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46 Research products

  • European Marine Science
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  • Swiss National Science Foundation
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Liu, Yanting; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Berger, Martine; Poehlein, Anja; +5 Authors

    BACKGROUND: The RCA (Roseobacter clade affiliated) cluster belongs to the family Roseobacteracea and represents a major Roseobacter lineage in temperate to polar oceans. Despite its prevalence and abundance, only a few genomes and one described species, Planktomarina temperata, exist. To gain more insights into our limited understanding of this cluster and its taxonomic and functional diversity and biogeography, we screened metagenomic datasets from the global oceans and reconstructed metagenome-assembled genomes (MAG) affiliated to this cluster. RESULTS: The total of 82 MAGs, plus five genomes of isolates, reveal an unexpected diversity and novel insights into the genomic features, the functional diversity, and greatly refined biogeographic patterns of the RCA cluster. This cluster is subdivided into three genera: Planktomarina, Pseudoplanktomarina, and the most deeply branching Candidatus Paraplanktomarina. Six of the eight Planktomarina species have larger genome sizes (2.44-3.12 Mbp) and higher G + C contents (46.36-53.70%) than the four Pseudoplanktomarina species (2.26-2.72 Mbp, 42.22-43.72 G + C%). Cand. Paraplanktomarina is represented only by one species with a genome size of 2.40 Mbp and a G + C content of 45.85%. Three novel species of the genera Planktomarina and Pseudoplanktomarina are validly described according to the SeqCode nomenclature for prokaryotic genomes. Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis (AAP) is encoded in three Planktomarina species. Unexpectedly, proteorhodopsin (PR) is encoded in the other Planktomarina and all Pseudoplanktomarina species, suggesting that this light-driven proton pump is the most important mode of acquiring complementary energy of the RCA cluster. The Pseudoplanktomarina species exhibit differences in functional traits compared to Planktomarina species and adaptations to more resource-limited conditions. An assessment of the global biogeography of the different species greatly expands the range of occurrence and shows that the different species exhibit distinct biogeographic patterns. They partially reflect the genomic features of the species. CONCLUSIONS: Our detailed MAG-based analyses shed new light on the diversification, environmental adaptation, and global biogeography of a major lineage of pelagic bacteria. The taxonomic delineation and validation by the SeqCode nomenclature of prominent genera and species of the RCA cluster may be a promising way for a refined taxonomic identification of major prokaryotic lineages and sublineages in marine and other prokaryotic communities assessed by metagenomics approaches. Microbiome, 11 (1) ISSN:2049-2618

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Research Collectionarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research Collection
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Microbiome
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Microbiome
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Research Collectionarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research Collection
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Microbiome
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Microbiome
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Luke Skinner; Francois Primeau; Aurich Jeltsch-Thömmes; Fortunat Joos; +2 Authors

    Radiocarbon is a tracer that provides unique insights into the ocean's ability to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere. While spatial patterns of radiocarbon in the ocean interior can indicate the vectors and timescales for carbon transport through the ocean, estimates of the global average ocean–atmosphere radiocarbon age offset (B-Atm) place constraints on the closure of the global carbon cycle. Here, we apply a Bayesian interpolation method to compiled B-Atm data to generate global interpolated fields and mean ocean B-Atm estimates for a suite of time slices across the last deglaciation. The compiled data and interpolations confirm a stepwise and spatially heterogeneous “rejuvenation” of the ocean, suggesting that carbon was released to the atmosphere through two swings of a “ventilation seesaw” operating between the North Atlantic and both the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific. Sensitivity tests using the Bern3D model of intermediate complexity demonstrate that a portion of the reconstructed deglacial B-Atm changes may reflect “phase-attenuation” biases that are unrelated to ocean ventilation and that arise from independent atmospheric radiocarbon dynamics instead. A deglacial minimum in B-Atm offsets during the Bølling–Allerød could partly reflect such a bias. However, the sensitivity tests further demonstrate that when correcting for such biases, ocean “ventilation” could still account for at least one-third of deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise. This contribution to CO2 rise appears to have continued through the Younger Dryas, though much of the impact was likely achieved by the end of the Bølling–Allerød, indicating a key role for marine carbon cycle adjustment early in the deglacial process. Our global average B-Atm estimates place further new constraints on the long-standing mystery of global radiocarbon budget closure across the last deglaciation and suggest that glacial radiocarbon production levels are likely underestimated on average by existing reconstructions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2023
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2023
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-202...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Other literature type . 2023
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Other literature type . 2023
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-202...
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Oehri, Jacqueline; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Kim, Jin-Soo; Grysko, Raleigh; +74 Authors

