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12 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2019-2023
  • European Commission
  • EC|FP7
  • GB
  • Biogeosciences (BG)

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sims, Richard P.; Bedington, Michael; Schuster, Ute; Watson, Andrew J.; +6 Authors

    Surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements are used to compute the oceanic air–sea CO2 flux. The CO2 flux component from rivers and estuaries is uncertain due to the high spatial and seasonal heterogeneity of CO2 in coastal waters. Existing high-quality CO2 instrumentation predominantly utilises showerhead and percolating style equilibrators optimised for open-ocean observations. The intervals between measurements made with such instrumentation make it difficult to resolve the fine-scale spatial variability of surface water CO2 at timescales relevant to the high frequency variability in estuarine and coastal environments. Here we present a novel dataset with unprecedented frequency and spatial resolution transects made at the Western Channel Observatory in the south-west of the UK from June to September 2016, using a fast-response seawater CO2 system. Novel observations were made along the estuarine–coastal continuum at different stages of the tide and reveal distinct spatial patterns in the surface water CO2 fugacity (fCO2) at different stages of the tidal cycle. Changes in salinity and fCO2 were closely correlated at all stages of the tidal cycle and suggest that the mixing of oceanic and riverine endmembers partially determines the variations in fCO2. The correlation between salinity and fCO2 was different in Cawsand Bay, which could be due to enhanced gas exchange or to enhanced biological activity in the region. The observations demonstrate the complex dynamics determining spatial and temporal patterns of salinity and fCO2 in the region. Spatial variations in observed surface salinity were used to validate the output of a regional high-resolution hydrodynamic model. The model enables a novel estimate of the air–sea CO2 flux in the estuarine–coastal zone. Air–sea CO2 flux variability in the estuarine–coastal boundary region is influenced by the state of the tide because of strong CO2 outgassing from the river plume. The observations and model output demonstrate that undersampling the complex tidal and mixing processes characteristic of estuarine and coastal environment biases quantification of air–sea CO2 fluxes in coastal waters. The results provide a mechanism to support critical national and regional policy implementation by reducing uncertainty in carbon budgets.

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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2022
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2022
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    Authors: Christiane Schmidt; Emmanuelle Geslin; Joan M. Bernhard; Charlotte LeKieffre; +4 Authors

    Several foraminifera are deposit feeders that consume organic detritus (dead particulate organic material along with entrained bacteria). However, the role of such foraminifera in the benthic food-web remains understudied. As foraminifera may associate with methanotrophic bacteria, which are 13C-depleted, feeding on them has been suggested to cause negative δ13C values in the foraminiferal cytoplasm and/or calcite. To test whether the foraminiferal diet includes methanotrophs, we performed a short-term (1 d) feeding experiment with Nonionellina labradorica from an active Arctic methane-emission site (Storfjordrenna, Barents Sea) using the marine methanotroph Methyloprofundus sedimenti, and analyzed N. labradorica cytology via Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM). We hypothesized that M. sedimenti would be visible, as evidenced by their ultrastructure, in degradation vacuoles after this feeding experiment. Sediment grains (mostly clay) occurred inside one or several degradation vacuoles in all foraminifers. In 24 % of the specimens from the feeding experiment degradation vacuoles also contained bacteria, although none could be confirmed to be the offered M. sedimenti. Observations of the area adjacent to the aperture after 20 h incubation revealed three putative methanotrophs, close to clay particles. These methanotrophs were identified based on internal characteristics such as a type I stacked intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM), storage granules (SG) and gram-negative cell walls (GNCW). Furthermore, N. labradorica specimens were examined for specific adaptations to this active Arctic methane-emission site; we noted the absence of bacterial endobionts in all specimens examined but confirmed the presence of kleptoplasts, which were often partially degraded. Based on these observations, we suggest that M. sedimenti can be consumed by N. labradorica via untargeted grazing in seeps and that N. labradorica can be generally classified as a deposit feeder at this Arctic site. These results suggest that if methanothrophs are available to the foraminifera in their habitat, their non-selective uptake could make a substantial contribution to altering δ13Ctest values. This in turn may impact metazoans grazing on benthic foraminifera by altering their δ13C signature.

