air temperature is about 1 °C lower, the total precipitation is about 2 mm day−1 larger, and the surface wind speed is about 2 m s−1 higher compared to the in situ observations, respectively. Using sensitivity experiments we evaluate the simulation bias in sea ice thickness due to the uncertainty in the individual atmospheric forcing variables. We show that the unrealistic precipitation in the reanalysis leads to a bias of 14.5 cm in sea ice thickness and of 17.3 cm in snow depth. In addition, our data show that increasing snow depth works to gradually inhibits the growth of sea ice associated with thermal blanketing by the snow due to changing the vertical heat flux. Conversely, given suitable conditions, the sea ice thickness may grow suddenly when the snow load gives rise to flooding and leads to snow-ice formation. A potential mechanism to explain the different characteristics of the precipitation bias on snow and sea ice is discussed. The flooding process for landfast sea ice might cause different effect compared to pack ice, thus need to be reconsidered in ICEPACK. Meanwhile, the overestimation in surface wind speed in reanalysis is likely responsible for the underestimation in simulated snow depth, however this had little influence on the modelled ice thickness.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Yaping Lin; Olja Vidjak; Daria Ezgeta-Balić; Dubravka Bojanić Varezić; Tanja Šegvić-Bubić; Nika Stagličić; Aibin Zhan; Elizabeta Briski;
    Countries: Germany, Croatia

    Abstract Coastal ecosystems globally are exposed to the most pervasive anthropogenic activities, caused by a suite of human infrastructure and enterprises such as shipping ports, aquaculture facilities, fishing, and tourism. These anthropogenic activities may lead to changes in ecosystem biodiversity, followed by loss of ecosystem functioning and services. Shipping industry and aquaculture have also been recognized as the main vectors for introduction of marine non-indigenous species (NIS) worldwide. In this study, we used DNA metabarcoding-based methods to investigate plankton biodiversity under varying anthropogenic pressures (shipping and bivalve aquaculture) along the eastern Adriatic coast (the northernmost part of the Mediterranean Sea). Our comparative assessment revealed similar community structures among investigated coastal locations (Northern, Central and Southern Adriatic). When the whole plankton communities were considered, they did not differ significantly between port and aquaculture sites. However, the proportion of the unique zOTUs in the port samples was remarkably higher than that in aquaculture sites (40.5% vs 8.2%), indicating that port areas may receive higher abundance and species richness of NIS than aquaculture sites. Further important difference between the two types of anthropogenically impacted habitats was a high abundance of three notorious invaders – M. leidyi, M. gigas, and H. elegans in late summer at the aquaculture site in Northern Adriatic. Therefore, the plankton community of the area is under pressure not only from aquaculture activities, but also establishment of NIS. Port areas are probably under greater introduction pressure from NIS, but aquaculture sites may experience greater community changes due to their establishment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abhishek Savita; Catia M. Domingues; Timothy P. Boyer; Viktor Gouretski; Masayoshi Ishii; Gregory C. Johnson; John M. Lyman; Josh K. Willis; Simon J. Marsland; Will Hobbs; +5 more
    Publisher: AMS (American Meteorological Society)
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom

    Abstract The Earth system is accumulating energy due to human-induced activities. More than 90% of this energy has been stored in the ocean as heat since 1970, with ∼60% of that in the upper 700 m. Differences in upper-ocean heat content anomaly (OHCA) estimates, however, exist. Here, we use a dataset protocol for 1970–2008—with six instrumental bias adjustments applied to expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data, and mapped by six research groups—to evaluate the spatiotemporal spread in upper OHCA estimates arising from two choices: 1) those arising from instrumental bias adjustments and 2) those arising from mathematical (i.e., mapping) techniques to interpolate and extrapolate data in space and time. We also examined the effect of a common ocean mask, which reveals that exclusion of shallow seas can reduce global OHCA estimates up to 13%. Spread due to mapping method is largest in the Indian Ocean and in the eddy-rich and frontal regions of all basins. Spread due to XBT bias adjustment is largest in the Pacific Ocean within 30°N–30°S. In both mapping and XBT cases, spread is higher for 1990–2004. Statistically different trends among mapping methods are found not only in the poorly observed Southern Ocean but also in the well-observed northwest Atlantic. Our results cannot determine the best mapping or bias adjustment schemes, but they identify where important sensitivities exist, and thus where further understanding will help to refine OHCA estimates. These results highlight the need for further coordinated OHCA studies to evaluate the performance of existing mapping methods along with comprehensive assessment of uncertainty estimates.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jiawang Wu; Zhifei Liu; Annie Michard; Kazuyo Tachikawa; Amalia Filippidi; Zhiwei He; Rick Hennekam; Shouye Yang; Gareth Davies; Gert J. de Lange;
    Countries: France, Netherlands, France, France, France

