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28 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
  • UK Research and Innovation
  • GB
  • EU
  • Earth System Science Data (ESSD)

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Friedlingstein, P.; O'Sullivan, M.; Jones, M. W.; Andrew, R. M.; +104 Authors

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodologies to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly, and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is estimated with global ocean biogeochemistry models and observation-based data products. The terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated with dynamic global vegetation models. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the year 2021, EFOS increased by 5.1 % relative to 2020, with fossil emissions at 10.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 (9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, for a total anthropogenic CO2 emission (including the cement carbonation sink) of 10.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1 (40.0 ± 2.9 GtCO2). Also, for 2021, GATM was 5.2 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1 (2.5 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1), SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 3.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1, with a BIM of −0.6 GtC yr−1 (i.e. the total estimated sources were too low or sinks were too high). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration averaged over 2021 reached 414.71 ± 0.1 ppm. Preliminary data for 2022 suggest an increase in EFOS relative to 2021 of +1.0 % (0.1 % to 1.9 %) globally and atmospheric CO2 concentration reaching 417.2 ppm, more than 50 % above pre-industrial levels (around 278 ppm). Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959–2021, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr−1 persist for the representation of annual to semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from multiple approaches and observations shows (1) a persistent large uncertainty in the estimate of land-use change emissions, (2) a low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extratropics, and (3) a discrepancy between the different methods on the strength of the ocean sink over the last decade. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set. The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2022 (Friedlingstein et al., 2022b). Earth System Science Data, 14 (11) ISSN:1866-3508 ISSN:1866-3516

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    Research Collection
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2022
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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Article . 2022
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    MPG.PuRe
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . 2022
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    KITopen
    Article . 2022
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . 2022
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    Earth System Science Data
    Article . 2022
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
      Other literature type . 2022
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Siv K. Lauvset; Nico Lange; Toste Tanhua; Henry C. Bittig; +30 Authors

    The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface-to-bottom ocean biogeochemical bottle data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of seawater samples. GLODAPv2.2022 is an update of the previous version, GLODAPv2.2021 (Lauvset et al., 2021). The major changes are as follows: data from 96 new cruises were added, data coverage was extended until 2021, and for the first time we performed secondary quality control on all sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) data. In addition, a number of changes were made to data included in GLODAPv2.2021. These changes affect specifically the SF6 data, which are now subjected to secondary quality control, and carbon data measured on board the RV Knorr in the Indian Ocean in 1994–1995 which are now adjusted using certified reference material (CRM) measurements made at the time. GLODAPv2.2022 includes measurements from almost 1.4 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 1085 cruises. The data for the now 13 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11), CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, and SF6) have undergone extensive quality control with a focus on systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted by the data originator but converted to World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) exchange format and (ii) as a merged data product with adjustments applied to minimize bias. For the present annual update, adjustments for the 96 new cruises were derived by comparing those data with the data from the 989 quality-controlled cruises in the GLODAPv2.2021 data product using crossover analysis. SF6 data from all cruises were evaluated by comparison with CFC-12 data measured on the same cruises. For nutrients and ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) chemistry comparisons to estimates based on empirical algorithms provided additional context for adjustment decisions. The adjustments that we applied are intended to remove potential biases from errors related to measurement, calibration, and data handling practices without removing known or likely time trends or variations in the variables evaluated. The compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg−1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 4 µmol kg−1 in total alkalinity, 0.01–0.02 in pH (depending on region), and 5 % in the halogenated transient tracers. The other variables included in the compilation, such as isotopic tracers and discrete CO2 fugacity (f CO2), were not subjected to bias comparison or adjustments. The original data, their documentation, and DOI codes are available at the Ocean Carbon and Acidification Data System of NOAA NCEI (https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/ocean-carbon-acidification-data-system/oceans/GLODAPv2_2022/, last access: 15 August 2022). This site also provides access to the merged data product, which is provided as a single global file and as four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under https://doi.org/10.25921/1f4w-0t92 (Lauvset et al., 2022). These bias-adjusted product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data, which were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This living data update documents the GLODAPv2.2022 methods and provides a broad overview of the secondary quality control procedures and results. Earth System Science Data, 14 (12) ISSN:1866-3508 ISSN:1866-3516