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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
    Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
      Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; +5 Authors

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

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    Authors: T. Sanders; T. Sanders; J. Thomsen; J. D. Müller; +3 Authors

    The Baltic Sea has a salinity gradient decreasing from fully marine (> 25) in the west to below 7 in the central Baltic Proper. Habitat-forming and ecologically dominant mytilid mussels exhibit decreasing growth when salinity < 11; however, the mechanisms underlying reduced calcification rates in dilute seawater are not fully understood. Both [HCO−3] and [Ca2+] also decrease with salinity, challenging calcifying organisms through CaCO3 undersaturation (Ω≤1) and unfavourable ratios of calcification substrates ([Ca2+] and [HCO−3]) to the inhibitor (H+), expressed as the extended substrate–inhibitor ratio (ESIR). This study combined in situ monitoring of three southwest Baltic mussel reefs with two laboratory experiments to assess how various environmental conditions and isolated abiotic factors (salinity, [Ca2+], [HCO−3] and pH) impact calcification in mytilid mussels along the Baltic salinity gradient. Laboratory experiments rearing juvenile Baltic Mytilus at a range of salinities (6, 11 and 16), HCO−3 concentrations (300–2100 µmol kg−1) and Ca2+ concentrations (0.5–4 mmol kg−1) reveal that as individual factors, low [HCO−3], pH and salinity cannot explain low calcification rates in the Baltic Sea. Calcification rates are impeded when Ωaragonite ≤ 1 or ESIR ≤ 0.7 primarily due to [Ca2+] limitation which becomes relevant at a salinity of ca. 11 in the Baltic Sea. Field monitoring of carbonate chemistry and calcification rates suggest increased food availability may be able to mask the negative impacts of periodic sub-optimal carbonate chemistry, but not when seawater conditions are permanently adverse, as observed in two Baltic reefs at salinities < 11. Regional climate models predict a rapid desalination of the southwest and central Baltic over the next century and potentially a reduction in [Ca2+] which may shift the distribution of marine calcifiers westward. It is therefore vital to understand the mechanisms by which the ionic composition of seawater impacts bivalve calcification for better predicting the future of benthic Baltic ecosystems. Biogeosciences, 18 (8) ISSN:1726-4170

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    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2021
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    Other literature type . 2020
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: de Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; +5 Authors

    Abstract. Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases, and has been proposed to allow coccolithophores to expand their niche space. To-date research has however largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores, and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase. Through a synthesis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n = 2534), we show that the haploid life cycle phase contributes significantly to coccolithophore abundance, constituting ≈18 % of species abundance for which haploid-diploid pairs are defined. Using hypervolumes to quantify the niche space of coccolithophores, we furthermore show that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches, and that this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche space by ≈17 %. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology.

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    Biogeosciences
    Other literature type . Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biogeosciences
      Other literature type . Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Marron, Alan; Cassarino, Lucie; Hatton, Jade; Curnow, Paul; +1 Authors

    The marine silicon cycle is intrinsically linked with carbon cycling in the oceans via biological production of silica by a wide range of organisms. The stable silicon isotopic composition (denoted by δ30Si) of siliceous microfossils extracted from sediment cores can be used as an archive of past oceanic silicon cycling. However, the silicon isotopic composition of biogenic silica has only been measured in diatoms, sponges and radiolarians, and isotopic fractionation relative to seawater is entirely unknown for many other silicifiers. Furthermore, the biochemical pathways and mechanisms that determine isotopic fractionation during biosilicification remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first measurements of the silicon isotopic fractionation during biosilicification by loricate choanoflagellates, a group of protists closely related to animals. We cultured two species of choanoflagellates, Diaphanoeca grandis and Stephanoeca diplocostata, which showed consistently greater isotopic fractionation (approximately −5 ‰ to −7 ‰) than cultured diatoms (−0.5 ‰ to −2.1 ‰). Instead, choanoflagellate silicon isotopic fractionation appears to be more similar to sponges grown under similar dissolved silica concentrations. Our results highlight that there is a taxonomic component to silicon isotope fractionation during biosilicification, possibly via a shared or related biochemical transport pathway. These findings have implications for the use of biogenic silica δ30Si produced by different silicifiers as proxies for past oceanic change.

