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  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
  • PALEOGENIE
  • US
  • Biogeosciences (BG)
  • European Marine Science

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    Authors: Wilson, Jamie D.; Barker, Stephen; Edwards, Neil R.; Holden, Philip B.; +1 Authors

    The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is sensitive to changes in the depth at which sinking particulate organic matter is remineralized: often described as a change in the exponent “b” of the Martin curve. Sediment trap observations from deep and intermediate depths suggest there is a spatially heterogeneous pattern of b, particularly varying with latitude, but disagree over the exact spatial patterns. Here we use a biogeochemical model of the phosphorus cycle coupled with a steady-state representation of ocean circulation to explore the sensitivity of preformed phosphate and atmospheric CO2 to spatial variability in remineralization depths. A Latin hypercube sampling method is used to simultaneously vary the Martin curve independently within 15 different regions, as a basis for a regression-based analysis used to derive a quantitative measure of sensitivity. Approximately 30 % of the sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 to changes in remineralization depths is driven by changes in the subantarctic region (36 to 60∘ S) similar in magnitude to the Pacific basin despite the much smaller area and lower export production. Overall, the absolute magnitude of sensitivity is controlled by export production, but the relative spatial patterns in sensitivity are predominantly constrained by ocean circulation pathways. The high sensitivity in the subantarctic regions is driven by a combination of high export production and the high connectivity of these regions to regions important for the export of preformed nutrients such as the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic. Overall, regionally varying remineralization depths contribute to variability in CO2 of between around 5 and 15 ppm, relative to a global mean change in remineralization depth. Future changes in the environmental and ecological drivers of remineralization, such as temperature and ocean acidification, are expected to be most significant in the high latitudes where CO2 sensitivity to remineralization is also highest. The importance of ocean circulation pathways to the high sensitivity in subantarctic regions also has significance for past climates given the importance of circulation changes in the Southern Ocean.

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    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Despite the important role of planktonic foraminifera in regulating the ocean carbonate production and their unrivalled value in reconstructing paleoenvironments, our knowledge on their ecology is limited. A variety of observational techniques such as plankton tows, sediment traps and experiments have contributed to our understanding of foraminifera ecology. But, fundamental questions around costs and benefits of calcification and the effect of nutrients, temperature and ecosystem structure on these organisms remain unanswered. To tackle these questions, we take a novel mechanistic approach to study planktonic foraminifera ecology based on trait theory. We develop a zero-dimensional (0-D) trait-based model to account for the biomass of prolocular (20 µm) and adult (160 µm) stages of non-spinose foraminifera species and investigate their potential interactions with phytoplankton and other zooplankton under different temperature and nutrient regimes. Building on the costs and benefits of calcification, we model two ecosystem structures to explore the effect of resource competition and temperature on planktonic foraminifera biomass. By constraining the model results with ocean biomass estimations of planktonic foraminifera, we estimate that the energetic cost of calcification could be about 10 %–50 % and 10 %–40 % for prolocular and adult stages respectively. Our result suggest that the shell provides protection against processes other than predation (e.g. pathogen invasion). We propose that the low standing biomass of planktonic foraminifera plays a key role in their survival from predation, along with their shell protection. Our model suggests a shift from temperature as a main regulator of foraminifera biomass in the early developmental stage to resource competition for adult biomass.

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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Biogeosciences
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-201...
    Preprint . 2018
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-201...
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    Authors: Ödalen, M; Nycander, J; Oliver, KIC; Brodeau, L; +1 Authors

    During the four most recent glacial cycles atmospheric CO2 during glacial maxima has been lowered by about 90-100gm with respect to interglacials. There is widespread consensus that most of this carbon was partitioned in the ocean. It is, however, still debated which processes were dominant in achieving this increased carbon storage. In this paper, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to explore the sensitivity of ocean carbon storage to ocean circulation state. We carry out a set of simulations in which we run the model to pre-industrial equilibrium, but in which we achieve different states of ocean circulation by changing forcing parameters such as wind stress, ocean diffusivity and atmospheric heat diffusivity. As a consequence, the ensemble members also have different ocean carbon reservoirs, global ocean average temperatures, biological pump efficiencies and conditions for air-sea CO2 disequilibrium. We analyse changes in total ocean carbon storage and separate it into contributions by the solubility pump, the biological pump and the CO2 disequilibrium component. We also relate these contributions to differences in the strength of the ocean overturning circulation. Depending on which ocean forcing parameter is tuned, the origin of the change in carbon storage is different. When wind stress or ocean diapycnal diffusivity is changed, the response of the biological pump gives the most important effect on ocean carbon storage, whereas when atmospheric heat diffusivity or ocean isopycnal diffusivity is changed, the solubility pump and the disequilibrium component are also important and sometimes dominant. Despite this complexity, we obtain a negative linear relationship between total ocean carbon and the combined strength of the northern and southern overturning cells. This relationship is robust to different reservoirs dominating the response to different forcing mechanisms. Finally, we conduct a drawdown experiment in which we investigate the capacity for increased carbon storage by artificially maximising the efficiency of the biological pump in our ensemble members. We conclude that different initial states for an ocean model result in different capacities for ocean carbon storage due to differences in the ocean circulation state and the origin of the carbon in the initial ocean carbon reservoir. This could explain why it is difficult to achieve comparable responses of the ocean carbon pumps in model inter-comparison studies in which the initial states vary between models. We show that this effect of the initial state is quantifiable. The drawdown experiment highlights the importance of the strength of the biological pump in the control state for model studies of increased biological efficiency.