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    OceanRep; Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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    NORCE Research Archive
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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    Authors: Francesca Doglioni; Robert Ricker; Benjamin Rabe; Alexander Barth; +2 Authors

    Abstract. Satellite altimetry missions flying over the ice-covered Arctic Ocean have opened the possibility of further understanding changes in the ocean beneath the sea ice. This requires complex processing of satellite signals emerging from the sea surface in leads within the sea ice, with efforts to generate consistent Arctic-wide datasets of sea surface height ongoing. The aim of this paper is to provide and assess a novel gridded dataset of sea surface height anomaly and geostrophic velocity, which incorporates both the ice-covered and open ocean areas of the Arctic. Data from the CryoSat-2 mission in the period 2011–2020 were gridded at monthly intervals, up to 88∘ N, using the Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) method. To examine the robustness of our results, we compare our dataset to independent satellite data, mooring time series and Arctic-wide hydrographic observations. We find that our dataset is well correlated with independent satellite data at monthly timescales. Comparisons to in situ ocean observations show that our dataset provides reliable information on the variability of sea surface height and surface geostrophic currents over geographically diverse regions of the Arctic Ocean and different dynamical regimes and sea ice states. At all comparison sites we find agreement with in situ observed variability at seasonal to interannual timescales. Furthermore, we find that our geostrophic velocity fields can resolve the variability of boundary currents wider than about 50 km, a result relevant for studies of Arctic Ocean circulation. Additionally, large-scale seasonal features emerge. Sea surface height exhibits a wintertime Arctic-wide maximum, with the highest amplitude over the shelves. Also, we find a basin-wide seasonal acceleration of Arctic slope currents in winter. We suggest that this dataset can be used to study not only the large-scale sea surface height and circulation, but also the regionally confined boundary currents. The dataset is available in netCDF format from PANGAEA at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.931869 (Doglioni et al., 2021d).

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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    NORCE Research Archive
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Linh N. T. Nguyen; Harro A. J. Meijer; Charlotte van Leeuwen; Bert A. M. Kers; +7 Authors

    Abstract. We present 20-year flask sample records of atmospheric CO2, δ(O2/N2), and atmospheric potential oxygen (APO) from the stations Lutjewad (the Netherlands) and Mace Head (Ireland), and a 3-year record from Halley station (Antarctica). We include details of our calibration procedures and the stability of our calibration scale over time, which we estimate to be 3 per meg over the 11 years of calibration, and our compatibility with the international Scripps O2 scale. The measurement records from Lutjewad and Mace Head show similar long-term trends during the period 2002–2018 of 2.31 ± 0.07 ppm yr−1 for CO2 and −21.2 ± 0.8 per meg yr−1 for δ(O2/N2) at Lutjewad, and 2.22 ± 0.04 ppm yr−1 for CO2 and −21.3 ± 0.9 per meg yr−1 for δ(O2/N2) at Mace Head. They also show a similar δ(O2/N2) seasonal cycle with an amplitude of 54 ± 4 per meg at Lutjewad and 61 ± 5 per meg at Mace Head, while the CO2 seasonal amplitude at Lutjewad (16.8 ± 0.5 ppm) is slightly higher than that at Mace Head (14.8 ± 0.3 ppm). We show that the observed long-term trends and seasonal cycles are in good agreement with the measurements from various other stations, especially the measurements from the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory (United Kingdom). However, there are remarkable differences in the progression of annual trends between the Mace Head and Lutjewad records for δ(O2/N2) and APO, which might in part be caused by sampling differences, but also by environmental effects, such as North Atlantic Ocean oxygen ventilation changes to which Mace Head is more sensitive. The Halley record shows clear trends and seasonality in δ(O2/N2) and APO, the latter agreeing especially well with continuous measurements at the same location made by the University of East Anglia (UEA), while CO2 and δ(O2/N2) present slight disagreements, most likely caused by small leakages during sampling. From our 2002–2018 records, we find a good agreement with Global Carbon Budget 2021 (Friedlingstein et al. (2021) for the global ocean carbon sink: 2.1 ± 0.8 PgC yr−1, based on the Lutjewad record. The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/qq7d-t060 (Nguyen et al., 2021).

