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  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
  • EU
  • Biogeosciences (BG)
  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: C. Ulses; C. Estournel; P. Marsaleix; K. Soetaert; +13 Authors

    Deep convection plays a key role in the circulation, thermodynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the Mediterranean Sea, considered as a hotspot of biodiversity and climate change. In the framework of the DEWEX (Dense Water Experiment) project, the seasonal cycle and annual budget of dissolved inorganic carbon in the deep convection area of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are investigated over the period September 2012–September 2013, using a 3-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical-chemical modeling approach. We estimate that the northwestern Mediterranean Sea deep convection region was a moderate sink of CO$_2$ for the atmosphere over the study period. The model results show the reduction of CO$_2$ uptake during deep convection, and its increase during the abrupt spring phytoplankton bloom following the deep convection events. We highlight the dominant role of both biological and physical flows in the annual dissolved inorganic carbon budget. The upper layer of the northwestern deep convection region gained dissolved inorganic carbon through vertical physical supplies and, to a lesser extent, air-sea flux, and lost dissolved inorganic carbon through lateral transport and biological fluxes. The region, covering 2.5 % of the Mediterranean, acted as a source of dissolved inorganic carbon for the surface and intermediate water masses of the western and southern Western Mediterranean Sea and could contribute up to 10 and 20 % to the CO$_2$ exchanges with the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. International audience

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2022
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: DOAJ
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2022
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: K. Castro-Morales; A. Canning; S. Arzberger; W. A. Overholt; +7 Authors

    Large amounts of methane (CH4) could be released as a result of the gradual or abrupt thawing of Arctic permafrost due to global warming. Once available, this potent greenhouse gas is emitted into the atmosphere or transported laterally into aquatic ecosystems via hydrologic connectivity at the surface or via groundwaters. While high northern latitudes contribute up to 5 % of total global CH4 emissions, the specific contribution of Arctic rivers and streams is largely unknown. We analyzed high-resolution continuous CH4 concentrations measured between 15 and 17 June 2019 (late freshet) in a ∼120 km transect of the Kolyma River in northeast Siberia. The average partial pressure of CH4 (pCH4) in tributaries (66.8–206.8 µatm) was 2–7 times higher than in the main river channel (28.3 µatm). In the main channel, CH4 was up to 1600 % supersaturated with respect to atmospheric equilibrium. Key sites along the riverbank and at tributary confluences accounted for 10 % of the navigated transect and had the highest pCH4 (41 ± 7 µatm) and CH4 emissions (0.03 ± 0.004 mmolm-2d-1) compared to other sites in the main channel, contributing between 14 % to 17 % of the total CH4 flux in the transect. These key sites were characterized by warm waters (T>14.5 ∘C) and low specific conductivities (κ<88 µS cm−1). The distribution of CH4 in the river could be linked statistically to T and κ of the water and to their proximity to the shore z, and these parameters served as predictors of CH4 concentrations in unsampled river areas. The abundance of CH4-consuming bacteria and CH4-producing archaea in the river was similar to those previously detected in nearby soils and was also strongly correlated to T and κ. These findings imply that the source of riverine CH4 is closely related with sites near land. The average total CH4 flux density in the river section was 0.02 ± 0.006 mmolm-2d-1, equivalent to an annual CH4 flux of 1.24×107 g CH4 yr−1 emitted during a 146 d open water season. Our study highlights the importance of high-resolution continuous CH4 measurements in Arctic rivers for identifying spatial and temporal variations, as well as providing a glimpse of the magnitude of riverine CH4 emissions in the Arctic and their potential relevance to regional CH4 budgets.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biogeosciences; Ocea...arrow_drop_down
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2022
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    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biogeosciences; Ocea...arrow_drop_down
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2022
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2022
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      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: N. Lehmann; N. Lehmann; N. Lehmann; H. Lantuit; +8 Authors

