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300 Research products, page 1 of 30

  • European Marine Science
  • Swiss National Science Foundation
  • SNSF|Projects

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  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Farid Saleh; Romain Vaucher; Muriel VIDAL; Khadija EL HARIRI; Lukáš Laibl; Allison Daley; Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Marco; Yves Candela; David Harper; Javier Ortega-Hernández; +4 more
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC
    Countries: France, Spain
    Project: SNSF | Arthropod Evolution durin... (179084), NSF | CAREER: Ecological turnov... (2047192)

    AbstractThe Fezouata Biota (Morocco) is a unique Early Ordovician fossil assemblage. The discovery of this biota revolutionized our understanding of Earth’s early animal diversifications—the Cambrian Explosion and the Ordovician Radiation—by suggesting an evolutionary continuum between both events. Herein, we describe Taichoute, a new fossil locality from the Fezouata Shale. This locality extends the temporal distribution of fossil preservation from this formation into the upper Floian, while also expanding the range of depositional environments to more distal parts of the shelf. In Taichoute, most animals were transported by density flows, unlike the in-situ preservation of animals recovered in previously investigated Fezouata sites. Taichoute is dominated by three-dimensionally preserved, and heavily sclerotized fragments of large euarthropods—possibly representing nektobenthic/nektic bivalved taxa and/or hurdiid radiodonts. Resolving whether this dominance reflects a legitimate aspect of the original ecosystem or a preservational bias requires an in-depth assessment of the environmental conditions at this site. Nevertheless, Taichoute provides novel preservational and palaeontological insights during a key evolutionary transition in the history of life on Earth.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robin Fentimen; Eline Feenstra; Andres Rüggeberg; Efraim Hall; Valentin Rime; Torsten Vennemann; Irka Hajdas; Antonietta Rosso; David Van Rooij; Thierry Adatte; +3 more
    Countries: Belgium, France, Switzerland, Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | 4D-DIAGENESIS@MOUND: Unde... (149247), SNSF | Faunal assemblages from a... (153125)

    This study provides a detailed reconstruction of cold-water coral mound build-up within the East Melilla Coral Province (southeastern Alboran Sea), more precisely at the northern part of Brittlestar Ridge I, over the last 300 kyr. The multiproxy investigation of core MD13-3462G reveals that mound build-up took place during both interglacial and glacial periods at average aggradation rates ranging between 1 and 10 cm kyr(-1). These observations imply that corals never thrived but rather developed under stressful environmental conditions. Maximum aggradation rates of 18 cm kyr(-1) are recorded during the last glacial period, hence providing the first evidence of coral mound development during this time period in the western Mediterranean. The planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Lobatula lobatula) delta O-18 records from core MD13-3462G show typical interglacial-glacial variations during the last two interglacial-glacial cycles. This is in contrast with delta O-18 records generally recovered from coral mounds and highlights that the northern part of Brittlestar Ridge I experienced reduced albeit relatively continuous accretion. High abundances of infaunal benthic foraminifera (Bulimina marginata, Bulimina striata, and Uvigerina mediterranea) suggest that weak seafloor oxygenation associated with important terrestrial organic matter input characterized interglacial periods, whilst the dominance of large epibenthic species (Discanomalina coronata and Lobatula lobatula) and Miliolids is probably linked to stronger Levantine Intermediate Water circulation and fresher organic matter input during glacial periods. In addition, the computed tomography (CT) quantification of macrofaunal remains shows that the bryozoan Buskea dichotoma is present throughout the entire 300 kyr of mound build-up history, with the exception of MIS 5, and is possibly a key contributor to mound development during glacial periods. The comparison of our observations to other long-term coral mound records demonstrates that western and central Mediterranean coral mounds do not show concurrent build-up over interglacial-glacial cycles, implying that their development may be driven by regional and local environmental forcing. Climate of the Past, 18 (8) ISSN:1814-9332 ISSN:1814-9324

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Helen Eri Amsler; Lena M Thöle; Ingrid Stimac; Walter Geibert; Minoru Ikehara; Gerhard Kuhn; Oliver Esper; Samuel L Jaccard;
    Countries: Switzerland, Germany
    Project: SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), SNSF | AmocCC - Constraining the... (163003)

