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  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
  • DE
  • US
  • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques ...
  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Konrad B. Bärfuss; Holger Schmithüsen; Astrid Lampert;

    Abstract. The main in situ database for numerical weather prediction currently relies on radiosonde and airliner observations, with large systematic data gaps: horizontally in certain countries, above the oceans and in polar regions, and vertically in the rapidly changing atmospheric boundary layer, as well as up to the tropopause in areas with low air traffic. These gaps might be patched by measurements with drones. They provide a significant improvement towards environment-friendly additional data, avoiding waste and without the need for helium. So far, such systems have not been regarded as a feasible alternative for performing measurements up to the upper troposphere. In this article, the development of a drone system that is capable of sounding the atmosphere up to an altitude of 10 km with its own propulsion is presented, for which Antarctic and mid-European ambient conditions were taken into account: after an assessment of the environmental conditions at two exemplary radiosounding sites, the design of the system and the instrumentation are presented. Further, the process to get permissions for such flight tests even in the densely populated continent of Europe is discussed, and methods to compare drone and radiosonde data for quality assessment are presented. The main result is the technical achievement of demonstrating the feasibility of reaching an altitude of 10 km with a small meteorologically equipped drone using its own propulsion. The first data are compared to radiosonde measurements, demonstrating an accuracy comparable to other aircraft-based observations, despite the simplistic sensor package deployed. A detailed error discussion is given. The article closes with an outlook on the potential use of drones for filling data gaps in the troposphere.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: M. Maahn; D. Moisseev; D. Moisseev; I. Steinke; +4 Authors

    Abstract. The open source Video In Situ Snowfall Sensor (VISSS) is introduced as a novel instrument for the characterization of particle shape and size in snowfall. The VISSS consists of two cameras with LED backlights and telecentric lenses that allow accurate sizing and combine a large observation volume with relatively high resolution and a design that limits wind disturbance. VISSS data products include per-particle properties and integrated particle size distribution properties such as particle maximum extent, cross-sectional area, perimeter, complexity, and – in the future – sedimentation velocity. Initial analysis shows that the VISSS provides robust statistics based on up to 100,000 particles observed per minute. Comparison of the VISSS with collocated PIP and Parsivel instruments at Hyytiälä, Finland, shows excellent agreement with Parsivel, but reveals some differences for the PIP (Precipitation Imaging Package) that are likely related to PIP data processing and limitations of the PIP with respect to observing smaller particles. The open source nature of the VISSS hardware plans, data acquisition software, and data processing libraries invites the community to contribute to the development of the instrument, which has many potential applications in atmospheric science and beyond.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2024
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.5...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gunter Stober; Alan Liu; Alexander Kozlovsky; Zishun Qiao; +12 Authors

    Meteor radars have become widely used instruments to study atmospheric dynamics, particularly in the 70 to 110 km altitude region. These systems have been proven to provide reliable and continuous measurements of horizontal winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Recently, there have been many attempts to utilize specular and/or transverse scatter meteor measurements to estimate vertical winds and vertical wind variability. In this study we investigate potential biases in vertical wind estimation that are intrinsic to the meteor radar observation geometry and scattering mechanism, and we introduce a mathematical debiasing process to mitigate them. This process makes use of a spatiotemporal Laplace filter, which is based on a generalized Tikhonov regularization. Vertical winds obtained from this retrieval algorithm are compared to UA-ICON model data. This comparison reveals good agreement in the statistical moments of the vertical velocity distributions. Furthermore, we present the first observational indications of a forward scatter wind bias. It appears to be caused by the scattering center's apparent motion along the meteor trajectory when the meteoric plasma column is drifted by the wind. The hypothesis is tested by a radiant mapping of two meteor showers. Finally, we introduce a new retrieval algorithm providing a physically and mathematically sound solution to derive vertical winds and wind variability from multistatic meteor radar networks such as the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster (NORDIC) and the Chilean Observation Network De meteOr Radars (CONDOR). The new retrieval is called 3DVAR+DIV and includes additional diagnostics such as the horizontal divergence and relative vorticity to ensure a physically consistent solution for all 3D winds in spatially resolved domains. Based on this new algorithm we obtained vertical velocities in the range of w = ± 1–2 m s−1 for most of the analyzed data during 2 years of collection, which is consistent with the values reported from general circulation models (GCMs) for this timescale and spatial resolution.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2022
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.48350/17442...
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Other literature type . 2022
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48350/17442...
      Article . 2022
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      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: D. A. Newnham; M. A. Clilverd; W. D. J. Clark; M. Kosch; +5 Authors

