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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
118 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
  • Open Access
  • Wellcome Trust
  • EU
  • GB

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rudolf Wittner; Petr Holub; Cecilia Mascia; Francesca Frexia; +32 Authors

    The exchange of biological material and data has become an issue of major importance for research in biotechnology. At the same time, many reports indicate problems with quality, trustworthiness and reproducibility of research results, mainly due to poor documentation of data generation or collection of samples. Consequently, there is an urgent need for improved and standardized documentation of data and specimen used in research studies. In response to these issues, we are developing a provenance information standard for the biotechnology domain within the ISO Technical Committee 276 “Biotechnology”. The major objectives of the standard, now registered as ISO/WD 23494, are improved reproducibility of research results, enabling the assessment of the quality of biological samples and data, traceability and higher reliability of observations. We are convinced that the standardization project is of substantial interest to a broader audience, who we would also invite to comment and contribute to this comprehensive effort. Manuscript under consideration.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The University of Ma...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    e-Prints Soton
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: e-Prints Soton
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The University of Ma...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      e-Prints Soton
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: e-Prints Soton
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: El Mahdi Bendif; Ian Probert; Odysseas A. Archontikis; Jeremy R. Young; +3 Authors

    AbstractMarine phytoplankton play important roles in the global ecosystem, with a limited number of cosmopolitan keystone species driving their biomass. Recent studies have revealed that many of these phytoplankton are complexes composed of sibling species, but little is known about the evolutionary processes underlying their formation. Gephyrocapsa huxleyi, a widely distributed and abundant unicellular marine planktonic algae, produces calcified scales (coccoliths), thereby significantly affects global biogeochemical cycles via sequestration of inorganic carbon. This species is composed of morphotypes defined by differing degrees of coccolith calcification, the evolutionary ecology of which remains unclear. Here, we report an integrated morphological, ecological and genomic survey across globally distributed G. huxleyi strains to reconstruct evolutionary relationships between morphotypes in relation to their habitats. While G. huxleyi has been considered a single cosmopolitan species, our analyses demonstrate that it has evolved to comprise at least three distinct species, which led us to formally revise the taxonomy of the G. huxleyi complex. Moreover, the first speciation event occurred before the onset of the last interglacial period (~140 ka), while the second followed during this interglacial. Then, further rapid diversifications occurred during the most recent ice-sheet expansion of the last glacial period and established morphotypes as dominant populations across environmental clines. These results suggest that glacial-cycle dynamics contributed to the isolation of ocean basins and the segregations of oceans fronts as extrinsic drivers of micro-evolutionary radiations in extant marine phytoplankton.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    HAL AMU; HAL-IRD
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: HAL AMU; HAL-IRD
    The ISME Journal
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      HAL AMU; HAL-IRD
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: HAL AMU; HAL-IRD
      The ISME Journal
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Natalie Pilakouta; Patrick J. O'Donnell; Amélie Crespel; Marie Levet; +8 Authors

    AbstractThe costs and benefits of being social vary with environmental conditions, so individuals must weigh the balance between these trade‐offs in response to changes in the environment. Temperature is a salient environmental factor that may play a key role in altering the costs and benefits of sociality through its effects on food availability, predator abundance, and other ecological parameters. In ectotherms, changes in temperature also have direct effects on physiological traits linked to social behaviour, such as metabolic rate and locomotor performance. In light of climate change, it is therefore important to understand the potential effects of temperature on sociality. Here, we took the advantage of a ‘natural experiment’ of threespine sticklebacks from contrasting thermal environments in Iceland: geothermally warmed water bodies (warm habitats) and adjacent ambient‐temperature water bodies (cold habitats) that were either linked (sympatric) or physically distinct (allopatric). We first measured the sociability of wild‐caught adult fish from warm and cold habitats after acclimation to a low and a high temperature. At both acclimation temperatures, fish from the allopatric warm habitat were less social than those from the allopatric cold habitat, whereas fish from sympatric warm and cold habitats showed no differences in sociability. To determine whether differences in sociability between thermal habitats in the allopatric population were heritable, we used a common garden breeding design where individuals from the warm and the cold habitat were reared at a low or high temperature for two generations. We found that sociability was indeed heritable but also influenced by rearing temperature, suggesting that thermal conditions during early life can play an important role in influencing social behaviour in adulthood. By providing the first evidence for a causal effect of rearing temperature on social behaviour, our study provides novel insights into how a warming world may influence sociality in animal populations.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brage IMRarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Brage IMR
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: Brage IMR
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brage IMRarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Brage IMR
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: Brage IMR
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rudolf Wittner; Cecilia Mascia; Matej Gallo; Francesca Frexia; +4 Authors