    Abstract. We present downcore records of redox-sensitive authigenic uranium (U) and manganese (Mn) concentrations based on five marine sediment cores spanning a meridional transect encompassing the Subantarctic and the Antarctic zones in the Southwest Indian Ocean covering the last glacial cycle. These records signal lower bottom water oxygenation during glacial climate intervals and generally higher oxygenation during warm periods, consistent with climate-related changes in deep ocean remineralised carbon storage. Regional changes in the export of siliceous phytoplankton to the deep-sea may have entailed a secondary influence on oxygen levels at the water-sediment interface, especially in the Subantarctic Zone. The rapid reoxygenation during the deglaciation is in line with increased ventilation and enhanced upwelling after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which, in combination, conspired to transfer previously sequestered remineralised carbon to the surface ocean and the atmosphere, contributing to propel the Earth’s climate out of the last ice age. These records highlight the yet insufficiently documented role the southern Indian Ocean played in the air-sea partitioning of CO2 on glacial-interglacial timescales.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romain Pigeault; Mathieu Chevalier; Camille-Sophie Cozzarolo; Molly Baur; Mathilde Arlettaz; Alice Cibois; André Keiser; Antoine Guisan; Philippe Christe; Olivier Glaizot;
    Country: France
    Project: SNSF | Evolution of host prefere... (159600), SNSF | Histamine-mediated signal... (190197), SNSF | Dynamic of haemosporidian... (179378)

    Understanding the drivers of infection risk helps us to detect the most at-risk species in a community and identify species whose intrinsic characteristics could act as potential reservoirs of pathogens. This knowledge is crucial if we are to predict the emergence and evolution of infectious diseases. To date, most studies have only focused on infections caused by a single parasite, leaving out co-infections. Yet, co-infections are of paramount importance in understanding the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions due to the wide range of effects they can have on host fitness and on the evolutionary trajectories of parasites. Here, we used a multinomial Bayesian phylogenetic modelling framework to explore the extent to which bird ecology and phylogeny impact the probability of being infected by one genus (hereafter single infection) or by multiple genera (hereafter co-infection) of haemosporidian parasites. We show that while nesting and migration behaviours influenced both the probability of being single- and co-infected, species position along the slow-fast life-history continuum and geographic range size were only pertinent in explaining variation in co-infection risk. We also found evidence for a phylogenetic conservatism regarding both single- and co-infections, indicating that phylogenetically related bird species tend to have similar infection patterns. This phylogenetic signal was four times stronger for co-infections than for single infections, suggesting that co-infections may act as a stronger selective pressure than single infections. Overall, our study underscores the combined influence of hosts’ evolutionary history and attributes in determining infection risk in avian host communities. These results also suggest that co-infection risk might be under stronger deterministic control than single infection risk, potentially paving the way toward a better understanding of the emergence and evolution of infectious diseases.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gijs de Boer; Radiance Calmer; Gina Jozef; John J. Cassano; Jonathan Hamilton; Dale Lawrence; Steven Borenstein; Abhiram Doddi; Christopher Cox; Julia Schmale; +2 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Measurement-Based underst... (188478)

    AbstractOver a five-month time window between March and July 2020, scientists deployed two small uncrewed aircraft systems (sUAS) to the central Arctic Ocean as part of legs three and four of the MOSAiC expedition. These sUAS were flown to measure the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the lower atmosphere, including collecting information on temperature, pressure, humidity and winds between the surface and 1 km, as well as to document ice properties, including albedo, melt pond fraction, and open water amounts. The atmospheric state flights were primarily conducted by the DataHawk2 sUAS, which was operated primarily in a profiling manner, while the surface property flights were conducted using the HELiX sUAS, which flew grid patterns, profiles, and hover flights. In total, over 120 flights were conducted and over 48 flight hours of data were collected, sampling conditions that included temperatures as low as −35 °C and as warm as 15 °C, spanning the summer melt season.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lyu, Lisha; Leugger, Flurin; Hagen, Oskar; Fopp, Fabian; Boschman, Lydian M.; Strijk, Joeri Sergej; Albouy, Camille; Karger, Dirk N.; Brun, Philipp; Wang, Zhiheng; +3 more
    Countries: Netherlands, France, Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | BIodiversity Gradients fr... (188550)