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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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    Authors: Alice C. Frémand; Julien A. Bodart; Tom A. Jordan; Fausto Ferraccioli; +5 Authors

    Over the past 50 years, the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) has been one of the major acquirers of aerogeophysical data over Antarctica, providing scientists with gravity, magnetic and radar datasets that have been central to many studies of the past, present, and future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Until recently, many of these datasets were unpublished in full, restricting further usage of the data for different applications such as gravity inversions, bed-reflectivity analysis, and englacial-layer tracking. Starting in 2020, scientists and data managers at the British Antarctic Survey have worked on standardising and releasing large swaths of aerogeophysical data acquired during the period 1994–2020, including a total of 64 datasets from 24 different surveys, amounting to ~450,000 line-km (or 5.3 million km2) of data across West Antarctica, East Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Amongst these are the extensive surveys over the fast-changing Pine Island (BBAS 2004-05) and Thwaites (ITGC 2018-20) glacier catchments, and the first ever surveys of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WISE-ISODYN 2005-06) and Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (AGAP 2007-09). Considerable effort has been made to standardise these datasets to comply with the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Re-Usable) data principles, as well as to create the Polar Airborne Geophysics Data Portal (https://www.bas.ac.uk/project/nagdp/), which serves as a user-friendly interface to interact with and download the newly published data. This paper reviews how these datasets were acquired and processed, presents the methods used to standardise them, and introduces the new data-portal infrastructure and interactive tutorials that were created to improve the accessibility of the data. Lastly, we exemplify future potential uses of the datasets by extracting information on the continuity of englacial layering from the fully processed radar data. We believe this newly released data will be a valuable asset to future geophysical and glaciological studies over Antarctica and will extend significantly the life cycle of the data. All datasets included in this data release are now fully accessible at: https://data.bas.ac.uk.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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    Authors: Mario Hoppmann; Ivan Kuznetsov; Ying-Chih Fang; Benjamin Rabe;

    Measurements targeting mesoscale and smaller-scale processes in the ice-covered part of the Arctic Ocean are sparse in all seasons. As a result, there are significant knowledge gaps with respect to these processes, particularly related to the role of eddies and fronts in the coupled ocean–atmosphere–sea ice system. Here we present a unique observational dataset of upper ocean temperature and salinity collected by a set of buoys installed on ice floes as part of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) Distributed Network. The multi-sensor systems, each equipped with five temperature and salinity recorders on a 100 m long inductive modem tether, drifted together with the main MOSAiC ice camp through the Arctic Transpolar Drift between October 2019 and August 2020. They transmitted hydrographic in situ data via the iridium satellite network at 10 min intervals. While three buoys failed early due to ice dynamics, five of them recorded data continuously for 10 months. A total of four units were successfully recovered in early August 2020, additionally yielding internally stored instrument data at 2 min intervals. The raw data were merged, processed, quality controlled, and validated using independent measurements also obtained during MOSAiC. Compilations of the raw and processed datasets are publicly available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.937271 (Hoppmann et al., 2021i) and https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.940320 (Hoppmann et al., 2022i), respectively. As an important part of the MOSAiC physical oceanography program, this unique dataset has many synergies with the manifold co-located observational datasets and is expected to yield significant insights into ocean processes and to contribute to the validation of high-resolution numerical simulations. While this dataset has the potential to contribute to submesoscale process studies, this paper mainly highlights selected preliminary findings on mesoscale processes.

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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pierre Friedlingstein; Matthew W. Jones; Michael O'Sullivan; Robbie M. Andrew; +90 Authors

    International audience; Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize datasets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly, and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is estimated with global ocean biogeochemistry models and observation-based data products. The terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated with dynamic global vegetation models. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the first time, an approach is shown to reconcile the difference in our ELUC estimate with the one from national greenhouse gas inventories, supporting the assessment of collective countries' climate progress. For the year 2020, EFOS declined by 5.4 % relative to 2019, with fossil emissions at 9.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 (9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, for a total anthropogenic CO2 emission of 10.2 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1 (37.4 ± 2.9 GtCO2). Also, for 2020, GATM was 5.0 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1 (2.4 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.9 ± 1 GtC yr-1, with a BIM of -0.8 GtC yr-1. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration averaged over 2020 reached 412.45 ± 0.1 ppm. Preliminary data for 2021 suggest a rebound in EFOS relative to 2020 of +4.8 % (4.2 % to 5.4 %) globally. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959-2020, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of annual to semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from multiple approaches and observations shows (1) a persistent large uncertainty in the estimate of land-use changes emissions, (2) a low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) a discrepancy between the different methods on the strength of the ocean sink over the last decade. This living data update documents changes in the methods and datasets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this dataset (Friedlingstein et al., 2020, 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, a, 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2021 (Friedlingstein et al., 2021).