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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2018
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Wilson, Jamie D.; Barker, Stephen; Edwards, Neil R.; Holden, Philip B.; +1 Authors

    The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is sensitive to changes in the depth at which sinking particulate organic matter is remineralized: often described as a change in the exponent “b” of the Martin curve. Sediment trap observations from deep and intermediate depths suggest there is a spatially heterogeneous pattern of b, particularly varying with latitude, but disagree over the exact spatial patterns. Here we use a biogeochemical model of the phosphorus cycle coupled with a steady-state representation of ocean circulation to explore the sensitivity of preformed phosphate and atmospheric CO2 to spatial variability in remineralization depths. A Latin hypercube sampling method is used to simultaneously vary the Martin curve independently within 15 different regions, as a basis for a regression-based analysis used to derive a quantitative measure of sensitivity. Approximately 30 % of the sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 to changes in remineralization depths is driven by changes in the subantarctic region (36 to 60∘ S) similar in magnitude to the Pacific basin despite the much smaller area and lower export production. Overall, the absolute magnitude of sensitivity is controlled by export production, but the relative spatial patterns in sensitivity are predominantly constrained by ocean circulation pathways. The high sensitivity in the subantarctic regions is driven by a combination of high export production and the high connectivity of these regions to regions important for the export of preformed nutrients such as the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic. Overall, regionally varying remineralization depths contribute to variability in CO2 of between around 5 and 15 ppm, relative to a global mean change in remineralization depth. Future changes in the environmental and ecological drivers of remineralization, such as temperature and ocean acidification, are expected to be most significant in the high latitudes where CO2 sensitivity to remineralization is also highest. The importance of ocean circulation pathways to the high sensitivity in subantarctic regions also has significance for past climates given the importance of circulation changes in the Southern Ocean.

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    Despite the important role of planktonic foraminifera in regulating the ocean carbonate production and their unrivalled value in reconstructing paleoenvironments, our knowledge on their ecology is limited. A variety of observational techniques such as plankton tows, sediment traps and experiments have contributed to our understanding of foraminifera ecology. But, fundamental questions around costs and benefits of calcification and the effect of nutrients, temperature and ecosystem structure on these organisms remain unanswered. To tackle these questions, we take a novel mechanistic approach to study planktonic foraminifera ecology based on trait theory. We develop a zero-dimensional (0-D) trait-based model to account for the biomass of prolocular (20 µm) and adult (160 µm) stages of non-spinose foraminifera species and investigate their potential interactions with phytoplankton and other zooplankton under different temperature and nutrient regimes. Building on the costs and benefits of calcification, we model two ecosystem structures to explore the effect of resource competition and temperature on planktonic foraminifera biomass. By constraining the model results with ocean biomass estimations of planktonic foraminifera, we estimate that the energetic cost of calcification could be about 10 %–50 % and 10 %–40 % for prolocular and adult stages respectively. Our result suggest that the shell provides protection against processes other than predation (e.g. pathogen invasion). We propose that the low standing biomass of planktonic foraminifera plays a key role in their survival from predation, along with their shell protection. Our model suggests a shift from temperature as a main regulator of foraminifera biomass in the early developmental stage to resource competition for adult biomass.

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    Biogeosciences
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-201...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-201...
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    Authors: Ödalen, M; Nycander, J; Oliver, KIC; Brodeau, L; +1 Authors

    During the four most recent glacial cycles atmospheric CO2 during glacial maxima has been lowered by about 90-100gm with respect to interglacials. There is widespread consensus that most of this carbon was partitioned in the ocean. It is, however, still debated which processes were dominant in achieving this increased carbon storage. In this paper, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to explore the sensitivity of ocean carbon storage to ocean circulation state. We carry out a set of simulations in which we run the model to pre-industrial equilibrium, but in which we achieve different states of ocean circulation by changing forcing parameters such as wind stress, ocean diffusivity and atmospheric heat diffusivity. As a consequence, the ensemble members also have different ocean carbon reservoirs, global ocean average temperatures, biological pump efficiencies and conditions for air-sea CO2 disequilibrium. We analyse changes in total ocean carbon storage and separate it into contributions by the solubility pump, the biological pump and the CO2 disequilibrium component. We also relate these contributions to differences in the strength of the ocean overturning circulation. Depending on which ocean forcing parameter is tuned, the origin of the change in carbon storage is different. When wind stress or ocean diapycnal diffusivity is changed, the response of the biological pump gives the most important effect on ocean carbon storage, whereas when atmospheric heat diffusivity or ocean isopycnal diffusivity is changed, the solubility pump and the disequilibrium component are also important and sometimes dominant. Despite this complexity, we obtain a negative linear relationship between total ocean carbon and the combined strength of the northern and southern overturning cells. This relationship is robust to different reservoirs dominating the response to different forcing mechanisms. Finally, we conduct a drawdown experiment in which we investigate the capacity for increased carbon storage by artificially maximising the efficiency of the biological pump in our ensemble members. We conclude that different initial states for an ocean model result in different capacities for ocean carbon storage due to differences in the ocean circulation state and the origin of the carbon in the initial ocean carbon reservoir. This could explain why it is difficult to achieve comparable responses of the ocean carbon pumps in model inter-comparison studies in which the initial states vary between models. We show that this effect of the initial state is quantifiable. The drawdown experiment highlights the importance of the strength of the biological pump in the control state for model studies of increased biological efficiency.

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