    The documentation of biodiversity distribution through species range identification is crucial for macroecology, biogeography, conservation, and restoration. However, for plants, species range maps remain scarce and often inaccurate. We present a novel approach to map species ranges at a global scale, integrating polygon mapping and species distribution modelling (SDM). We develop a polygon mapping algorithm by considering distances and nestedness of occurrences. We further apply an SDM approach considering multiple modelling algorithms, complexity levels, and pseudo-absence selections to map the species at a high spatial resolution and intersect it with the generated polygons. We use this approach to construct range maps for all 1957 species of Fagales and Pinales with data compilated from multiple sources. We construct high-resolution global species richness maps of these important plant clades, and document diversity hotspots for both clades in southern and south-western China, Central America, and Borneo. We validate the approach with two representative genera, Quercus and Pinus, using previously published coarser range maps, and find good agreement. By efficiently producing high-resolution range maps, our mapping approach offers a new tool in the field of macroecology for studying global species distribution patterns and supporting ongoing conservation efforts. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 170 (6) ISSN:0013-8703 ISSN:1570-7458

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jens Terhaar; Thomas L. Frölicher; Fortunat Joos;
    Country: France
    Project: EC | COMFORT (820989), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (200511), SNSF | Ocean extremes in a warme... (198897)

    The ocean slows global warming by currently taking up around one-quarter of all human-made CO2 emissions. However, estimates of the ocean anthropogenic carbon uptake vary across various observation-based and model-based approaches. Here, we show that the global ocean anthropogenic carbon sink simulated by Earth system models can be constrained by two physical parameters, the present-day sea surface salinity in the subtropical–polar frontal zone in the Southern Ocean and the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, and one biogeochemical parameter, the Revelle factor of the global surface ocean. The Revelle factor quantifies the chemical capacity of seawater to take up carbon for a given increase in atmospheric CO2. By exploiting this three-dimensional emergent constraint with observations, we provide a new model- and observation-based estimate of the past, present, and future global ocean anthropogenic carbon sink and show that the ocean carbon sink is 9 %–11 % larger than previously estimated. Furthermore, the constraint reduces uncertainties of the past and present global ocean anthropogenic carbon sink by 42 %–59 % and the future sink by 32 %–62 % depending on the scenario, allowing for a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and better-targeted climate and ocean policies. Our constrained results are in good agreement with the anthropogenic carbon air–sea flux estimates over the last three decades based on observations of the CO2 partial pressure at the ocean surface in the Global Carbon Budget 2021, and they suggest that existing hindcast ocean-only model simulations underestimate the global ocean anthropogenic carbon sink. The key parameters identified here for the ocean anthropogenic carbon sink should be quantified when presenting simulated ocean anthropogenic carbon uptake as in the Global Carbon Budget and be used to adjust these simulated estimates if necessary. The larger ocean carbon sink results in enhanced ocean acidification over the 21st century, which further threatens marine ecosystems by reducing the water volume that is projected to be undersaturated towards aragonite by around 3.7×106–7.4×106 km3 more than originally projected.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pierre Friedlingstein; Matthew W. Jones; Michael O'Sullivan; Robbie M. Andrew; Dorothee C. E. Bakker; Judith Hauck; Corinne Le Quéré; Glen P. Peters; Wouter Peters; Julia Pongratz; +84 more
    Countries: Netherlands, Germany, France, Austria, France, Germany, France, Norway
    Project: EC | VERIFY (776810), NSF | INFEWS: U.S.-China: Integ... (1903722), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (172476)

    International audience; Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize datasets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly, and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is estimated with global ocean biogeochemistry models and observation-based data products. The terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated with dynamic global vegetation models. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the first time, an approach is shown to reconcile the difference in our ELUC estimate with the one from national greenhouse gas inventories, supporting the assessment of collective countries' climate progress. For the year 2020, EFOS declined by 5.4 % relative to 2019, with fossil emissions at 9.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 (9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, for a total anthropogenic CO2 emission of 10.2 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1 (37.4 ± 2.9 GtCO2). Also, for 2020, GATM was 5.0 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1 (2.4 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.9 ± 1 GtC yr-1, with a BIM of -0.8 GtC yr-1. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration averaged over 2020 reached 412.45 ± 0.1 ppm. Preliminary data for 2021 suggest a rebound in EFOS relative to 2020 of +4.8 % (4.2 % to 5.4 %) globally. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959-2020, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of annual to semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from multiple approaches and observations shows (1) a persistent large uncertainty in the estimate of land-use changes emissions, (2) a low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) a discrepancy between the different methods on the strength of the ocean sink over the last decade. This living data update documents changes in the methods and datasets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this dataset (Friedlingstein et al., 2020, 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, a, 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2021 (Friedlingstein et al., 2021).