    Ground-based observations of 11.072 GHz atmospheric ozone (O3) emission have been made using the Ny-Ålesund Ozone in the Mesosphere Instrument (NAOMI) at the UK Arctic Research Station (latitude 78∘55′0′′ N, longitude 11∘55′59′′ E), Spitsbergen. Seasonally averaged O3 vertical profiles in the Arctic polar mesosphere–lower thermosphere region for night-time and twilight conditions in the period 15 August 2017 to 15 March 2020 have been retrieved over the altitude range 62–98 km. NAOMI measurements are compared with corresponding, overlapping observations by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite instrument. The NAOMI and SABER version 2.0 data are binned according to the SABER instrument 60 d yaw cycles into nominal 3-month “winter” (15 December–15 March), “autumn” (15 August–15 November), and “summer” (15 April–15 July) periods. The NAOMI observations show the same year-to-year and seasonal variabilities as the SABER 9.6 µm O3 data. The winter night-time (solar zenith angle, SZA ≥ 110∘) and twilight (75∘ ≤ SZA ≤ 110∘) NAOMI and SABER 9.6 µm O3 volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles agree to within the measurement uncertainties. However, for autumn twilight conditions the SABER 9.6 µm O3 secondary maximum VMR values are higher than NAOMI over altitudes 88–97 km by 47 % and 59 %, respectively in 2017 and 2018. Comparing the two SABER channels which measure O3 at different wavelengths and use different processing schemes, the 9.6 µm O3 autumn twilight VMR data for the three years 2017–2019 are higher than the corresponding 1.27 µm measurements with the largest difference (58 %) in the 65–95 km altitude range similar to the NAOMI observation. The SABER 9.6 µm O3 summer daytime (SZA < 75∘) mesospheric O3 VMR is also consistently higher than the 1.27 µm measurement, confirming previously reported differences between the SABER 9.6 µm channel and measurements of mesospheric O3 by other satellite instruments.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: J. Steinheuer; J. Steinheuer; C. Detring; F. Beyrich; +6 Authors

    Abstract. Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) have increasingly been used over the last decade to derive the mean wind in the atmospheric boundary layer. DWLs allow the determination of wind vector profiles with high vertical resolution and provide an alternative to classic meteorological tower observations. They also receive signals from higher altitudes than a tower and can be set up flexibly in any power-supplied location. In this work, we address the question of whether and how wind gusts can be derived from DWL observations. The characterization of wind gusts is one central goal of the Field Experiment on Sub-Mesoscale Spatio-Temporal Variability in Lindenberg (FESSTVaL). Obtaining wind gusts from a DWL is not trivial because a monostatic DWL provides only a radial velocity per line-of-sight, i.e., only one component of a three-dimensional vector, and measurements in at least three linearly independent directions are required to derive the wind vector. Performing them sequentially limits the achievable time resolution, while wind gusts are short-lived phenomena. This study compares different DWL configurations in terms of their potential to derive wind gusts. For this purpose, we develop a new wind retrieval method that is applicable to different scanning configurations and various time resolutions. We test eight configurations with StreamLine DWL systems from Halo Photonics and evaluate gust peaks and mean wind over 10 minutes at 90 m a.g.l. against a sonic anemometer at the meteorological tower in Falkenberg, Germany. The best performing configuration for retrieving wind gusts proves to be a fast continuous scanning mode (CSM) that completes a full observation cycle within 3.4 s. During this time interval, about eleven radial Doppler velocities are measured, which are then used to retrieve single gusts. The fast CSM configuration was successfully operated over a three-month period in summer 2020. The CSM paired with our new retrieval technique provides gust peaks that compare well to classic sonic anemometer measurements from the meteorological tower.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: G. Jozef; G. Jozef; G. Jozef; J. Cassano; +6 Authors