    In marine sediments, the Sr content and isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr) of the terrigenous detrital component are widely used to track changes in provenance and related transport and weathering processes. Accurately separating detrital-Sr from other sedimentary Sr-phases is a prerequisite for such studies. Conventionally, it is assumed that Sr in the carbonate-free residue corresponds to detrital Sr alone. However, the decarbonated residue may contain barite with significant Sr content and a non-detrital 87Sr/86Sr composition; this may substantially affect the measured Sr signal. To examine this chronically overlooked phenomenon, the Mediterranean Sea is an ideal area because 1) detailed provenance studies have been done using Sr and 87Sr/86Sr of the residual fraction, and 2) enhanced levels of barite repeatedly occurred in association with distinct, organic-rich sapropel sediments. Here, we use the most-recent sapropel S1 interval to evaluate the effect of barite-bound Sr in the residual fraction after decarbonation. A total of 130 samples were taken from 10 cores in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) and 1 core in the western Mediterranean Sea. This selection represents a geographic and bathymetric coverage of the EMS and permits the basin-wide comparison between organic-rich and -lean sediments. After decarbonation using 1 M HCl solution, the residual sediments were subject to NH4Cl extraction (2 M, pH 7), known to selectively dissolve barite. Our results demonstrate the presence of Sr-bearing barite after traditional carbonate removal and its effect on the derived “detrital” Sr signature. This barite-Sr effect is considerable for samples with barite-Ba >400 μg/g in bulk sediment. The impact of barite is prominent if accompanied by a detrital provenance background of high 87Sr/86Sr (>0.713) or low Sr/Al (<1.0 mg/g). In such cases, removal of remaining barite is required to obtain an unbiased detrital Sr signal. We recommend an improved procedure for detrital Sr separation in marine sediments, with an additional NH4Cl leaching step to eliminate any remaining barite after decarbonation. This approach is particularly important for areas/times of high biological productivity, where sediments are often characterized by abundant barite content.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Cristina Mangano; M. Berlino; L. Corbari; Giacomo Milisenda; M. Lucchese; S. Terzo; Mar Bosch-Belmar; M. S. Azaza; José M. F. Babarro; R. Bakiu; +41 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Spain, Turkey, Portugal, Spain
    Project: EC | MIRROR (835589)

    The COVID-19 global pandemic has had severe, unpredictable and synchronous impacts on all levels of perishable food supply chains (PFSC), across multiple sectors and spatial scales. Aquaculture plays a vital and rapidly expanding role in food security, in some cases overtaking wild caught fisheries in the production of high-quality animal protein in this PFSC. We performed a rapid global assessment to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related emerging control measures on the aquaculture supply chain. Socio-economic effects of the pandemic were analysed by surveying the perceptions of stakeholders, who were asked to describe potential supply-side disruption, vulnerabilities and resilience patterns along the production pipeline with four main supply chain components: a) hatchery, b) production/processing, c) distribution/logistics and d) market. We also assessed different farming strategies, comparing land- vs. sea-based systems; extensive vs. intensive methods; and with and without integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, IMTA. In addition to evaluating levels and sources of economic distress, interviewees were asked to identify mitigation solutions adopted at local / internal (i.e., farm-site) scales, and to express their preference on national / external scale mitigation measures among a set of a priori options. Survey responses identified the potential causes of disruption, ripple effects, sources of food insecurity, and socio-economic conflicts. They also pointed to various levels of mitigation strategies. The collated evidence represents a first baseline useful to address future disaster-driven responses, to reinforce the resilience of the sector and to facilitate the design reconstruction plans and mitigation measures, such as financial aid strategies M.C.M.'s research activity was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action (Grant agreement no. 835589, MIRROR Project). People at the Laboratory of Ecology have been funded by the PRIN-MAHRES project (Ministry of Italian Research; MUR - 017MHHWBN_003 Linea C) and by the Interreg Italia-Malta HARMONY 2016 (Grant C1-3.1-31). C. Pita and A. Nogueira would like to thank FCT/MCTES for the financial support to CESAM (UIDP/50017/2020+UIDB/50017/2020), through national funds. J.M.F. Babarro thanks project PID2019-106008RB-C21 for support through Spanish Government funds. The authors would like to thank also the ERASMUS+-FISHAQU project (No. 610071-EPP-1-2019-1-PT-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP) 13 pages, 3 tables, 5 figures Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xin Wang; Meng Qu; Yali Liu; Ralf F. Schneider; Yue Song; Zelin Chen; Hao Zhang; Yanhong Zhang; Haiyan Yu; Suyu Zhang; +10 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Germany