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pierre Friedlingstein; Matthew W. Jones; Michael O'Sullivan; Robbie M. Andrew; Dorothee C. E. Bakker; Judith Hauck; C. Le Quéré; Glen P. Peters; Wouter Peters; Julia Pongratz; +84 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSF | INFEWS: U.S.-China: Integ... (1903722), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (172476)

    Abstract. Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly, and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is estimated with global ocean biogeochemistry models and observation-based data-products. The terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated with dynamic global vegetation models. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the first time, an approach is shown to reconcile the difference in our ELUC estimate with the one from national greenhouse gases inventories, supporting the assessment of collective countries’ climate progress. For the year 2020, EFOS declined by 5.4 % relative to 2019, with fossil emissions at 9.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 (9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, for a total anthropogenic CO2 emission of 10.2 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1 (37.4 ± 2.9 GtCO2). Also, for 2020, GATM was 5.0 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1 (2.4 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1), SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.4 GtC yr−1 and SLAND was 2.9 ± 1 GtC yr−1, with a BIM of −0.8 GtC yr−1. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration averaged over 2020 reached 412.45 ± 0.1 ppm. Preliminary data for 2021, suggest a rebound in EFOS relative to 2020 of +4.9 % (4.1 % to 5.7 %) globally. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959–2020, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr−1 persist for the representation of annual to semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from multiple approaches and observations shows: (1) a persistent large uncertainty in the estimate of land-use changes emissions, (2) a low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra- tropics, and (3) a discrepancy between the different methods on the strength of the ocean sink over the last decade. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Friedlingstein et al., 2020; Friedlingstein et al., 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, 2018a, 2016, 2015b, 2015a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2021 (Friedlingstein et al., 2021).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacek Raddatz; Volker Liebetrau; Andres Rüggeberg; Anneleen Foubert; Sascha Flögel; Dirk Nürnberg; Karen Hissmann; Johannes Musiol; Tyler Jay Goepfert; Anton Eisenhauer; +1 more
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Germany
    Project: SNSF | 4D-DIAGENESIS@MOUND: Unde... (149247)

    AbstractSimilar to their tropical counterparts, cold-water corals (CWCs) are able to build large three-dimensional reef structures. These unique ecosystems are at risk due to ongoing climate change. In particular, ocean warming, ocean acidification and changes in the hydrological cycle may jeopardize the existence of CWCs. In order to predict how CWCs and their reefs or mounds will develop in the near future one important strategy is to study past fossil CWC mounds and especially shallow CWC ecosystems as they experience a greater environmental variability compared to other deep-water CWC ecosystems. We present results from a CWC mound off southern Norway. A sediment core drilled from this relatively shallow (~ 100 m) CWC mound exposes in full detail hydrographical changes during the late Holocene, which were crucial for mound build-up. We applied computed tomography, 230Th/U dating, and foraminiferal geochemical proxy reconstructions of bottom-water-temperature (Mg/Ca-based BWT), δ18O for seawater density, and the combination of both to infer salinity changes. Our results demonstrate that the CWC mound formed in the late Holocene between 4 kiloannum (ka) and 1.5 ka with an average aggradation rate of 104 cm/kiloyears (kyr), which is significantly lower than other Holocene Norwegian mounds. The reconstructed BWTMg/Ca and seawater density exhibit large variations throughout the entire period of mound formation, but are strikingly similar to modern in situ observations in the nearby Tisler Reef. We argue that BWT does not exert a primary control on CWC mound formation. Instead, strong salinity and seawater density variation throughout the entire mound sequence appears to be controlled by the interplay between the Atlantic Water (AW) inflow and the overlying, outflowing Baltic-Sea water. CWC growth and mound formation in the NE Skagerrak was supported by strong current flow, oxygen replenishment, the presence of a strong boundary layer and larval dispersal through the AW, but possibly inhibited by the influence of fresh Baltic Water during the late Holocene. Our study therefore highlights that modern shallow Norwegian CWC reefs may be particularly endangered due to changes in water-column stratification associated with increasing net precipitation caused by climate change.