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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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    Authors: B. R. Loveday; Timothy J Smyth; Anıl Akpınar; Tom Hull; +6 Authors

    Abstract. Shelf-seas play a key role in both the global carbon cycle and coastal marine ecosystems through the drawn-down and fixing of carbon, as measured through phytoplankton net primary production (NPP). Measuring NPP in situ, and extrapolating this to the local, regional and global scale presents challenges however because of limitations with the techniques utilised (e.g. radiocarbon isotopes), data sparsity and the inherent biogeochemical heterogeneity of coastal and open-shelf waters. Here, we introduce a powerful new technique based on the synergistic use of in situ glider profiles and satellite Earth Observation measurements which can be implemented in a real-time or delayed mode system. We apply this system to a fleet of gliders successively deployed over a 19-month time-frame in the North Sea, generating an unprecedented fine scale time-series of NPP in the region (Loveday and Smyth, 2020). At the large-scale, this time-series gives close agreement with existing satellite-based estimates of NPP for the region and previous in situ estimates. What has not been elucidated before is the high-frequency, small-scale, depth-resolved variability associated with bloom phenology, mesoscale phenomena and mixed layer dynamics.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
    Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . 2021
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    https://essd.copernicus.org/pr...
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Shrivardhan Hulswar; Rafel Simó; Martí Galí; Thomas G. Bell; +5 Authors

    This paper presents an updated estimation of the bottom-up global surface seawater dimethyl sulfide (DMS) climatology. This update, called DMS-Rev3, is the third of its kind and includes five significant changes from the last climatology, L11 (Lana et al., 2011), that was released about a decade ago. The first change is the inclusion of new observations that have become available over the last decade, creating a database of 873 539 observations leading to an ∼ 18-fold increase in raw data as compared to the last estimation. The second is significant improvements in data handling, processing, and filtering, to avoid biases due to different observation frequencies which result from different measurement techniques. Thirdly, we incorporate the dynamic seasonal changes observed in the geographic boundaries of the ocean biogeochemical provinces. The fourth change involves the refinement of the interpolation algorithm used to fill in the missing data. Lastly, an upgraded smoothing algorithm based on observed DMS variability length scales (VLS) helps to reproduce a more realistic distribution of the DMS concentration data. The results show that DMS-Rev3 estimates the global annual mean DMS concentration to be ∼ 2.26 nM (2.39 nM without a sea-ice mask), i.e., about 4 % lower than the previous bottom-up L11 climatology. However, significant regional differences of more than 100 % as compared to L11 are observed. The global sea-to-air flux of DMS is estimated at ∼ 27.1 TgS yr−1, which is about 4 % lower than L11, although, like the DMS distribution, large regional differences were observed. The largest changes are observed in high concentration regions such as the polar oceans, although oceanic regions that were under-sampled in the past also show large differences between revisions of the climatology. Finally, DMS-Rev3 reduces the previously observed patchiness in high productivity regions. The new climatology, along with the algorithm, can be found in the online repository: https://doi.org/10.17632/hyn62spny2.1 (Mahajan, 2021) Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) is funded by the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MOES), Government of India. Thomas G. Bell contribution to this study was supported by the NASA North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (grant no. NNX15AF31G). George Manville (with input from Thomas G. Bell and Paul R. Halloran) contributed the VLS analysis, which is part of his PhD (NERC​​​​​​​ industrial CASE studentship NE/R007586/1) 25 pages, 10 figures, 2 tables, supplement https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-14-2963-2022-supplement.-- Code and data availability: ​​​​​​​The data used for creating the climatology, along with the algorithm, can be found in the online repository: https://doi.org/10.17632/hyn62spny2.1 (Mahajan, 2021) With the institutional support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S) Peer reviewed

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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . 2021
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    Recolector de Ciencia Abierta, RECOLECTA
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . 2022
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