    AbstractProvenance is information describing the lineage of an object, such as a dataset or biological material. Since these objects can be passed between organizations, each organization can document only parts of the objects life cycle. As a result, interconnection of distributed provenance parts forms distributed provenance chains. Dependant on the actual provenance content, complete provenance chains can provide traceability and contribute to reproducibility and FAIRness of research objects. In this paper, we define a lightweight provenance model based on W3C PROV that enables generation of distributed provenance chains in complex, multi-organizational environments. The application of the model is demonstrated with a use case spanning several steps of a real-world research pipeline — starting with the acquisition of a specimen, its processing and storage, histological examination, and the generation/collection of associated data (images, annotations, clinical data), ending with training an AI model for the detection of tumor in the images. The proposed model has become an open conceptual foundation of the currently developed ISO 23494 standard on provenance for biotechnology domain.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Dataarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scientific Data
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Dataarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Scientific Data
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Amélie Crespel; Kevin Schneider; Toby Miller; Anita Rácz; +4 Authors

    Fisheries induce one of the strongest anthropogenic selective pressures on natural populations, but the genetic effects of fishing remain unclear. Crucially, we lack knowledge of how capture-associated selection and its interaction with reductions in population density caused by fishing can potentially shift which genes are under selection. Using experimental fish reared at two densities and repeatedly harvested by simulated trawling, we show consistent phenotypic selection on growth, metabolism, and social behavior regardless of density. However, the specific genes under selection—mainly related to brain function and neurogenesis—varied with the population density. This interaction between direct fishing selection and density could fundamentally alter the genomic responses to harvest. The evolutionary consequences of fishing are therefore likely context dependent, possibly varying as exploited populations decline. These results highlight the need to consider environmental factors when predicting effects of human-induced selection and evolution.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dmitry A. Filatov; El Mahdi Bendif; Odysseas A. Archontikis; Kyoko Hagino; +1 Authors

    Summary Despite the enormous ecological importance of marine phytoplankton, surprisingly little is known about how new phytoplankton species originate and evolve in the open ocean, in the absence of apparent geographic barriers that typically act as isolation mechanisms in speciation. To investigate the mechanism of open-ocean speciation, we combined fossil and climatic records from the late Quaternary with genome-wide evolutionary genetic analyses of speciation in the ubiquitous and abundant pelagic coccolithophore genus Gephyrocapsa (including G. huxleyi, formerly known as Emiliania huxleyi). Based on the analysis of 43 sequenced genomes, we report that the best-fitting scenario for all speciation events analyzed included an extended period of complete isolation followed by recent (Holocene) secondary contact, supporting the role of geographic or oceanographic barriers in population divergence and speciation. Consistent with this, fossil data reveal considerable diachroneity of species first occurrence. The timing of all speciation events coincided with glacial phases of glacial-interglacial cycles, suggesting that stronger isolation between the ocean basins and increased segregation of ecological niches during glaciations are important drivers of speciation in marine phytoplankton. The similarity across multiple speciation events implies the generality of this inferred speciation scenario for marine phytoplankton.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Ruiz-Arenas, Carlos; Bustamante, Mariona;