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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
300 Research products, page 1 of 30
  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Farid Saleh; Romain Vaucher; Muriel VIDAL; Khadija EL HARIRI; Lukáš Laibl; Allison Daley; Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Marco; Yves Candela; David Harper; Javier Ortega-Hernández; +4 more
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC
    Countries: France, Spain
    Project: SNSF | Arthropod Evolution durin... (179084), NSF | CAREER: Ecological turnov... (2047192)

    AbstractThe Fezouata Biota (Morocco) is a unique Early Ordovician fossil assemblage. The discovery of this biota revolutionized our understanding of Earth’s early animal diversifications—the Cambrian Explosion and the Ordovician Radiation—by suggesting an evolutionary continuum between both events. Herein, we describe Taichoute, a new fossil locality from the Fezouata Shale. This locality extends the temporal distribution of fossil preservation from this formation into the upper Floian, while also expanding the range of depositional environments to more distal parts of the shelf. In Taichoute, most animals were transported by density flows, unlike the in-situ preservation of animals recovered in previously investigated Fezouata sites. Taichoute is dominated by three-dimensionally preserved, and heavily sclerotized fragments of large euarthropods—possibly representing nektobenthic/nektic bivalved taxa and/or hurdiid radiodonts. Resolving whether this dominance reflects a legitimate aspect of the original ecosystem or a preservational bias requires an in-depth assessment of the environmental conditions at this site. Nevertheless, Taichoute provides novel preservational and palaeontological insights during a key evolutionary transition in the history of life on Earth.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robin Fentimen; Eline Feenstra; Andres Rüggeberg; Efraim Hall; Valentin Rime; Torsten Vennemann; Irka Hajdas; Antonietta Rosso; David Van Rooij; Thierry Adatte; +3 more
    Countries: Belgium, France, Switzerland, Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | 4D-DIAGENESIS@MOUND: Unde... (149247), SNSF | Faunal assemblages from a... (153125)

    This study provides a detailed reconstruction of cold-water coral mound build-up within the East Melilla Coral Province (southeastern Alboran Sea), more precisely at the northern part of Brittlestar Ridge I, over the last 300 kyr. The multiproxy investigation of core MD13-3462G reveals that mound build-up took place during both interglacial and glacial periods at average aggradation rates ranging between 1 and 10 cm kyr(-1). These observations imply that corals never thrived but rather developed under stressful environmental conditions. Maximum aggradation rates of 18 cm kyr(-1) are recorded during the last glacial period, hence providing the first evidence of coral mound development during this time period in the western Mediterranean. The planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Lobatula lobatula) delta O-18 records from core MD13-3462G show typical interglacial-glacial variations during the last two interglacial-glacial cycles. This is in contrast with delta O-18 records generally recovered from coral mounds and highlights that the northern part of Brittlestar Ridge I experienced reduced albeit relatively continuous accretion. High abundances of infaunal benthic foraminifera (Bulimina marginata, Bulimina striata, and Uvigerina mediterranea) suggest that weak seafloor oxygenation associated with important terrestrial organic matter input characterized interglacial periods, whilst the dominance of large epibenthic species (Discanomalina coronata and Lobatula lobatula) and Miliolids is probably linked to stronger Levantine Intermediate Water circulation and fresher organic matter input during glacial periods. In addition, the computed tomography (CT) quantification of macrofaunal remains shows that the bryozoan Buskea dichotoma is present throughout the entire 300 kyr of mound build-up history, with the exception of MIS 5, and is possibly a key contributor to mound development during glacial periods. The comparison of our observations to other long-term coral mound records demonstrates that western and central Mediterranean coral mounds do not show concurrent build-up over interglacial-glacial cycles, implying that their development may be driven by regional and local environmental forcing. Climate of the Past, 18 (8) ISSN:1814-9332 ISSN:1814-9324

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Helen Eri Amsler; Lena M Thöle; Ingrid Stimac; Walter Geibert; Minoru Ikehara; Gerhard Kuhn; Oliver Esper; Samuel L Jaccard;
    Countries: Switzerland, Germany
    Project: SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), SNSF | AmocCC - Constraining the... (163003)