    During the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition, meteorological conditions over the lowest 1 km of the atmosphere were sampled with the DataHawk2 (DH2) fixed-wing uncrewed aircraft system (UAS). These in situ observations of the central Arctic atmosphere are some of the most extensive to date and provide unique insight into the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structure. The ABL is an important component of the Arctic climate, as it can be closely coupled to cloud properties, surface fluxes, and the atmospheric radiation budget. The high temporal resolution of the UAS observations allows us to manually identify the ABL height (ZABL) for 65 out of the total 89 flights conducted over the central Arctic Ocean between 23 March and 26 July 2020 by visually analyzing profiles of virtual potential temperature, humidity, and bulk Richardson number. Comparing this subjective ZABL with ZABL identified by various previously published automated objective methods allows us to determine which objective methods are most successful at accurately identifying ZABL in the central Arctic environment and how the success of the methods differs based on stability regime. The objective methods we use are the Liu–Liang, Heffter, virtual potential temperature gradient maximum, and bulk Richardson number methods. In the process of testing these objective methods on the DH2 data, numerical thresholds were adapted to work best for the UAS-based sampling. To determine if conclusions are robust across different measurement platforms, the subjective and objective ZABL determination processes were repeated using the radiosonde profile closest in time to each DH2 flight. For both the DH2 and radiosonde data, it is determined that the bulk Richardson number method is the most successful at identifying ZABL, while the Liu–Liang method is least successful. The results of this study are expected to be beneficial for upcoming observational and modeling efforts regarding the central Arctic ABL.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    Authors: David A. Newnham; Mark A. Clilverd; William Clark; Michael Kosch; +2 Authors

    Ground based observations of 11.072 GHz atmospheric ozone (O3) emission have been made using the Ny Ålesund Ozone in the Mesosphere Instrument (NAOMI) at the UK Arctic Research Station (latitude 78°55’0” N, longitude 11°55’59” E), Spitsbergen. Seasonally averaged O3 vertical profiles in the Arctic polar mesosphere lower thermosphere region for night-time and twilight conditions in the period 15 August 2017 to 15 March 2020 have been retrieved over the altitude range 62–98 km. NAOMI measurements are compared with corresponding, overlapping observations by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite instrument. The NAOMI and SABER data are binned according to the SABER instrument 60 day yaw cycles into 3 month ‘winter’ (15 December–15 March), ‘autumn’ (15 August–15 November), and ‘summer’ (15 April–15 July) periods. The NAOMI observations show the same year-to-year and seasonal variabilities as the SABER 9.6 μm O3 data. The winter night-time (solar zenith angle, SZA ≥ 110°) and twilight (75° ≤ SZA ≤ 110°) NAOMI and SABER 9.6 μm O3 volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles agree to within the measurement uncertainties. However, for autumn twilight conditions the SABER 9.6 μm O3 secondary maximum VMR values are higher than NAOMI over altitudes 88–97 km by 47 % and 59 % respectively in 2017 and 2018. Comparing the two SABER channels which measure O3 at different wavelengths and use different processing schemes, the 9.6 μm O3 autumn twilight VMR data for the three years 2017–19 are higher than the corresponding 1.27 μm measurements with the largest difference (58 %) in the 65–95 km altitude range similar to the NAOMI observation. The SABER 9.6 μm O3 summer daytime (SZA < 75°) mesospheric O3 VMR is also consistently higher than the 1.27 μm measurement, confirming previously reported differences between the SABER 9.6 μm channel and measurements of mesospheric O3 by other satellite instruments.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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    Authors: Jun Inoue; Yutaka Tobo; Kazutoshi Sato; Fumikazu Taketani; +1 Authors

    Abstract. A cloud particle sensor (CPS) sonde is an observing system attached with a radiosonde sensor to observe the vertical structure of cloud properties. The signals obtained from CPS sondes are related to the phase, size, and number of cloud particles. The system offers economic advantages including human resource and simple operation costs compared with aircraft measurements and land-/satellite-based remote sensing. However, the observed information should be appropriately corrected because of several uncertainties. Here we made field experiments in the Arctic region by launching approximately 40 CPS sondes between 2018 and 2020. Using these data sets, a better practical correction method was proposed to exclude unreliable data, estimate the effective cloud water droplet radius, and determine a correction factor for the total cloud particle count. We apply this method to data obtained in October 2019 over the Arctic Ocean and March 2020 at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway, to compare with a particle counter aboard a tethered balloon and liquid water content retrieved by a microwave radiometer. The estimated total particle count and liquid water content from the CPS sondes generally agree with those data. Although further development and validation of CPS sondes based on dedicated laboratory experiments would be required, the practical correction approach proposed here would offer better advantages in retrieving quantitative information on the vertical distribution of cloud microphysics under the condition of a lower number concentration.

