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480 Research products, page 1 of 48

  • European Marine Science
  • Swiss National Science Foundation

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fentimen, Robin; Feenstra, Eline; Rüggeberg, Andres; Hall, Efraim; Rime, Valentin; Vennemann, Torsten; Hajdas, Irka; Rosso, Antonietta; Van Rooij, David; Adatte, Thierry; +3 more
    Countries: Switzerland, Switzerland, France, Belgium
    Project: SNSF | Faunal assemblages from a... (153125), SNSF | 4D-DIAGENESIS@MOUND: Unde... (149247)

    This study provides a detailed reconstruction of cold-water coral mound build-up within the East Melilla Coral Province (southeastern Alboran Sea), more precisely at the northern part of Brittlestar Ridge I, over the last 300 kyr. The multiproxy investigation of core MD13-3462G reveals that mound build-up took place during both interglacial and glacial periods at average aggradation rates ranging between 1 and 10 cm kyr(-1). These observations imply that corals never thrived but rather developed under stressful environmental conditions. Maximum aggradation rates of 18 cm kyr(-1) are recorded during the last glacial period, hence providing the first evidence of coral mound development during this time period in the western Mediterranean. The planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Lobatula lobatula) delta O-18 records from core MD13-3462G show typical interglacial-glacial variations during the last two interglacial-glacial cycles. This is in contrast with delta O-18 records generally recovered from coral mounds and highlights that the northern part of Brittlestar Ridge I experienced reduced albeit relatively continuous accretion. High abundances of infaunal benthic foraminifera (Bulimina marginata, Bulimina striata, and Uvigerina mediterranea) suggest that weak seafloor oxygenation associated with important terrestrial organic matter input characterized interglacial periods, whilst the dominance of large epibenthic species (Discanomalina coronata and Lobatula lobatula) and Miliolids is probably linked to stronger Levantine Intermediate Water circulation and fresher organic matter input during glacial periods. In addition, the computed tomography (CT) quantification of macrofaunal remains shows that the bryozoan Buskea dichotoma is present throughout the entire 300 kyr of mound build-up history, with the exception of MIS 5, and is possibly a key contributor to mound development during glacial periods. The comparison of our observations to other long-term coral mound records demonstrates that western and central Mediterranean coral mounds do not show concurrent build-up over interglacial-glacial cycles, implying that their development may be driven by regional and local environmental forcing. Climate of the Past, 18 (8) ISSN:1814-9332 ISSN:1814-9324

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Helen Eri Amsler; Lena M Thöle; Ingrid Stimac; Walter Geibert; Minoru Ikehara; Gerhard Kuhn; Oliver Esper; Samuel L Jaccard;
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), SNSF | AmocCC - Constraining the... (163003)

    Abstract. We present downcore records of redox-sensitive authigenic uranium (U) and manganese (Mn) concentrations based on five marine sediment cores spanning a meridional transect encompassing the Subantarctic and Antarctic zones in the southwestern Indian Ocean covering the last glacial cycle. These records signal lower bottom water oxygenation during glacial climate intervals and generally higher oxygenation during warm periods, consistent with climate-related changes in deep-ocean remineralized carbon storage. Regional changes in the export of siliceous phytoplankton to the deep sea may have entailed a secondary influence on oxygen levels at the water–sediment interface, especially in the Subantarctic Zone. The rapid reoxygenation during the deglaciation is in line with increased ventilation and enhanced upwelling after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which in combination conspired to transfer previously sequestered remineralized carbon to the surface ocean and the atmosphere, contributing to propel the Earth's climate out of the last ice age. These records highlight the still insufficiently documented role that the Southern Indian Ocean played in the air–sea partitioning of CO2 on glacial–interglacial timescales.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pigeault, Romain; Chevalier, Mathieu; Cozzarolo, Camille-Sophie; Baur, Molly; Arlettaz, Mathilde; Cibois, Alice; Keiser, André; Guisan, Antoine; Christe, Philippe; Glaizot, Olivier;
    Country: France
    Project: SNSF | Evolution of host prefere... (159600), SNSF | Histamine-mediated signal... (190197), SNSF | Dynamic of haemosporidian... (179378)