    Abstract. We present downcore records of redox-sensitive authigenic uranium (U) and manganese (Mn) concentrations based on five marine sediment cores spanning a meridional transect encompassing the Subantarctic and the Antarctic zones in the Southwest Indian Ocean covering the last glacial cycle. These records signal lower bottom water oxygenation during glacial climate intervals and generally higher oxygenation during warm periods, consistent with climate-related changes in deep ocean remineralised carbon storage. Regional changes in the export of siliceous phytoplankton to the deep-sea may have entailed a secondary influence on oxygen levels at the water-sediment interface, especially in the Subantarctic Zone. The rapid reoxygenation during the deglaciation is in line with increased ventilation and enhanced upwelling after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which, in combination, conspired to transfer previously sequestered remineralised carbon to the surface ocean and the atmosphere, contributing to propel the Earth’s climate out of the last ice age. These records highlight the yet insufficiently documented role the southern Indian Ocean played in the air-sea partitioning of CO2 on glacial-interglacial timescales.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romain Pigeault; Mathieu Chevalier; Camille-Sophie Cozzarolo; Molly Baur; Mathilde Arlettaz; Alice Cibois; André Keiser; Antoine Guisan; Philippe Christe; Olivier Glaizot;
    Country: France
    Project: SNSF | Evolution of host prefere... (159600), SNSF | Histamine-mediated signal... (190197), SNSF | Dynamic of haemosporidian... (179378)

    Understanding the drivers of infection risk helps us to detect the most at-risk species in a community and identify species whose intrinsic characteristics could act as potential reservoirs of pathogens. This knowledge is crucial if we are to predict the emergence and evolution of infectious diseases. To date, most studies have only focused on infections caused by a single parasite, leaving out co-infections. Yet, co-infections are of paramount importance in understanding the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions due to the wide range of effects they can have on host fitness and on the evolutionary trajectories of parasites. Here, we used a multinomial Bayesian phylogenetic modelling framework to explore the extent to which bird ecology and phylogeny impact the probability of being infected by one genus (hereafter single infection) or by multiple genera (hereafter co-infection) of haemosporidian parasites. We show that while nesting and migration behaviours influenced both the probability of being single- and co-infected, species position along the slow-fast life-history continuum and geographic range size were only pertinent in explaining variation in co-infection risk. We also found evidence for a phylogenetic conservatism regarding both single- and co-infections, indicating that phylogenetically related bird species tend to have similar infection patterns. This phylogenetic signal was four times stronger for co-infections than for single infections, suggesting that co-infections may act as a stronger selective pressure than single infections. Overall, our study underscores the combined influence of hosts’ evolutionary history and attributes in determining infection risk in avian host communities. These results also suggest that co-infection risk might be under stronger deterministic control than single infection risk, potentially paving the way toward a better understanding of the emergence and evolution of infectious diseases.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gijs de Boer; Radiance Calmer; Gina Jozef; John J. Cassano; Jonathan Hamilton; Dale Lawrence; Steven Borenstein; Abhiram Doddi; Christopher Cox; Julia Schmale; +2 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Measurement-Based underst... (188478)

    AbstractOver a five-month time window between March and July 2020, scientists deployed two small uncrewed aircraft systems (sUAS) to the central Arctic Ocean as part of legs three and four of the MOSAiC expedition. These sUAS were flown to measure the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the lower atmosphere, including collecting information on temperature, pressure, humidity and winds between the surface and 1 km, as well as to document ice properties, including albedo, melt pond fraction, and open water amounts. The atmospheric state flights were primarily conducted by the DataHawk2 sUAS, which was operated primarily in a profiling manner, while the surface property flights were conducted using the HELiX sUAS, which flew grid patterns, profiles, and hover flights. In total, over 120 flights were conducted and over 48 flight hours of data were collected, sampling conditions that included temperatures as low as −35 °C and as warm as 15 °C, spanning the summer melt season.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lyu, Lisha; Leugger, Flurin; Hagen, Oskar; Fopp, Fabian; Boschman, Lydian M.; Strijk, Joeri Sergej; Albouy, Camille; Karger, Dirk N.; Brun, Philipp; Wang, Zhiheng; +3 more
    Countries: Netherlands, France, Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | BIodiversity Gradients fr... (188550)