    Few fishes have evolved elevated body temperatures compared with ambient temperatures, and only in opah (Lampris spp) is the entire body affected. To understand the molecular basis of endothermy, we analyzed the opah genome and identified 23 genes with convergent amino acid substitutions across fish, birds, and mammals, including slc8b1, which encodes the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and is essential for heart function and metabolic heat production. Among endothermic fishes, 44 convergent genes with suggestive metabolic functions were identified, such as glrx3, encoding a crucial protein for hemoglobin maturation. Numerous genes involved in the production and retention of metabolic heat were also found to be under positive selection. Analyses of opah's unique inner-heat-producing pectoral muscle layer (PMI), an evolutionary key innovation, revealed that many proteins were co-opted from dorsal swimming muscles for thermogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, the opah genome provides valuable resources and opportunities to uncover the genetic basis of thermal adaptations in fish. Public summary • Endothermy has evolved multiple times in fishes (teleosts and chondrichthyans) • Opah genome explaining genetic changes in heat production and the sensory and immune system • Convergent evolution of genes in endothermic vertebrate lineages was investigated • Analyses of the pectoral muscle of opah revealed numerous highly expressed genes for thermogenesis Graphical abstract

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yu Han; Mu Zhang; Xiaofeng Chen; Weidong Zhai; Ehui Tan; Kai Tang;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract Eutrophication-induced water deoxygenation occurs continually in coastal oceans, and alters community structure, metabolic processes, and the energy shunt, resulting in a major threat to the ecological environment. Seasonal deoxygenation events have occurred in the Bohai Sea (China), however, how these affect the functional activity of microorganisms remains unclear. Here, through the use of absolute quantification of 16S rRNA genes amplicon sequencing and metatranscriptomics approaches, we investigated the structure of the microbial community and the patterns of transcriptional activity in deoxygenated seawaters. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (average value, 1.4 × 106 copies ml−1), Cyanobacteria (3.7 × 105 copies ml−1), Bacteroidetes (2.7 × 105 copies ml−1), and the ammonia-oxidizing archaea Thaumarchaeota (1.9 × 105 copies ml−1). Among the various environmental factors, dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature displayed the most significant correlation with microbial community composition and functional activity. Metatranscriptomic data showed high transcriptional activity of Thaumarchaeota in the deoxygenated waters, with a significant increase in the expression of core genes representing ammonia oxidation, ammonia transport, and carbon fixation (3-hydroxypropionic acid/4-hydroxybutyric acid cycle) pathways. The transcripts of Cyanobacteria involved in photosynthesis and carbon fixation (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) significantly decreased in low oxygen waters. Meanwhile, the transcripts for the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-encoding gene shifted from being assigned to photoautotrophic to chemoautotrophic organisms in surface and bottom waters, respectively. Moreover, the transcription profile indicated that heterotrophs play a critical role in transforming low-molecular-weight dissolved organic nitrogen. Elevated abundances of transcripts related to microbial antioxidant activity corresponded to an enhanced aerobic metabolism of Thaumarchaeota in the low oxygen seawater. In general, our transcriptional evidences showed a population increase of Thaumarchaeota, especially the coastal ecotype of ammonia oxidizers, in low oxygen aquatic environments, and indicated an enhanced contribution of chemolithoautotrophic carbon fixation to carbon flow.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexander Jueterbock; Bernardo Duarte; Bernardo Duarte; James Coyer; Jeanine L. Olsen; Martina Elisabeth Luise Kopp; Irina Smolina; Sophie Arnaud-Haond; Zi-Min Hu; Galice Hoarau;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Countries: Norway, France, Netherlands

    Due to rising global surface temperatures, Arctic habitats are becoming thermally suitable for temperate species. Whether a temperate species can immigrate into an ice-free Arctic depends on its ability to tolerate extreme seasonal fluctuations in daylength. Thus, understanding adaptations to polar light conditions can improve the realism of models predicting poleward range expansions in response to climate change. Plant adaptations to polar light have rarely been studied and remain unknown in seagrasses. If these ecosystem engineers can migrate polewards, seagrasses will enrich biodiversity, and carbon capture potential in shallow coastal regions of the Arctic. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is the most widely distributed seagrass in the northern hemisphere. As the only seagrass species growing as far north as 70°N, it is the most likely candidate to first immigrate into an ice-free Arctic. Here, we describe seasonal (and diurnal) changes in photosynthetic characteristics, and in genome-wide gene expression patterns under strong annual fluctuations of daylength. We compared PAM measurements and RNA-seq data between two populations at the longest and shortest day of the year: (1) a Mediterranean population exposed to moderate annual fluctuations of 10–14 h daylength and (2) an Arctic population exposed to high annual fluctuations of 0–24 h daylength. Most of the gene expression specificities of the Arctic population were found in functions of the organelles (chloroplast and mitochondrion). In winter, Arctic eelgrass conserves energy by repressing respiration and reducing photosynthetic energy fluxes. Although light-reactions, and genes involved in carbon capture and carbon storage were upregulated in summer, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and chlorophyll-synthesis were upregulated in winter, suggesting that winter metabolism relies not only on stored energy resources but also on active use of dim light conditions. Eelgrass is unable to use excessive amounts of light during summer and demonstrates a significant reduction in photosynthetic performance under long daylengths, possibly to prevent photoinhibition constrains. Our study identified key mechanisms that allow eelgrass to survive under Arctic light conditions and paves the way for experimental research to predict whether and up to which latitude eelgrass can potentially migrate polewards in response to climate change.