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349 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2013-2022
  • Open Access
  • Academy of Finland
  • FI
  • English

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: A. Rutgersson; A. Rutgersson; E. Kjellström; E. Kjellström; +16 Authors

    A natural hazard is a naturally occurring extreme event that has a negative effect on people and society or the environment. Natural hazards may have severe implications for human life and can potentially generate economic losses and damage ecosystems. A better understanding of their major causes, probability of occurrence, and consequences enables society to be better prepared to save human lives as well as to invest in adaptation options. Natural hazards related to climate change are identified as one of the Grand Challenges in the Baltic Sea region. Here, we summarize existing knowledge about extreme events in the Baltic Sea region with a focus on the past 200 years as well as on future climate scenarios. The events considered here are the major hydro-meteorological events in the region and include wind storms, extreme waves, high and low sea levels, ice ridging, heavy precipitation, sea-effect snowfall, river floods, heat waves, ice seasons, and drought. We also address some ecological extremes and the implications of extreme events for society (phytoplankton blooms, forest fires, coastal flooding, offshore infrastructure, and shipping). Significant knowledge gaps are identified, including the response of large-scale atmospheric circulation to climate change and also concerning specific events, for example, the occurrence of marine heat waves and small-scale variability in precipitation. Suggestions for future research include the further development of high-resolution Earth system models and the potential use of methodologies for data analysis (statistical methods and machine learning). With respect to the expected impacts of climate change, changes are expected for sea level, extreme precipitation, heat waves and phytoplankton blooms (increase), and cold spells and severe ice winters (decrease). For some extremes (drying, river flooding, and extreme waves), the change depends on the area and time period studied.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Earth System Dynamic...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Earth System Dynamics
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Earth System Dynamic...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Earth System Dynamics
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (submitted). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the processed terrestrial irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Terrestrial irradiances were corrected for the time response of the pyrgeometer (6 s) and averaged over 3 s. Flagging of ice and liquid water is provided, based on the analysis of 0.1 Hz pictures of the upper pyrgeometer. Solar irradiances are also available (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.944232).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Virkkala​​​​​​​, A.; Natali, S.; Rogers, B.; Watts, J.; +60 Authors

    Past efforts to synthesize and quantify the magnitude and change in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems across the rapidly warming Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) have provided valuable information but were limited in their geographical and temporal coverage. Furthermore, these efforts have been based on data aggregated over varying time periods, often with only minimal site ancillary data, thus limiting their potential to be used in large-scale carbon budget assessments. To bridge these gaps, we developed a standardized monthly database of Arctic–boreal CO2 fluxes (ABCflux) that aggregates in situ measurements of terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its derived partitioned component fluxes: gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration. The data span from 1989 to 2020 with over 70 supporting variables that describe key site conditions (e.g., vegetation and disturbance type), micrometeorological and environmental measurements (e.g., air and soil temperatures), and flux measurement techniques. Here, we describe these variables, the spatial and temporal distribution of observations, the main strengths and limitations of the database, and the potential research opportunities it enables. In total, ABCflux includes 244 sites and 6309 monthly observations; 136 sites and 2217 monthly observations represent tundra, and 108 sites and 4092 observations represent the boreal biome. The database includes fluxes estimated with chamber (19 % of the monthly observations), snow diffusion (3 %) and eddy covariance (78 %) techniques. The largest number of observations were collected during the climatological summer (June–August; 32 %), and fewer observations were available for autumn (September–October; 25 %), winter (December–February; 18 %), and spring (March–May; 25 %). ABCflux can be used in a wide array of empirical, remote sensing and modeling studies to improve understanding of the regional and temporal variability in CO2 fluxes and to better estimate the terrestrial ABZ CO2 budget. ABCflux is openly and freely available online (Virkkala et al., 2021b, https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1934).

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    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: A. Rutgersson; A. Rutgersson; E. Kjellström; E. Kjellström; +16 Authors

    A natural hazard is a naturally occurring extreme event that has a negative effect on people and society or the environment. Natural hazards may have severe implications for human life and can potentially generate economic losses and damage ecosystems. A better understanding of their major causes, probability of occurrence, and consequences enables society to be better prepared to save human lives as well as to invest in adaptation options. Natural hazards related to climate change are identified as one of the Grand Challenges in the Baltic Sea region. Here, we summarize existing knowledge about extreme events in the Baltic Sea region with a focus on the past 200 years as well as on future climate scenarios. The events considered here are the major hydro-meteorological events in the region and include wind storms, extreme waves, high and low sea levels, ice ridging, heavy precipitation, sea-effect snowfall, river floods, heat waves, ice seasons, and drought. We also address some ecological extremes and the implications of extreme events for society (phytoplankton blooms, forest fires, coastal flooding, offshore infrastructure, and shipping). Significant knowledge gaps are identified, including the response of large-scale atmospheric circulation to climate change and also concerning specific events, for example, the occurrence of marine heat waves and small-scale variability in precipitation. Suggestions for future research include the further development of high-resolution Earth system models and the potential use of methodologies for data analysis (statistical methods and machine learning). With respect to the expected impacts of climate change, changes are expected for sea level, extreme precipitation, heat waves and phytoplankton blooms (increase), and cold spells and severe ice winters (decrease). For some extremes (drying, river flooding, and extreme waves), the change depends on the area and time period studied.

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    Earth System Dynamics
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Earth System Dynamics
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (in review). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the solar irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Profiles of downward and upward raw solar radiation, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and radiometer icing flag. Geopotential height is derived from the pressure.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lonardi, Michael; Pilz, Christian; Siebert, Holger; Ehrlich, André; +1 Authors

    The tethered balloon system BELUGA (Balloon-bornE moduLar Utility for profilinG the lower Atmosphere) was operated during leg 4 of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC). The balloon was operated from the Balloon Town site in the central observatory, close to RV Polarstern (Shupe et al., 2022, Elementa). Balloon payload included an extended meteorological package, an ultrasonic anemometer package, a broadband radiation package, the video ice particle sampler, and the cubic aerosol measurement platform. An overview showing the value of the combined observation is displayed by Lonardi et al. (submitted). The data processing is described in Pilz et al. (in preparation). The present dataset covers the processed terrestrial irradiances measured by the broadband radiation package on 18 flights between 29 June and 27 July 2020. Terrestrial irradiances were corrected for the time response of the pyrgeometer (6 s) and averaged over 3 s. Flagging of ice and liquid water is provided, based on the analysis of 0.1 Hz pictures of the upper pyrgeometer. Solar irradiances are also available (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.944232).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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