    The documentation of biodiversity distribution through species range identification is crucial for macroecology, biogeography, conservation, and restoration. However, for plants, species range maps remain scarce and often inaccurate. We present a novel approach to map species ranges at a global scale, integrating polygon mapping and species distribution modelling (SDM). We develop a polygon mapping algorithm by considering distances and nestedness of occurrences. We further apply an SDM approach considering multiple modelling algorithms, complexity levels, and pseudo-absence selections to map the species at a high spatial resolution and intersect it with the generated polygons. We use this approach to construct range maps for all 1957 species of Fagales and Pinales with data compilated from multiple sources. We construct high-resolution global species richness maps of these important plant clades, and document diversity hotspots for both clades in southern and south-western China, Central America, and Borneo. We validate the approach with two representative genera, Quercus and Pinus, using previously published coarser range maps, and find good agreement. By efficiently producing high-resolution range maps, our mapping approach offers a new tool in the field of macroecology for studying global species distribution patterns and supporting ongoing conservation efforts. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 170 (6) ISSN:0013-8703 ISSN:1570-7458

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jens Terhaar; Thomas L. Frölicher; Fortunat Joos;
    Country: France
    Project: EC | COMFORT (820989), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (200511), SNSF | Ocean extremes in a warme... (198897)

    The ocean slows global warming by currently taking up around one-quarter of all human-made CO2 emissions. However, estimates of the ocean anthropogenic carbon uptake vary across various observation-based and model-based approaches. Here, we show that the global ocean anthropogenic carbon sink simulated by Earth system models can be constrained by two physical parameters, the present-day sea surface salinity in the subtropical–polar frontal zone in the Southern Ocean and the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, and one biogeochemical parameter, the Revelle factor of the global surface ocean. The Revelle factor quantifies the chemical capacity of seawater to take up carbon for a given increase in atmospheric CO2. By exploiting this three-dimensional emergent constraint with observations, we provide a new model- and observation-based estimate of the past, present, and future global ocean anthropogenic carbon sink and show that the ocean carbon sink is 9 %–11 % larger than previously estimated. Furthermore, the constraint reduces uncertainties of the past and present global ocean anthropogenic carbon sink by 42 %–59 % and the future sink by 32 %–62 % depending on the scenario, allowing for a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and better-targeted climate and ocean policies. Our constrained results are in good agreement with the anthropogenic carbon air–sea flux estimates over the last three decades based on observations of the CO2 partial pressure at the ocean surface in the Global Carbon Budget 2021, and they suggest that existing hindcast ocean-only model simulations underestimate the global ocean anthropogenic carbon sink. The key parameters identified here for the ocean anthropogenic carbon sink should be quantified when presenting simulated ocean anthropogenic carbon uptake as in the Global Carbon Budget and be used to adjust these simulated estimates if necessary. The larger ocean carbon sink results in enhanced ocean acidification over the 21st century, which further threatens marine ecosystems by reducing the water volume that is projected to be undersaturated towards aragonite by around 3.7×106–7.4×106 km3 more than originally projected.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pierre Friedlingstein; Matthew W. Jones; Michael O'Sullivan; Robbie M. Andrew; Dorothee C. E. Bakker; Judith Hauck; Corinne Le Quéré; Glen P. Peters; Wouter Peters; Julia Pongratz; +84 more
    Countries: Netherlands, Germany, France, Austria, France, Germany, France, Norway
    Project: EC | VERIFY (776810), NSF | INFEWS: U.S.-China: Integ... (1903722), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (172476)

    International audience; Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize datasets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly, and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is estimated with global ocean biogeochemistry models and observation-based data products. The terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated with dynamic global vegetation models. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the first time, an approach is shown to reconcile the difference in our ELUC estimate with the one from national greenhouse gas inventories, supporting the assessment of collective countries' climate progress. For the year 2020, EFOS declined by 5.4 % relative to 2019, with fossil emissions at 9.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 (9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, for a total anthropogenic CO2 emission of 10.2 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1 (37.4 ± 2.9 GtCO2). Also, for 2020, GATM was 5.0 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1 (2.4 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.9 ± 1 GtC yr-1, with a BIM of -0.8 GtC yr-1. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration averaged over 2020 reached 412.45 ± 0.1 ppm. Preliminary data for 2021 suggest a rebound in EFOS relative to 2020 of +4.8 % (4.2 % to 5.4 %) globally. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959-2020, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of annual to semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from multiple approaches and observations shows (1) a persistent large uncertainty in the estimate of land-use changes emissions, (2) a low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) a discrepancy between the different methods on the strength of the ocean sink over the last decade. This living data update documents changes in the methods and datasets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this dataset (Friedlingstein et al., 2020, 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, a, 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2021 (Friedlingstein et al., 2021).