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    Authors: Paradis, Sarah; Pusceddu, Antonio; Masqué, Pere; Puig, Pere; +3 Authors

    Bottom trawling in the deep sea is one of the main drivers of sediment resuspension, eroding the seafloor and altering the content and composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM). The physical and biogeochemical impacts of bottom trawling were studied on the continental slope of the Gulf of Castellammare, Sicily (southwestern Mediterranean), through the analysis of two triplicate sediment cores collected at trawled and untrawled sites (∼550 m water depth) during the summer of 2016. Geochemical and sedimentological parameters (excess 210Pb, excess 234Th, 137Cs, dry bulk density, and grain size), elemental (organic carbon and nitrogen) and biochemical composition of sedimentary OM (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids), as well as its freshness (phytopigments) and degradation rates were determined in both coring locations. The untrawled site had a sedimentation rate of 0.15 cm yr−1 and presented a 6 cm thick surface mixed layer that contained siltier sediment with low excess 210Pb concentrations, possibly resulting from the resuspension, posterior advection, and eventual deposition of coarser and older sediment from adjacent trawling grounds. In contrast, the trawled site was eroded and presented compacted century-old sediment highly depleted in OM components, which were between 20 % and 60 % lower than those in the untrawled site. However, the upper 2 cm of the trawled site consisted of recently accumulated sediments enriched in excess 234Th, excess 210Pb, and phytopigments, while OM contents were similar to those from the untrawled core. This fresh sediment supported protein turnover rates of 0.025 d−1, which doubled those quantified in surface sediments of the untrawled site. The enhancement of remineralization rates in surface sediment of the trawled site was associated with the arrival of fresh particles on a chronically trawled deep-sea region that is generally deprived of OM. We conclude that the detrimental effects of bottom trawling can be temporarily and partially abated by the arrival of fresh and nutritionally rich OM, which stimulate the response of benthic communities. However, these ephemeral deposits are likely to be swiftly eroded due to the high trawling frequency over fishing grounds, highlighting the importance of establishing science-based management strategies to mitigate the impacts of bottom trawling.

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    Authors: Coffinet Sarah; Meador Travis; Mühlena Lukas; Becker Kevin W; +6 Authors

    Butanetriol and pentanetriol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (BDGTs and PDGTs) are membrane lipids, recently discovered in sedimentary environments and in the methanogenic archaeon Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis. They possess an unusual structure, which challenges fundamental assumptions in lipid biochemistry. Indeed, they bear a butanetriol or a pentanetriol backbone instead of a glycerol at one end of their core structure. In this study, we unambiguously located the additional methyl group of the BDGT compound on the C3 carbon of the lipid backbone via high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. We further systematically explored the abundance, distribution and isotopic composition of BDGTs and PDGTs as both intact polar and core lipid forms in marine sediments collected in contrasting environments of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. High proportions of intact polar BDGTs and PDGTs in the deeper methane-laden sedimentary layers and relatively 13C-depleted BDGTs, especially in the Rhone Delta and in the Black Sea, are in agreement with a probable methanogenic source for these lipids. However, contributions from heterotrophic Archaea to BDGTs (and PDGTs) cannot be excluded, particularly in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and contrasting BDGT and PDGT headgroup distribution patterns were observed between the different sites studied. This points to additional, non-methanogenic, archaeal sources for these lipids.

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    Authors: D. Cuvelier; P. A. Ribeiro; P. A. Ribeiro; S. P. Ramalho; +5 Authors

    Abstract. Seamounts are abundant and prominent features on the deep-sea floor and intersperse with the nodule fields of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ). There is a particular interest in characterising the fauna inhabiting seamounts in the CCZ because they are the only other ecosystem in the region to provide hard substrata besides the abundant nodules on the soft-sediment abyssal plains. It has been hypothesised that seamounts could provide refuge for organisms during deep-sea mining actions or that they could play a role in the (re-)colonisation of the disturbed nodule fields. This hypothesis is tested by analysing video transects in both ecosystems, assessing megafauna composition and abundance. Nine video transects (ROV dives) from two different license areas and one Area of Particular Environmental Interest in the eastern CCZ were analysed. Four of these transects were carried out as exploratory dives on four different seamounts in order to gain first insights into megafauna composition. The five other dives were carried out in the neighbouring nodule fields in the same areas. Variation in community composition observed among and along the video transects was high, with little morphospecies overlap along intra-ecosystem transects. Despite the observation of considerable faunal variations within each ecosystem, differences between seamounts and nodule fields prevailed, showing significantly different species associations characterising them, thus calling into question their use as a possible refuge area.