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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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    Article . 2021
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Gunter Stober; Alexander Kozlovsky; Alan Liu; Zishun Qiao; +9 Authors

    Ground-based remote sensing of atmospheric parameters is often limited to single station observations by vertical profiles at a certain geographic location. This is a limiting factor for investigating gravity wave dynamics as the spatial information is often missing, e.g., horizontal wavelength, propagation direction or intrinsic frequency. In this study, we present a new retrieval algorithm for multistatic meteor radar networks to obtain tomographic 3-D wind fields within a pre-defined domain area. The algorithm is part of the Agile Software for Gravity wAve Regional Dynamics (ASGARD) and called 3D-Var, and based on the optimal estimation technique and Bayesian statistics. The performance of the 3D-Var retrieval is demonstrated using two meteor radar networks: the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster and the Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars (CONDOR). The optimal estimation implementation provide statistically sound solutions and diagnostics from the averaging kernels and measurement response. We present initial scientific results such as body forces of breaking gravity waves leading to two counter-rotating vortices and horizontal wavelength spectra indicating a transition between the rotational k−3 and divergent k-5/3 mode at scales of 80–120 km. In addition, we performed a keogram analysis over extended periods to reflect the latitudinal and temporal impact of a minor sudden stratospheric warming in December 2019. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of the 3D-Var algorithm to perform large-scale retrievals to derive meteorological wind maps covering a latitude region from Svalbard, north of the European Arctic mainland, to central Norway.

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    https://doi.org/10.48350/16028...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
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    NTNU Open
    Article . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48350/16028...
      Article . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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    Authors: B. Männel; F. Zus; G. Dick; S. Glaser; +8 Authors

    Within the transpolar drifting expedition MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate), the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) was used among other techniques to monitor variations in atmospheric water vapor. Based on 15 months of continuously tracked GNSS data including GPS, GLONASS and Galileo, epoch-wise coordinates and hourly zenith total delays (ZTDs) were determined using a kinematic precise point positioning (PPP) approach. The derived ZTD values agree to 1.1 ± 0.2 mm (root mean square (rms) of the differences 10.2 mm) with the numerical weather data of ECMWF's latest reanalysis, ERA5, computed for the derived ship's locations. This level of agreement is also confirmed by comparing the on-board estimates with ZTDs derived for terrestrial GNSS stations in Bremerhaven and Ny-Ålesund and for the radio telescopes observing very long baseline interferometry in Ny-Ålesund. Preliminary estimates of integrated water vapor derived from frequently launched radiosondes are used to assess the GNSS-derived integrated water vapor estimates. The overall difference of 0.08 ± 0.04 kg m−2 (rms of the differences 1.47 kg m−2) demonstrates a good agreement between GNSS and radiosonde data. Finally, the water vapor variations associated with two warm-air intrusion events in April 2020 are assessed.

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    Article . 2021
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . Preprint . 2021
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2021
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      DepositOnce
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: DepositOnce
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
      Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . Preprint . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2021
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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Konrad B. Bärfuss; Holger Schmithüsen; Astrid Lampert;

    Abstract. The main in situ database for numerical weather prediction currently relies on radiosonde and airliner observations, with large systematic data gaps: horizontally in certain countries, above the oceans and in polar regions, and vertically in the rapidly changing atmospheric boundary layer, as well as up to the tropopause in areas with low air traffic. These gaps might be patched by measurements with drones. They provide a significant improvement towards environment-friendly additional data, avoiding waste and without the need for helium. So far, such systems have not been regarded as a feasible alternative for performing measurements up to the upper troposphere. In this article, the development of a drone system that is capable of sounding the atmosphere up to an altitude of 10 km with its own propulsion is presented, for which Antarctic and mid-European ambient conditions were taken into account: after an assessment of the environmental conditions at two exemplary radiosounding sites, the design of the system and the instrumentation are presented. Further, the process to get permissions for such flight tests even in the densely populated continent of Europe is discussed, and methods to compare drone and radiosonde data for quality assessment are presented. The main result is the technical achievement of demonstrating the feasibility of reaching an altitude of 10 km with a small meteorologically equipped drone using its own propulsion. The first data are compared to radiosonde measurements, demonstrating an accuracy comparable to other aircraft-based observations, despite the simplistic sensor package deployed. A detailed error discussion is given. The article closes with an outlook on the potential use of drones for filling data gaps in the troposphere.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Digitale Bibliothek ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.