    Despite the importance of high-latitude surface energy budgets (SEBs) for land-climate interactions in the rapidly changing Arctic, uncertainties in their prediction persist. Here, we harmonize SEB observations across a network of vegetated and glaciated sites at circumpolar scale (1994-2021). Our variance-partitioning analysis identifies vegetation type as an important predictor for SEB-components during Arctic summer (June-August), compared to other SEB-drivers including climate, latitude and permafrost characteristics. Differences among vegetation types can be of similar magnitude as between vegetation and glacier surfaces and are especially high for summer sensible and latent heat fluxes. The timing of SEB-flux summer-regimes (when daily mean values exceed 0 Wm(-2)) relative to snow-free and -onset dates varies substantially depending on vegetation type, implying vegetation controls on snow-cover and SEB-flux seasonality. Our results indicate complex shifts in surface energy fluxes with land-cover transitions and a lengthening summer season, and highlight the potential for improving future Earth system models via a refined representation of Arctic vegetation types.An international team of researchers finds high potential for improving climate projections by a more comprehensive treatment of largely ignored Arctic vegetation types, underscoring the importance of Arctic energy exchange measuring stations. Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Utrecht Univ...arrow_drop_down
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Utrecht Univ...arrow_drop_down
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      Nature Communications
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: de Boer, Gijs; Calmer, Radiance; Jozef, Gina; Cassano, John J.; +8 Authors

    AbstractOver a five-month time window between March and July 2020, scientists deployed two small uncrewed aircraft systems (sUAS) to the central Arctic Ocean as part of legs three and four of the MOSAiC expedition. These sUAS were flown to measure the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the lower atmosphere, including collecting information on temperature, pressure, humidity and winds between the surface and 1 km, as well as to document ice properties, including albedo, melt pond fraction, and open water amounts. The atmospheric state flights were primarily conducted by the DataHawk2 sUAS, which was operated primarily in a profiling manner, while the surface property flights were conducted using the HELiX sUAS, which flew grid patterns, profiles, and hover flights. In total, over 120 flights were conducted and over 48 flight hours of data were collected, sampling conditions that included temperatures as low as −35 °C and as warm as 15 °C, spanning the summer melt season.

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    Scientific Data
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Julie Thérèse Pasquier; Jan Henneberger; Alexei Korolev; Fabiola Ramelli; +8 Authors

    The sizes and shapes of ice crystals influence the radiative properties of clouds, as well as precipitation initiation and aerosol scavenging. However, ice crystal growth mechanisms remain only partially characterized. We present the growth processes of two complex ice crystal habits observed in Arctic mixed-phase clouds during the Ny-Ålesund AeroSol Cloud ExperimeNT campaign. First, are capped-columns with multiple columns growing out of the plates' corners that we define as columns on capped-columns. These ice crystals originated from cycling through the columnar and plate temperature growth regimes, during their vertical transport by in-cloud circulation. Second, is aged rime on the surface of ice crystals having grown into faceted columns or plates depending on the environmental conditions. Despite their complexity, the shapes of these ice crystals allow to infer their growth history and provide information about the in-cloud conditions. Additionally, these ice crystals exhibit complex shapes and could enhance aggregation and secondary ice production. Geophysical Research Letters, 50 (1) ISSN:1944-8007 ISSN:0094-8276

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    Geophysical Research Letters
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2023
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      Geophysical Research Letters
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Pasquier, Julie Thérèse; Henneberger, Jan; Ramelli, Fabiola; Lauber, Annika; +6 Authors

    The Arctic is very susceptible to climate change and thus is warming much faster than the rest of the world. Clouds influence terrestrial and solar radiative fluxes and thereby impact the amplified Arctic warming. The partitioning of thermodynamic phases (i.e., ice crystals and water droplets) within mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) especially influences their radiative properties. However, the processes responsible for ice crystal formation remain only partially characterized. In particular, so-called secondary ice production (SIP) processes, which create supplementary ice crystals from primary ice crystals and the environmental conditions that they occur in, are poorly understood. The microphysical properties of Arctic MPCs were measured during the Ny-Ålesund AeroSol Cloud ExperimENT (NASCENT) campaign to obtain a better understanding of the atmospheric conditions favorable for the occurrence of SIP processes. To this aim, the in situ cloud microphysical properties retrieved by a holographic cloud imager mounted on a tethered balloon system were complemented by ground-based remote sensing and ice-nucleating particle measurements. During the 6 d investigated in this study, SIP occurred during about 40 % of the in-cloud measurements, and high SIP events with number concentrations larger than 10 L−1 of small pristine ice crystals occurred in 4 % of the in-cloud measurements. This demonstrates the role of SIP for Arctic MPCs. The highest concentrations of small pristine ice crystals were produced at temperatures between −5 and −3 ∘C and were related to the occurrence of supercooled large droplets freezing upon collision with ice crystals. This suggests that a large fraction of ice crystals in Arctic MPCs are produced via the droplet-shattering mechanism. From evaluating the ice crystal images, we could identify ice–ice collision as a second SIP mechanism that dominated when fragile ice crystals were observed. Moreover, SIP occurred over a large temperature range and was observed in up to 80 % of the measurements down to −24 ∘C due to the occurrence of ice–ice collisions. This emphasizes the importance of SIP at temperatures below −8 ∘C, which are currently not accounted for in most numerical weather models. Although ice-nucleating particles may be necessary for the initial freezing of water droplets, the ice crystal number concentration is frequently determined by secondary production mechanisms. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22 (23) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2022
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Nicolas Brehm; Marcus Christl; Timothy D. J. Knowles; Emmanuelle Casanova; +19 Authors