    Understanding the drivers of infection risk helps us to detect the most at-risk species in a community and identify species whose intrinsic characteristics could act as potential reservoirs of pathogens. This knowledge is crucial if we are to predict the emergence and evolution of infectious diseases. To date, most studies have only focused on infections caused by a single parasite, leaving out co-infections. Yet, co-infections are of paramount importance in understanding the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions due to the wide range of effects they can have on host fitness and on the evolutionary trajectories of parasites. Here, we used a multinomial Bayesian phylogenetic modelling framework to explore the extent to which bird ecology and phylogeny impact the probability of being infected by one genus (hereafter single infection) or by multiple genera (hereafter co-infection) of haemosporidian parasites. We show that while nesting and migration behaviours influenced both the probability of being single- and co-infected, species position along the slow-fast life-history continuum and geographic range size were only pertinent in explaining variation in co-infection risk. We also found evidence for a phylogenetic conservatism regarding both single- and co-infections, indicating that phylogenetically related bird species tend to have similar infection patterns. This phylogenetic signal was four times stronger for co-infections than for single infections, suggesting that co-infections may act as a stronger selective pressure than single infections. Overall, our study underscores the combined influence of hosts’ evolutionary history and attributes in determining infection risk in avian host communities. These results also suggest that co-infection risk might be under stronger deterministic control than single infection risk, potentially paving the way toward a better understanding of the emergence and evolution of infectious diseases.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    de Boer, Gijs; Calmer, Radiance; Jozef, Gina; Cassano, John J.; Hamilton, Jonathan; Lawrence, Dale; Borenstein, Steven; Doddi, Abhiram; Cox, Christopher; Schmale, Julia; +2 more
    Publisher: NATURE PORTFOLIO
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Measurement-Based underst... (188478)

    AbstractOver a five-month time window between March and July 2020, scientists deployed two small uncrewed aircraft systems (sUAS) to the central Arctic Ocean as part of legs three and four of the MOSAiC expedition. These sUAS were flown to measure the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the lower atmosphere, including collecting information on temperature, pressure, humidity and winds between the surface and 1 km, as well as to document ice properties, including albedo, melt pond fraction, and open water amounts. The atmospheric state flights were primarily conducted by the DataHawk2 sUAS, which was operated primarily in a profiling manner, while the surface property flights were conducted using the HELiX sUAS, which flew grid patterns, profiles, and hover flights. In total, over 120 flights were conducted and over 48 flight hours of data were collected, sampling conditions that included temperatures as low as −35 °C and as warm as 15 °C, spanning the summer melt season.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lyu, Lisha; Leugger, Flurin; Hagen, Oskar; Fopp, Fabian; Boschman, Lydian M.; Strijk, Joeri Sergej; Albouy, Camille; Karger, Dirk N.; Brun, Philipp; Wang, Zhiheng; +3 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: Netherlands, France, Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | BIodiversity Gradients fr... (188550)

    The documentation of biodiversity distribution through species range identification is crucial for macroecology, biogeography, conservation, and restoration. However, for plants, species range maps remain scarce and often inaccurate. We present a novel approach to map species ranges at a global scale, integrating polygon mapping and species distribution modelling (SDM). We develop a polygon mapping algorithm by considering distances and nestedness of occurrences. We further apply an SDM approach considering multiple modelling algorithms, complexity levels, and pseudo-absence selections to map the species at a high spatial resolution and intersect it with the generated polygons. We use this approach to construct range maps for all 1957 species of Fagales and Pinales with data compilated from multiple sources. We construct high-resolution global species richness maps of these important plant clades, and document diversity hotspots for both clades in southern and south-western China, Central America, and Borneo. We validate the approach with two representative genera, Quercus and Pinus, using previously published coarser range maps, and find good agreement. By efficiently producing high-resolution range maps, our mapping approach offers a new tool in the field of macroecology for studying global species distribution patterns and supporting ongoing conservation efforts. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 170 (6) ISSN:0013-8703 ISSN:1570-7458

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Haidi Chen; F. Alexander Haumann; Lynne D. Talley; Kenneth S. Johnson; Jorge L. Sarmiento;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: France
    Project: SNSF | The role of Southern Ocea... (175162), SNSF | The role of Southern Ocea... (186681)

