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  • European Marine Science
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • ICY-LAB
  • GB

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    Authors: J. E. Hatton; H. C. Ng; L. Meire; E. M. S. Woodward; +6 Authors

    Glaciers and ice sheets are experiencing rapid warming under current climatic change and there is increasing evidence that glacial meltwaters provide key dissolved and dissolvable amorphous nutrients to downstream ecosystems. However, large debate exists around the fate of these nutrients within complex and heterogenous fjord environments, where biogeochemical cycling is still often poorly understood. We combine silicon (Si) concentration data with isotopic compositions to better understand silicon cycling and export in two contrasting fjordic environments in south-west Greenland. We show that both fjords have isotopically light dissolved silicon (DSi) within surface waters, despite an apparently rapid biological drawdown of DSi with increasing salinity. We hypothesize that such observations cannot be explained by simple water mass mixing processes, and postulate that an isotopically light source of Si, most likely glacially derived amorphous silica (ASi), is responsible for further modifying these coastal waters within the fjords and beyond. Fjord to coastal exchange is likely a relatively slow process (several months), and thus is less impacted by short-term (

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    NIOZ Repository
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NIOZ Repository
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      NIOZ Repository
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Kershaw, James; Stewart, Joseph A.; Strawson, Ivo; de Carvalho Ferreira, Maria Luiza; +9 Authors

    Funding: Funding for this work was provided by a NERC GW4+ Doctoral Training Partnership studentship (NE/S007504/1) awarded to J.K., an Antarctic Bursary awarded to J.A.S, and NERC grants awarded to L.F.R. (NE/S001743/1; NE/R005117/1; NE/N003861/1). Cruise DY081 was funded by European Research Council starting grant ICY-LAB (Grant Agreement 678371). The concentration of dissolved barium in seawater ([Ba]SW) is influenced by both primary productivity and ocean circulation patterns. Reconstructing past subsurface [Ba]SW can therefore provide important information on processes which regulate global climate. Previous Ba/Ca measurements of scleractinian and bamboo deep-sea coral skeletons exhibit linear relationships with [Ba]SW, acting as archives for past Ba cycling. However, skeletal Ba/Ca ratios of the Stylasteridae – a group of widely distributed, azooxanthellate, hydrozoan coral – have not been previously studied. Here, we present Ba/Ca ratios of modern stylasterid (aragonitic, calcitic and mixed mineralogy) and azooxanthellate scleractinian skeletons, paired with published proximal hydrographic data. We find that [Ba]SW and sample mineralogy are the primary controls on stylasterid Ba/Ca, while seawater temperature exerts a weak secondary control. [Ba]SW also exerts a strong control on azooxanthellate scleractinian Ba/Ca. However, Ba-incorporation into scleractinian skeletons varies between locations and across depth gradients, and we find a more sensitive relationship between scleractinian Ba/Ca and [Ba]SW than previously reported. Paired Sr/Ca measurements suggest that this variability in scleractinian Ba/Ca may result from the influence of varying degrees of Rayleigh fractionation during calcification. We find that these processes exert a smaller influence on Ba-incorporation into stylasterid coral skeletons, a result consistent with other aspects of their skeletal geochemistry. Stylasterid Ba/Ca ratios are therefore a powerful, novel archive of past changes in [Ba]SW, particularly when measured in combination with temperature sensitive tracers such as Li/Mg or Sr/Ca. Indeed, with robust [Ba]SW and temperature proxies now established, stylasterids have the potential to be an important new archive for palaeoceanographic studies. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

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    Chemical Geology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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      Chemical Geology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: A. A. Naidoo-Bagwell; A. A. Naidoo-Bagwell; F. M. Monteiro; K. R. Hendry; +7 Authors