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    Biogeosciences; OceanRep
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Other literature type . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-201...
    Preprint . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . Preprint
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      Biogeosciences; OceanRep
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2020
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2019
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-201...
      Preprint . 2019
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2020
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      Biogeosciences
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    Authors: D. Rush; D. Rush; H. M. Talbot; H. M. Talbot; +5 Authors

    Abstract. The eastern Mediterranean Sea sedimentary record is characterised by intervals of organic rich sediment (sapropels), indicating periods of severe anoxia triggered by astronomical forcing. It has been hypothesized that nitrogen fixation was crucial in injecting the Mediterranean Sea with bioavailable nitrogen (N) during sapropel events. However, the evolution of the N biogeochemical cycle of sapropels is poorly understood. For example, the role of the complementary removal reaction, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), has not been investigated because the traditional lipid biomarkers for anammox, ladderane fatty acids, are not stable over long periods in the sedimentary record. The recent development of an alternative lipid biomarker for anammox (bacteriohopanetetrol stereoisomer; BHT isomer) allowed for the investigation of anammox during sapropel deposition in this marginal sea. We present here the first application of a lipid biomarker for N removal throughout the progression (e.g. formation, propagation, and termination) of basin-wide anoxic events. In this study, BHT isomer and ladderanes were analysed in sapropel records taken from three Eastern Mediterranean sediment cores, spanning the most recent (S1) to Pliocene sapropels. Ladderanes were rapidly degraded in sediments, as recently as the S5 sapropel (ca. 125 ka). BHT isomer, however, was present in all sapropel sediments, as far back as the Pliocene (2.97 Ma), and clearly showed the response of anammox bacteria to marine water column redox shifts in high-resolution records. Two different N removal scenarios were observed in Mediterranean sapropels. During S5, anammox experienced Black Sea-like water column conditions, with the peak of BHT isomer coinciding with the core of the sapropel. Under the alternative scenario observed in the Pliocene sapropel, the anammox biomarker peaked at onset and termination of said sapropel, which may indicate sulphide inhibition of anammox during the core of sapropel deposition. This study shows the use of BHT isomer as a biomarker for anammox in the marine sediment record and highlights its potential in reconstructing anammox during past anoxic events that are too old for ladderanes to be applied (e.g. the history of oxygen minimum zone expansion and oceanic anoxic events).

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    NIOZ Repository
    Article . 2019
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . Preprint
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-201...
    Preprint . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Biogeosciences; NARCIS
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2019
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      Other literature type . 2019
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      Biogeosciences
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12 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sims, Richard P.; Bedington, Michael; Schuster, Ute; Watson, Andrew J.; +6 Authors

    Surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements are used to compute the oceanic air–sea CO2 flux. The CO2 flux component from rivers and estuaries is uncertain due to the high spatial and seasonal heterogeneity of CO2 in coastal waters. Existing high-quality CO2 instrumentation predominantly utilises showerhead and percolating style equilibrators optimised for open-ocean observations. The intervals between measurements made with such instrumentation make it difficult to resolve the fine-scale spatial variability of surface water CO2 at timescales relevant to the high frequency variability in estuarine and coastal environments. Here we present a novel dataset with unprecedented frequency and spatial resolution transects made at the Western Channel Observatory in the south-west of the UK from June to September 2016, using a fast-response seawater CO2 system. Novel observations were made along the estuarine–coastal continuum at different stages of the tide and reveal distinct spatial patterns in the surface water CO2 fugacity (fCO2) at different stages of the tidal cycle. Changes in salinity and fCO2 were closely correlated at all stages of the tidal cycle and suggest that the mixing of oceanic and riverine endmembers partially determines the variations in fCO2. The correlation between salinity and fCO2 was different in Cawsand Bay, which could be due to enhanced gas exchange or to enhanced biological activity in the region. The observations demonstrate the complex dynamics determining spatial and temporal patterns of salinity and fCO2 in the region. Spatial variations in observed surface salinity were used to validate the output of a regional high-resolution hydrodynamic model. The model enables a novel estimate of the air–sea CO2 flux in the estuarine–coastal zone. Air–sea CO2 flux variability in the estuarine–coastal boundary region is influenced by the state of the tide because of strong CO2 outgassing from the river plume. The observations and model output demonstrate that undersampling the complex tidal and mixing processes characteristic of estuarine and coastal environment biases quantification of air–sea CO2 fluxes in coastal waters. The results provide a mechanism to support critical national and regional policy implementation by reducing uncertainty in carbon budgets.