    The Sun sporadically produces eruptive events leading to intense fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEPs) that dramatically disrupt the near-Earth radiation environment. Such events have been directly studied for the last decades but little is known about the occurrence and magnitude of rare, extreme SEP events. Presently, a few events that produced measurable signals in cosmogenic radionuclides such as 14C, 10Be and 36Cl have been found. Analyzing annual 14C concentrations in tree-rings from Switzerland, Germany, Ireland, Russia, and the USA we discovered two spikes in atmospheric 14C occurring in 7176 and 5259 BCE. The ~2% increases of atmospheric 14C recorded for both events exceed all previously known 14C peaks but after correction for the geomagnetic field, they are comparable to the largest event of this type discovered so far at 775 CE. These strong events serve as accurate time markers for the synchronization with floating tree-ring and ice core records and provide critical information on the previous occurrence of extreme solar events which may threaten modern infrastructure. Nature Communications, 13 ISSN:2041-1723

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    https://doi.org/10.48350/16689...
    Article . 2022
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Nature Communications
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      https://doi.org/10.48350/16689...
      Article . 2022
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      Data sources: Datacite
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      Nature Communications
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2022
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Tobias Erhardt; Matthias Bigler; Urs Federer; Gideo Gfeller; +20 Authors

    Abstract. Records of chemical impurities from ice cores enable us to reconstruct the past deposition of aerosols onto polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Through this they allow us to gain insight into changes of the source, transport and deposition processes that ultimately determine the deposition flux at the coring location. However, the low concentrations of the aerosol species in the ice and the resulting high risk of contamination pose a formidable analytical challenge, especially if long, continuous and highly resolved records are needed. Continuous flow analysis, CFA, the continuous melting, decontamination and analysis of ice-core samples has mostly overcome this issue and has quickly become the de facto standard to obtain high-resolution aerosol records from ice cores after its inception at the University of Bern in the mid-1990s. Here, we present continuous records of calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-) and electrolytic conductivity at 1 mm depth resolution from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) and NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) ice cores produced by the Bern Continuous Flow Analysis group in the years 2000 to 2011 (Erhardt et al., 2021). Both of the records were previously used in a number of studies but were never published in full 1 mm resolution. Alongside the 1 mm datasets we provide decadal averages, a detailed description of the methods, relevant references, an assessment of the quality of the data and its usable resolution. Along the way we will also give some historical context on the development of the Bern CFA system. The data is available in full 1 mm and 10-year-averaged resolution on PANGAEA (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.935838, Erhardt et al., 2021)

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . 2021
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    https://essd.copernicus.org/pr...
    Preprint
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.48350/16749...
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.57694/7177...
    Article . 2022
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    Data sources: Datacite
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
    Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      NERC Open Research Archive
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
      Other literature type . 2021
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      https://essd.copernicus.org/pr...
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      https://doi.org/10.48350/16749...
      Article . 2022
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.57694/7177...
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
      Preprint . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cedric Jasper Hahn; Olivier N. Lemaire; Jörg Kahnt; Sylvain Engilberge; +2 Authors

    How to feed an enzyme ethane When released from ocean floor seeps, small hydrocarbons are rapidly consumed by micro-organisms. Methane is highly abundant and is both produced and consumed by microbes through well understood biochemical pathways. Less well understood is how ethane, also a major natural component of gaseous hydrocarbons, is metabolized. To understand how microbes take advantage of this energy and carbon source, Hahn et al. solved the x-ray crystal structures of an enzyme they call ethyl coenzyme-M reductase, which converts ethane into the thioether ethyl-coenzyme M as the entry point for catabolism. They found an expanded active site and, using a xenon gas derivatization experiment, a distinctive tunnel through the protein that is proposed to permit access of the gaseous substrate. Science , abg1765, this issue p. 118

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MPG.PuRearrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2020
    Science
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Helen Eri Amsler; Lena M Thöle;