    Abstract. We extend the ecological component (‘ECOGEM’) of the carbon-centric Grid Enabled Integrated Earth system model (‘cGEnIE’) to include a diatom functional group. ECOGEM represents plankton community dynamics via a spectrum of ecophysiological traits originally based on size and plankton food web (phyto- and zooplankton; EcoGEnIE 1.0), which we developed here to account for a diatom functional group (EcoGEnIE 1.1). We tuned EcoGEnIE 1.1, exploring a range of ecophysiological parameter values specific to phytoplankton, including diatom growth and survival (18 parameters over 250 runs) to fit best the model behaviour akin to observations of diatom biogeography, size class distribution, and global ocean biogeochemistry. This, in conjunction with a previously developed representation in the water column of opal dissolution and an updated iron cycle, produced an improved distribution of dissolved oxygen in the water column relative to the previous EcoGEnIE 1.0 as well as a value for global export production (7.5 Pg C yr−1) closer to previous estimates. Simulated diatom biogeography is characterised by larger size classes dominating at high latitudes, notably in the Southern Ocean, and smaller size classes dominating at lower latitudes. Overall, diatom biological productivity accounts for ~ 20 % of global carbon biomass in the model, with diatoms out-competing other phytoplankton functional groups when dissolved silica is available due to their faster maximum photosynthetic rates and reduced palatability to grazers. Adding a diatom functional group provides the cGEnIE Earth system model with an extended capability to explore ecological dynamics and their influence on ocean biogeochemistry through the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic, as well as enabling a broader range of palaeoceanographic proxies to be interpreted.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2024 . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Geoscientific Model Development
    Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Geoscientific Model Development
    Article . 2024
    Data sources: DOAJ
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      Other literature type . 2024 . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Geoscientific Model Development
      Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
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      Geoscientific Model Development
      Article . 2024
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    Authors: Wang, Tong; Ng, Hong Chin; Hatton, Jade Elizabeth; Hammond, Samantha J; +3 Authors
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2023
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2023
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Wang, Tong; Ng, Hong Chin; Hatton, Jade Elizabeth; Hammond, Samantha J; +3 Authors

    Method description'Si-HCl content' indicates the content of HCl leached amorphous silica following a sequential extraction method from Michalopoulos and Aller (2004, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2003.07.018); Pickering et al. (2020, doi:10.1029/2020GL087877). 'Si-Alk content' indicates the content of mild alkaline (Na2CO3) leached amorphous silica following the sequential extraction method from Michalopoulos and Aller (2004, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2003.07.018); Pickering et al. (2020, doi:10.1029/2020GL087877).

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2023
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2023
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    Authors: Wang, Tong; Ng, Hong Chin; Hatton, Jade Elizabeth; Hammond, Samantha J; +3 Authors

    This data set includes hydrographic and pore water and core incubation silicic acid concentration and isotope measurements, sediment Si-HCl and Si-Alk contents and isotope measurements, and pore water nutrient, major, and trace element concentrations measured in the fjords Ameralik Fjord and Nuup Kangerlua (Godhäbsfjord) in southwest Greenland. Data was collected during a research expedition, R/V Tulu 2019, in September 2019, as part of ERC funded (678371) project ICY-LAB (Isotope CYcling in the LABrador Sea) and Royal Society funded (RGF\EA\181036) project Biogeochemical Cycling in Greenlandic Fjords. Temperature and salinity data derived from CTD rosette casts were recorded at station AM10 in Ameralik Fjord and station GF-inlet in Nuup Kangerlua. Fjord water sampling was carried out at 2 stations (AM10 and AM12) in Ameralik Fjord and station GF-inlet in Nuup Kangerlua using Towfish and Niskin bottles for near surface and sub surface samples, respectively. For bottle samples, temperature and salinity were measured using an EXO3 Multiparameter Water Quality Sonde. Fjord sediments were collected by a large bore sediment corer (Aquatic Research Instruments) at station AM10a in Ameralik Fjord and station GF-inlet in Nuup Kangerlua. Pore waters were extracted from the sediment cores using Rhizon samplers and core incubation experiments were carried out following the methodology of Hammond et al. (2004, doi:10.4319/lom.2004.2.146). Sediment reactive silica was leached using a sequential extraction method from Michalopoulos and Aller (2004, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2003.07.018) and Pickering et al. (2020, doi:10.1029/2020GL087877).

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2023
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2023
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    Authors: Hendry, Katharine R; Woodward, E Malcolm S;

    The dataset contains pore water macronutrient (nitrate+nitrite, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate) concentration measurements, obtained from seven sediment cores collected from the Greenland margin and the Labrador Sea. Porewaters were extracted from the sediment cores using Rhizon samplers and frozen for transport. The frozen samples were thawed according to GoSHIP protocols and analysed for inorganic macronutrients using a SEAL analytical AAIII segmented flow colorimetric auto-analyser. Seawater nutrient reference materials (KANSO Ltd. Japan) were also analysed to check analyser performance and to guarantee the quality control of the final reported data. The typical uncertainty of the analytical results were between 2-3%, and the limits of detection for nitrate and phosphate were 0.02 mmol/m3, and 0.01 mmol/m3 for nitrite. For full methods and analytical quality control, see Hendry et al., 2019. The samples were collected as part of the European Research Council project ICY-LAB (ERC-2015-STG grant agreement number 678371).