    To test associations between DNA methylation levels and gene expression levels in cis (cis eQTMs), we paired each Gene to CpGs closer than 500 kb from its TSS, either upstream or downstream. For each Gene, the TSS was defined based on HTA-2.0 annotation, using the start position for transcripts in the + strand, and the end position for transcripts in the - strand. CpGs position was obtained from Illumina 450K array annotation. Only CpGs in autosomal chromosomes (from chromosome 1 to 22) were tested. In the main analysis, we fitted for each CpG-Gene pair a linear regression model between gene expression and methylation levels adjusted for age, sex, cohort, and blood cell type composition. A second model was run without adjusting for blood cellular composition and it is only reported on the online web catalog, but not discussed in this manuscript. Although some of the unique associations of the unadjusted model might be real, others might be confounded by the large methylation and expression changes among blood cell types. To ensure that CpGs paired to a higher number of Genes do not have higher chances of being part of an eQTM, multiple-testing was controlled at the CpG level, following a procedure previously applied in the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project (Gamazon et al., 2018). Briefly, our statistic used to test the hypothesis that a pair CpG-Gene is significantly associated is based on considering the lowest p-value observed for a given CpG and all its paired Gene (e.g., those in the 1 Mb window centered at the TSS). As we do not know the distribution of this statistic under the null, we used a permutation test. We generated 100 permuted gene expression datasets and ran our previous linear regression models obtaining 100 permuted p-values for each CpG-Gene pair. Then, for each CpG, we selected among all CpG-Gene pairs the minimum p-value in each permutation and fitted a beta distribution that is the distribution we obtain when dealing with extreme values (e.g. minimum) (Dudbridge and Gusnanto, 2008). Next, for each CpG, we took the minimum p-value observed in the real data and used the beta distribution to compute the probability of observing a lower p-value. We defined this probability as the empirical p-value of the CpG. Then, we considered as significant those CpGs with empirical p-values to be significant at 5% false discovery rate using Benjamini-Hochberg method. Finally, we applied a last step to identify all significant CpG-Gene pairs for all eCpGs. To do so, we defined a genome-wide empirical p-value threshold as the empirical p-value of the eCpG closest to the 5% false discovery rate threshold. We used this empirical p-value to calculate a nominal p-value threshold for each eCpG, based on the beta distribution obtained from the minimum permuted p-values. This nominal p-value threshold was defined as the value for which the inverse cumulative distribution of the beta distribution was equal to the empirical p-value. Then, for each eCpG, we considered as significant all eCpG-Gene variants with a p-value smaller than nominal p-value. For the meQTLs catalogue, we selected 9.9 M cis and trans meQTLs with a p-value <1e-7 in the ARIES dataset consisting of data from children of 7 years old (Gaunt et al., 2016). Then, we tested whether this subset of 9.9 M SNPs were also meQTLs in HELIX by running meQTL analyses using MatrixEQTL R package (Shabalin, 2012), adjusting for cohort, sex, age, blood cellular composition and the first 20 principal components (PCs) calculated from genome-wide genetic data of the GWAS variability. We confirmed 2.8 M meQTLs in HELIX (p-value <1e-7). Trans meQTLs represented <10% of the 2.8 M meQTLs. Enrichment of eCpGs for meQTLs was computed using a Chi-square test, using non eCpGs as background. Finally, we tested whether meQTLs were also eQTLs for the eGenes linked to the eCpGs. To this end, we run eQTL analyses (gene expression being the outcome and 2.8 M SNPs the predictors) with MatrixEQTL adjusting for cohort, sex, age, blood cellular composition and the first 20 GWAS PCs in HELIX. We considered as significant eQTLs the SNP-Gene pairs with p-value <1e-7 and with the direction of the effect consistent with the direction of the meQTL and the eQTM. Background: The identification of expression quantitative trait methylation (eQTMs), defined as associations between DNA methylation levels and gene expression, might help the biological interpretation of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). We aimed to identify autosomal cis eQTMs in children’s blood, using data from 832 children of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project. Methods: Blood DNA methylation and gene expression were measured with the Illumina 450K and the Affymetrix HTA v2 arrays, respectively. The relationship between methylation levels and expression of nearby genes (1 Mb window centered at the transcription start site, TSS) was assessed by fitting 13.6 M linear regressions adjusting for sex, age, cohort, and blood cell composition. Results: We identified 39,749 blood autosomal cis eQTMs, representing 21,966 unique CpGs (eCpGs, 5.7% of total CpGs) and 8,886 unique transcript clusters (eGenes, 15.3% of total transcript clusters, equivalent to genes). In 87.9% of these cis eQTMs, the eCpG was located at <250 kb from eGene’s TSS; and 58.8% of all eQTMs showed an inverse relationship between the methylation and expression levels. Only around half of the autosomal cis-eQTMs eGenes could be captured through annotation of the eCpG to the closest gene. eCpGs had less measurement error and were enriched for active blood regulatory regions and for CpGs reported to be associated with environmental exposures or phenotypic traits. 40.4% of eQTMs had at least one genetic variant associated with methylation and expression levels. The overlap of autosomal cis eQTMs in children’s blood with those described in adults was small (13.8%), and age-shared cis eQTMs tended to be proximal to the TSS and enriched for genetic variants. See HELIX_Blood_eQTM_READMEfile_20210205.xlsx.