    The deep ocean releases large amounts of old, pre-industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere through upwelling in the Southern Ocean, which counters the marine carbon uptake occurring elsewhere. This Southern Ocean CO2 release is relevant to the global climate because its changes could alter atmospheric CO2 levels on long time scales, and also affects the present-day potential of the Southern Ocean to take up anthropogenic CO2. Here, year-round profiling float measurements show that this CO2 release arises from a zonal band of upwelling waters between the Subantarctic Front and wintertime sea-ice edge. This band of high CO2 subsurface water coincides with the outcropping of the 27.8 kg m(-3) isoneutral density surface that characterizes Indo-Pacific Deep Water (IPDW). It has a potential partial pressure of CO2 exceeding current atmospheric CO2 levels ( increment PCO2) by 175 +/- 32 mu atm. Ship-based measurements reveal that IPDW exhibits a distinct increment PCO2 maximum in the ocean, which is set by remineralization of organic carbon and originates from the northern Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. Below this IPDW layer, the carbon content increases downwards, whereas increment PCO2 decreases. Most of this vertical increment PCO2 decline results from decreasing temperatures and increasing alkalinity due to an increased fraction of calcium carbonate dissolution. These two factors limit the CO2 outgassing from the high-carbon content deep waters on more southerly surface outcrops. Our results imply that the response of Southern Ocean CO2 fluxes to possible future changes in upwelling are sensitive to the subsurface carbon chemistry set by the vertical remineralization and dissolution profiles.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Giulia Sinnl; Mai Winstrup; Tobias Erhardt; Eliza Cook; Camilla Marie Jensen; Anders Svensson; Bo Møllesøe Vinther; Raimund Muscheler; Sune Olander Rasmussen;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: Denmark
    Project: SNSF | EGRIP: The Swiss Contribu... (164190)

    Abstract. Ice-core timescales are vital for the understanding of past climate; hence they should be updated whenever significant amounts of new data can contribute to improvements. Here, the Greenland ice-core chronology was revised for the last 3835 years by synchronizing six deep ice-cores and three shallow ice-cores from the central Greenland ice sheet. A layer-counting bias was found in all ice cores because of site-specific signal disturbances, and a manual comparison of all ice cores was deemed necessary to increase timescale accuracy. A new method was applied by combining automated counting of annual layers on multiple parallel proxies and manual fine-tuning. After examining sources of error and their correlation lengths, the uncertainty rate was quantified to be one year per century. The new timescale is younger than the previous Greenland chronology by about 13 years at 3800 years ago. The most recent 800 years are largely unaffected by the revision, while the slope of the offset between timescales is steepest between 800 and 1000 years ago. Moreover, offset-oscillations of about 5 years around the average are observed between 2500 and 3800 years ago. The non-linear offset behavior is attributed to previous mismatches of volcanic eruptions, to the much more extensive data set available to this study, and to the finer resolution of the new ice-core matching. In response to volcanic eruptions, averaged water isotopes and layer thicknesses from Greenland ice cores provide evidence of notable cooling lasting for up to a decade, longer than reported in previous studies of volcanic forcing. By analysis of the common variations of cosmogenic radionuclides, the new ice-core timescale is found to be in alignment with the IntCal20 curve. Radiocarbon dated evidence found in the proximity of eruption sites such as Vesuvius or Thera was compared to the ice-core dataset; no conclusive evidence was found regarding if these two eruptions can be matched to acidity spikes in the ice cores. A hitherto unidentified cooling event in the ice cores is observed at about 3600 years ago (1600 BCE), which could have been caused by a large eruption which is, however, not clearly recorded in the acidity signal. The hunt for clear signs of the Thera eruption in Greenland ice-cores thus remains elusive.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    K J Allen; F Reide; C Gouramanis; B Keenan; M Stoffel; A Hu; M Ionita;
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | CLIOARCH (817564), SNSF | CALDERA - EffeCts of lArg... (183571), ARC | ARC Future Fellowships - ... (FT200100102)