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2023
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      Dataset . 2023
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    Authors: Wang, Tong; Ng, Hong Chin; Hatton, Jade Elizabeth; Hammond, Samantha J; +3 Authors
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2023
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2023
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    Authors: Hatton, Jade Elizabeth; Ng, Hong Chin; Beaton, Alexander; Hawkings, Jonathan; +7 Authors

    Dataset containing hydrographic and biogeochemical data from two fjords (Godhäbsfjord and Ameralik Fjord) in southwest Greenland. Data was collected during expeditions in July 2018 (KQ2018) and September 2019 (TU2019), as part of ERC funded (678371) project ICY-LAB (Isotope CYcling in the LABrador Sea) and Royal Society funded (RGF\EA\181036) project Biogeochemical Cycling in Greenlandic Fjords. All data derived from sensors are reported as an average related to the sampling period for the laboratory analysed data. For data corresponding with Towfish samples, this is a time-averaged value, corresponding to the time the Towfish was in the water and sampling occurred. For Niskin derived samples, the average for sensor derived data was calculated from a 5m depth window from a depth profiler CTD. Sampling method refers to the method in water samples were collected, prior to filtration, storage and laboratory analysis. FISH = a Towfish that was deployed for surface (up to 5m, average 3m) sampling. All detailed sampling protocols and station descriptions can be found in the associated cruise reports.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2023
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      Dataset . 2023
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    Authors: Wang, Tong; Ng, Hong Chin; Hatton, Jade Elizabeth; Hammond, Samantha J; +3 Authors
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2023
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    Authors: J. E. Hatton; H. C. Ng; L. Meire; E. M. S. Woodward; +6 Authors

    Glaciers and ice sheets are experiencing rapid warming under current climatic change and there is increasing evidence that glacial meltwaters provide key dissolved and dissolvable amorphous nutrients to downstream ecosystems. However, large debate exists around the fate of these nutrients within complex and heterogenous fjord environments, where biogeochemical cycling is still often poorly understood. We combine silicon (Si) concentration data with isotopic compositions to better understand silicon cycling and export in two contrasting fjordic environments in south-west Greenland. We show that both fjords have isotopically light dissolved silicon (DSi) within surface waters, despite an apparently rapid biological drawdown of DSi with increasing salinity. We hypothesize that such observations cannot be explained by simple water mass mixing processes, and postulate that an isotopically light source of Si, most likely glacially derived amorphous silica (ASi), is responsible for further modifying these coastal waters within the fjords and beyond. Fjord to coastal exchange is likely a relatively slow process (several months), and thus is less impacted by short-term (

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    NIOZ Repository
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NIOZ Repository
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      NIOZ Repository
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kershaw, James; Stewart, Joseph A.; Strawson, Ivo; de Carvalho Ferreira, Maria Luiza; +9 Authors

    Funding: Funding for this work was provided by a NERC GW4+ Doctoral Training Partnership studentship (NE/S007504/1) awarded to J.K., an Antarctic Bursary awarded to J.A.S, and NERC grants awarded to L.F.R. (NE/S001743/1; NE/R005117/1; NE/N003861/1). Cruise DY081 was funded by European Research Council starting grant ICY-LAB (Grant Agreement 678371). The concentration of dissolved barium in seawater ([Ba]SW) is influenced by both primary productivity and ocean circulation patterns. Reconstructing past subsurface [Ba]SW can therefore provide important information on processes which regulate global climate. Previous Ba/Ca measurements of scleractinian and bamboo deep-sea coral skeletons exhibit linear relationships with [Ba]SW, acting as archives for past Ba cycling. However, skeletal Ba/Ca ratios of the Stylasteridae – a group of widely distributed, azooxanthellate, hydrozoan coral – have not been previously studied. Here, we present Ba/Ca ratios of modern stylasterid (aragonitic, calcitic and mixed mineralogy) and azooxanthellate scleractinian skeletons, paired with published proximal hydrographic data. We find that [Ba]SW and sample mineralogy are the primary controls on stylasterid Ba/Ca, while seawater temperature exerts a weak secondary control. [Ba]SW also exerts a strong control on azooxanthellate scleractinian Ba/Ca. However, Ba-incorporation into scleractinian skeletons varies between locations and across depth gradients, and we find a more sensitive relationship between scleractinian Ba/Ca and [Ba]SW than previously reported. Paired Sr/Ca measurements suggest that this variability in scleractinian Ba/Ca may result from the influence of varying degrees of Rayleigh fractionation during calcification. We find that these processes exert a smaller influence on Ba-incorporation into stylasterid coral skeletons, a result consistent with other aspects of their skeletal geochemistry. Stylasterid Ba/Ca ratios are therefore a powerful, novel archive of past changes in [Ba]SW, particularly when measured in combination with temperature sensitive tracers such as Li/Mg or Sr/Ca. Indeed, with robust [Ba]SW and temperature proxies now established, stylasterids have the potential to be an important new archive for palaeoceanographic studies. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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    Chemical Geology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Chemical Geology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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