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    Authors: Carla Cummins; Alisha Ahamed; Raheela Aslam; Josephine Burgin; +34 Authors

    Abstract The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA, https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena), maintained at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) provides freely accessible services, both for deposition of, and access to, open nucleotide sequencing data. Open scientific data are of paramount importance to the scientific community and contribute daily to the acceleration of scientific advance. Here, we outline the major updates to ENA’s services and infrastructure that have been delivered over the past year.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Nucleic Acids Research
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Merryn Thomas; Ioanna Daphne Giannoulatou; Ethan Kocak; Wes Tank; +3 Authors

    Abstract Many migratory fish populations are declining, threatened by human‐induced pressures such as habitat loss and fragmentation caused by dams, roads, land use change, climate change and pollution. However, public awareness of fish migration and associated human pressures remains limited. It is important to communicate about hard‐to‐see and complex environmental topics and issues, such as fish migration, with young people, who stand to be the most affected by ongoing global changes. Young people are also at a critical stage in their attitude formation and may be particularly receptive to learning enrichment and engagement for behaviour change about environmental issues. Arts‐based methods can be particularly effective in fostering broad personal connections with nature, especially for complex topics like fish migration. The collaborative and creative processes involved in developing such media often lack critique, which limits learning from previous experiences. In this article, we reflect on the co‐creation of the Shout Trout Workout (STW), a lyric poem, comic and music video for 8‐ to 14‐year‐olds, designed to entertain, engage and enrich learning about migratory fishes and aquatic environments. We chart the process of creation, including conception of ideas, writing the poem, fact‐checking and developing the storyline with scientists and creating a comic and music video with visual artists and musicians. We explore some of the challenges and merits of collaborative working, consider the impacts of the COVID‐19 pandemic on the creative and initial engagement process and share what we learned about creative input, communication and respect. We also discuss how the experience shaped our thoughts about the nature of co‐creation itself, and how in creating STW, collaborators contributed to the process in multiple, nuanced and unanticipated ways (e.g. artistic input, ideas, science, dissemination), representing a spectrum of co‐creative practice. We hope that sharing our experiences and reflections is useful and inspiring for other cross‐disciplinary collaborations, and for those who aim to create learning enrichment and engagement material about ecological processes and environmental issues for young people. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.