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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2022
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2022
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Christiane Schmidt; Emmanuelle Geslin; Joan M. Bernhard; Charlotte LeKieffre; +4 Authors

    Several foraminifera are deposit feeders that consume organic detritus (dead particulate organic material along with entrained bacteria). However, the role of such foraminifera in the benthic food-web remains understudied. As foraminifera may associate with methanotrophic bacteria, which are 13C-depleted, feeding on them has been suggested to cause negative δ13C values in the foraminiferal cytoplasm and/or calcite. To test whether the foraminiferal diet includes methanotrophs, we performed a short-term (1 d) feeding experiment with Nonionellina labradorica from an active Arctic methane-emission site (Storfjordrenna, Barents Sea) using the marine methanotroph Methyloprofundus sedimenti, and analyzed N. labradorica cytology via Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM). We hypothesized that M. sedimenti would be visible, as evidenced by their ultrastructure, in degradation vacuoles after this feeding experiment. Sediment grains (mostly clay) occurred inside one or several degradation vacuoles in all foraminifers. In 24 % of the specimens from the feeding experiment degradation vacuoles also contained bacteria, although none could be confirmed to be the offered M. sedimenti. Observations of the area adjacent to the aperture after 20 h incubation revealed three putative methanotrophs, close to clay particles. These methanotrophs were identified based on internal characteristics such as a type I stacked intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM), storage granules (SG) and gram-negative cell walls (GNCW). Furthermore, N. labradorica specimens were examined for specific adaptations to this active Arctic methane-emission site; we noted the absence of bacterial endobionts in all specimens examined but confirmed the presence of kleptoplasts, which were often partially degraded. Based on these observations, we suggest that M. sedimenti can be consumed by N. labradorica via untargeted grazing in seeps and that N. labradorica can be generally classified as a deposit feeder at this Arctic site. These results suggest that if methanothrophs are available to the foraminifera in their habitat, their non-selective uptake could make a substantial contribution to altering δ13Ctest values. This in turn may impact metazoans grazing on benthic foraminifera by altering their δ13C signature.

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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2021
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    https://bg.copernicus.org/prep...
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
    Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
      Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; +5 Authors

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: T. Sanders; T. Sanders; J. Thomsen; J. D. Müller; +3 Authors

    The Baltic Sea has a salinity gradient decreasing from fully marine (> 25) in the west to below 7 in the central Baltic Proper. Habitat-forming and ecologically dominant mytilid mussels exhibit decreasing growth when salinity < 11; however, the mechanisms underlying reduced calcification rates in dilute seawater are not fully understood. Both [HCO−3] and [Ca2+] also decrease with salinity, challenging calcifying organisms through CaCO3 undersaturation (Ω≤1) and unfavourable ratios of calcification substrates ([Ca2+] and [HCO−3]) to the inhibitor (H+), expressed as the extended substrate–inhibitor ratio (ESIR). This study combined in situ monitoring of three southwest Baltic mussel reefs with two laboratory experiments to assess how various environmental conditions and isolated abiotic factors (salinity, [Ca2+], [HCO−3] and pH) impact calcification in mytilid mussels along the Baltic salinity gradient. Laboratory experiments rearing juvenile Baltic Mytilus at a range of salinities (6, 11 and 16), HCO−3 concentrations (300–2100 µmol kg−1) and Ca2+ concentrations (0.5–4 mmol kg−1) reveal that as individual factors, low [HCO−3], pH and salinity cannot explain low calcification rates in the Baltic Sea. Calcification rates are impeded when Ωaragonite ≤ 1 or ESIR ≤ 0.7 primarily due to [Ca2+] limitation which becomes relevant at a salinity of ca. 11 in the Baltic Sea. Field monitoring of carbonate chemistry and calcification rates suggest increased food availability may be able to mask the negative impacts of periodic sub-optimal carbonate chemistry, but not when seawater conditions are permanently adverse, as observed in two Baltic reefs at salinities < 11. Regional climate models predict a rapid desalination of the southwest and central Baltic over the next century and potentially a reduction in [Ca2+] which may shift the distribution of marine calcifiers westward. It is therefore vital to understand the mechanisms by which the ionic composition of seawater impacts bivalve calcification for better predicting the future of benthic Baltic ecosystems. Biogeosciences, 18 (8) ISSN:1726-4170

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    e-Prints Soton
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    OceanRep
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2021
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . Preprint . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
    Preprint . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2021
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