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pierre Friedlingstein; Matthew W. Jones; Michael O'Sullivan; Robbie M. Andrew; Dorothee C. E. Bakker; Judith Hauck; C. Le Quéré; Glen P. Peters; Wouter Peters; Julia Pongratz; +84 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSF | INFEWS: U.S.-China: Integ... (1903722), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (172476)

    Abstract. Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly, and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is estimated with global ocean biogeochemistry models and observation-based data-products. The terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated with dynamic global vegetation models. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the first time, an approach is shown to reconcile the difference in our ELUC estimate with the one from national greenhouse gases inventories, supporting the assessment of collective countries’ climate progress. For the year 2020, EFOS declined by 5.4 % relative to 2019, with fossil emissions at 9.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 (9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, for a total anthropogenic CO2 emission of 10.2 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1 (37.4 ± 2.9 GtCO2). Also, for 2020, GATM was 5.0 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1 (2.4 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1), SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.4 GtC yr−1 and SLAND was 2.9 ± 1 GtC yr−1, with a BIM of −0.8 GtC yr−1. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration averaged over 2020 reached 412.45 ± 0.1 ppm. Preliminary data for 2021, suggest a rebound in EFOS relative to 2020 of +4.9 % (4.1 % to 5.7 %) globally. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959–2020, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr−1 persist for the representation of annual to semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from multiple approaches and observations shows: (1) a persistent large uncertainty in the estimate of land-use changes emissions, (2) a low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra- tropics, and (3) a discrepancy between the different methods on the strength of the ocean sink over the last decade. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Friedlingstein et al., 2020; Friedlingstein et al., 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, 2018a, 2016, 2015b, 2015a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2021 (Friedlingstein et al., 2021).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacek Raddatz; Volker Liebetrau; Andres Rüggeberg; Anneleen Foubert; Sascha Flögel; Dirk Nürnberg; Karen Hissmann; Johannes Musiol; Tyler Jay Goepfert; Anton Eisenhauer; +1 more
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Germany
    Project: SNSF | 4D-DIAGENESIS@MOUND: Unde... (149247)

    AbstractSimilar to their tropical counterparts, cold-water corals (CWCs) are able to build large three-dimensional reef structures. These unique ecosystems are at risk due to ongoing climate change. In particular, ocean warming, ocean acidification and changes in the hydrological cycle may jeopardize the existence of CWCs. In order to predict how CWCs and their reefs or mounds will develop in the near future one important strategy is to study past fossil CWC mounds and especially shallow CWC ecosystems as they experience a greater environmental variability compared to other deep-water CWC ecosystems. We present results from a CWC mound off southern Norway. A sediment core drilled from this relatively shallow (~ 100 m) CWC mound exposes in full detail hydrographical changes during the late Holocene, which were crucial for mound build-up. We applied computed tomography, 230Th/U dating, and foraminiferal geochemical proxy reconstructions of bottom-water-temperature (Mg/Ca-based BWT), δ18O for seawater density, and the combination of both to infer salinity changes. Our results demonstrate that the CWC mound formed in the late Holocene between 4 kiloannum (ka) and 1.5 ka with an average aggradation rate of 104 cm/kiloyears (kyr), which is significantly lower than other Holocene Norwegian mounds. The reconstructed BWTMg/Ca and seawater density exhibit large variations throughout the entire period of mound formation, but are strikingly similar to modern in situ observations in the nearby Tisler Reef. We argue that BWT does not exert a primary control on CWC mound formation. Instead, strong salinity and seawater density variation throughout the entire mound sequence appears to be controlled by the interplay between the Atlantic Water (AW) inflow and the overlying, outflowing Baltic-Sea water. CWC growth and mound formation in the NE Skagerrak was supported by strong current flow, oxygen replenishment, the presence of a strong boundary layer and larval dispersal through the AW, but possibly inhibited by the influence of fresh Baltic Water during the late Holocene. Our study therefore highlights that modern shallow Norwegian CWC reefs may be particularly endangered due to changes in water-column stratification associated with increasing net precipitation caused by climate change.