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    Authors: Schröder, Cornelius; Yoshimatsu, Takeshi; Oesterle, Jonathan; Berens, Philipp; +1 Authors

    Many sensory systems use ribbon-type synapses to transmit their signals to downstream circuits. The properties of this synaptic transfer fundamentally dictate which aspects in the original stimulus will be accentuated or suppressed, thereby partially defining the detection limits of the circuit. Accordingly, sensory neurons have evolved a wide variety of ribbon geometries and vesicle pool properties to best support their diverse functional requirements. However, the need for diverse synaptic functions does not only arise across neuron types, but also within. Here we show that UV-cones, a single type of photoreceptor of the larval zebrafish eye, exhibit striking differences in their synaptic ultrastructure and consequent calcium to glutamate transfer function depending on their location in the eye. We arrive at this conclusion by combining serial section electron microscopy and simultaneous "dual-colour" 2-photon imaging of calcium and glutamate signals from the same synapse in vivo. We further use the functional dataset to fit a cascade-like model of the ribbon synapse with different vesicle pool sizes, transfer rates and other synaptic properties. Exploiting recent developments in simulation-based inference, we obtain full posterior estimates for the parameters and compare these across different retinal regions. The model enables us to extrapolate to new stimuli and to systematically investigate different response behaviours of various ribbon configurations. We also provide an interactive, easy-to-use version of this model as an online tool. Overall, we show that already on the synaptic level of single neuron types there exist highly specialized mechanisms which are advantageous for the encoding of different visual features.

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    Authors: Rudolf Wittner; Petr Holub; Cecilia Mascia; Francesca Frexia; +32 Authors

    The exchange of biological material and data has become an issue of major importance for research in biotechnology. At the same time, many reports indicate problems with quality, trustworthiness and reproducibility of research results, mainly due to poor documentation of data generation or collection of samples. Consequently, there is an urgent need for improved and standardized documentation of data and specimen used in research studies. In response to these issues, we are developing a provenance information standard for the biotechnology domain within the ISO Technical Committee 276 “Biotechnology”. The major objectives of the standard, now registered as ISO/WD 23494, are improved reproducibility of research results, enabling the assessment of the quality of biological samples and data, traceability and higher reliability of observations. We are convinced that the standardization project is of substantial interest to a broader audience, who we would also invite to comment and contribute to this comprehensive effort. Manuscript under consideration.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The University of Ma...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      e-Prints Soton
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: e-Prints Soton
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: El Mahdi Bendif; Ian Probert; Odysseas A. Archontikis; Jeremy R. Young; +3 Authors

    AbstractMarine phytoplankton play important roles in the global ecosystem, with a limited number of cosmopolitan keystone species driving their biomass. Recent studies have revealed that many of these phytoplankton are complexes composed of sibling species, but little is known about the evolutionary processes underlying their formation. Gephyrocapsa huxleyi, a widely distributed and abundant unicellular marine planktonic algae, produces calcified scales (coccoliths), thereby significantly affects global biogeochemical cycles via sequestration of inorganic carbon. This species is composed of morphotypes defined by differing degrees of coccolith calcification, the evolutionary ecology of which remains unclear. Here, we report an integrated morphological, ecological and genomic survey across globally distributed G. huxleyi strains to reconstruct evolutionary relationships between morphotypes in relation to their habitats. While G. huxleyi has been considered a single cosmopolitan species, our analyses demonstrate that it has evolved to comprise at least three distinct species, which led us to formally revise the taxonomy of the G. huxleyi complex. Moreover, the first speciation event occurred before the onset of the last interglacial period (~140 ka), while the second followed during this interglacial. Then, further rapid diversifications occurred during the most recent ice-sheet expansion of the last glacial period and established morphotypes as dominant populations across environmental clines. These results suggest that glacial-cycle dynamics contributed to the isolation of ocean basins and the segregations of oceans fronts as extrinsic drivers of micro-evolutionary radiations in extant marine phytoplankton.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    HAL AMU; HAL-IRD
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: HAL AMU; HAL-IRD
    The ISME Journal
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      HAL AMU; HAL-IRD
      Article . 2023
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