    Abstract Many governments and organisations are currently aligning many aspects of their policies and practices to the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Achieving the SDGs should increase social-ecological resilience to shocks like climate change and its impacts. Here, we consider the relationship amongst the three elements—the SDGs, social-ecological resilience and climate change—as a positive feedback loop. We argue that long-term memory encoded in historical, archaeological and related ‘palaeo-data’ is central to understanding each of these elements of the feedback loop, especially when long-term fluctuations are inherent in social-ecological systems and their responses to abrupt change. Yet, there is scant reference to the valuable contribution that can be made by these data from the past in the SDGs or their targets and indicators. The historical and archaeological records emphasise the importance of some key themes running through the SDGs including how diversity, inclusion, learning and innovation can reduce vulnerability to abrupt change, and the role of connectivity. Using paleo-data, we demonstrate how changes in the extent of water-related ecosystems as measured by indicator 6.6.1 may simply be related to natural hydroclimate variability, rather than reflecting actual progress towards Target 6.6. This highlights issues associated with using SDG indicator baselines predicated on short-term and very recent data only. Within the context of the contributions from long-term data to inform the positive feedback loop, we ask whether our current inability to substantively combat anthropogenic climate change threatens achieving both the SDGS and enhanced resilience to climate change itself. We argue that long-term records are central to understanding how and what will improve resilience and enhance our ability to both mitigate and adapt to climate change. However, for uptake of these data to occur, improved understanding of their quality and potential by policymakers and managers is required.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pierre Friedlingstein; Matthew W. Jones; Michael O'Sullivan; Robbie M. Andrew; Dorothee C. E. Bakker; Judith Hauck; Corinne Le Quéré; Glen P. Peters; Wouter Peters; Julia Pongratz; +84 more
    Countries: Germany, France, France, Austria, Netherlands, France, Netherlands
    Project: SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (172476), EC | VERIFY (776810)

    International audience; Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize datasets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly, and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is estimated with global ocean biogeochemistry models and observation-based data products. The terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated with dynamic global vegetation models. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the first time, an approach is shown to reconcile the difference in our ELUC estimate with the one from national greenhouse gas inventories, supporting the assessment of collective countries' climate progress. For the year 2020, EFOS declined by 5.4 % relative to 2019, with fossil emissions at 9.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 (9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, for a total anthropogenic CO2 emission of 10.2 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1 (37.4 ± 2.9 GtCO2). Also, for 2020, GATM was 5.0 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1 (2.4 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.9 ± 1 GtC yr-1, with a BIM of -0.8 GtC yr-1. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration averaged over 2020 reached 412.45 ± 0.1 ppm. Preliminary data for 2021 suggest a rebound in EFOS relative to 2020 of +4.8 % (4.2 % to 5.4 %) globally. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959-2020, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of annual to semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from multiple approaches and observations shows (1) a persistent large uncertainty in the estimate of land-use changes emissions, (2) a low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) a discrepancy between the different methods on the strength of the ocean sink over the last decade. This living data update documents changes in the methods and datasets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this dataset (Friedlingstein et al., 2020, 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, a, 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2021 (Friedlingstein et al., 2021).

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pierre Friedlingstein; Matthew W. Jones; Michael O'Sullivan; Robbie M. Andrew; Dorothee C. E. Bakker; Judith Hauck; C. Le Quéré; Glen P. Peters; Wouter Peters; Julia Pongratz; +84 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (172476), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (172476)

    Abstract. Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly, and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is estimated with global ocean biogeochemistry models and observation-based data-products. The terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated with dynamic global vegetation models. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the first time, an approach is shown to reconcile the difference in our ELUC estimate with the one from national greenhouse gases inventories, supporting the assessment of collective countries’ climate progress. For the year 2020, EFOS declined by 5.4 % relative to 2019, with fossil emissions at 9.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 (9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, for a total anthropogenic CO2 emission of 10.2 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1 (37.4 ± 2.9 GtCO2). Also, for 2020, GATM was 5.0 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1 (2.4 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1), SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.4 GtC yr−1 and SLAND was 2.9 ± 1 GtC yr−1, with a BIM of −0.8 GtC yr−1. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration averaged over 2020 reached 412.45 ± 0.1 ppm. Preliminary data for 2021, suggest a rebound in EFOS relative to 2020 of +4.9 % (4.1 % to 5.7 %) globally. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959–2020, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr−1 persist for the representation of annual to semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from multiple approaches and observations shows: (1) a persistent large uncertainty in the estimate of land-use changes emissions, (2) a low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra- tropics, and (3) a discrepancy between the different methods on the strength of the ocean sink over the last decade. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Friedlingstein et al., 2020; Friedlingstein et al., 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, 2018a, 2016, 2015b, 2015a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2021 (Friedlingstein et al., 2021).