    The weathering rate of carbonate minerals is several orders of magnitude higher than for silicate minerals. Therefore, small amounts of carbonate minerals have the potential to control the dissolved weathering loads in silicate-dominated catchments. Both weathering processes produce alkalinity under the consumption of CO2. Given that only alkalinity generation from silicate weathering is thought to be a long-term sink for CO2, a misattributed weathering source could lead to incorrect conclusions about long- and short-term CO2 fixation. In this study, we aimed to identify the weathering sources responsible for alkalinity generation and CO2 fixation across watershed scales in a degrading permafrost landscape in northern Norway, 68.7–70.5∘ N, and on a temporal scale, in a subarctic headwater catchment on the mountainside of Iskorasfjellet, characterized by sporadic permafrost and underlain mainly by silicates as the alkalinity-bearing lithology. By analyzing total alkalinity (AT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, as well as the stable isotope signature of the latter (δ13C-DIC), in conjunction with dissolved cation and anion loads, we found that AT was almost entirely derived from weathering of the sparse carbonate minerals. We propose that in the headwater catchment the riparian zone is a hotspot area of AT generation and release due to its enhanced hydrological connectivity and that the weathering load contribution from the uphill catchment is limited by insufficient contact time of weathering agents and weatherable materials. By using stable water isotopes, it was possible to explain temporal variations in AT concentrations following a precipitation event due to surface runoff. In addition to carbonic acid, sulfuric acid, probably originating from oxidation of pyrite or reduced sulfur in wetlands or from acid deposition, is shown to be a potential corrosive reactant. An increased proportion of sulfuric acid as a potential weathering agent may have resulted in a decrease in AT. Therefore, carbonate weathering in the studied area should be considered not only as a short-term CO2 sink but also as a potential CO2 source. Finally, we found that AT increased with decreasing permafrost probability, and attributed this relation to an increased water storage capacity associated with increasing contact of weathering agent and rock surfaces and enhanced microbial activity. As both soil respiration and permafrost thaw are expected to increase with climate change, increasing the availability of weathering agents in the form of CO2 and water storage capacity, respectively, we suggest that future weathering rates and alkalinity generation will increase concomitantly in the study area.

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    Other literature type . 2022
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    Article . 2023
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2022
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2023
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kristian Spilling; Jonna Piiparinen; Eric P. Achterberg; Javier Arístegui; +9 Authors

    The Peruvian upwelling system is a highly productive ecosystem that could be altered by ongoing global changes. We carried out a mesocosm experiment off Peru, with the addition of water masses from the regional oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) collected at two different sites simulating two different upwelling scenarios. Here we focus on pelagic remineralization of organic matter by extracellular enzyme production of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA). After addition of the OMZ water, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) was depleted, but the standing stock of phytoplankton was relatively high even after nutrient depletion (mostly >4 µg chlorophyll a L-1). During the initial phase of the experiment, APA was 0.6 nmol L-1 h-1 even though the PO43- concentration was >0.5 µmol L-1. Initially, the dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) decreased, coinciding with an increase in PO43- concentration probably linked to the APA. The LAP activity was very high with most of the measurements in the range 200–800 nmol L-1 h-1. This enzyme degrades amino acids and these high values are probably linked to the highly productive, but N-limited coastal ecosystem. Also, the experiment took place during a rare coastal El Niño event with higher-than-normal surface temperatures, which could have affected the enzyme production. Using a non-parametric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS) with a generalized additive model (GAM), we found that biogeochemical variables (e.g. nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations), phytoplankton and bacterial communities explained up to 64 % of the variability in APA. The bacterial community explained best the variability (34 %) in LAP. The high hydrolysis rates for this enzyme suggests that pelagic N remineralization supported the high standing stock of primary producers in the mesocosms after N depletion.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2022
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2022
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    Authors: B. K. Biskaborn; A. Forster; A. Forster; G. Pfalz; +9 Authors

    This study is based on multiproxy data gained from a 14C-dated 6.5 m long sediment core and a 210Pb-dated 23 cm short core retrieved from Lake Rauchuagytgyn in Chukotka, Arctic Russia. Our main objectives are to reconstruct the environmental history and ecological development of the lake during the last 29 kyr and to investigate the main drivers behind bioproduction shifts. The methods comprise age-modeling, accumulation rate estimation, and light microscope diatom species analysis of 74 samples, as well as organic carbon, nitrogen, and mercury analysis. Diatoms have appeared in the lake since 21.8 ka cal BP and are dominated by planktonic Lindavia ocellata and L. cyclopuncta. Around the Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, other taxa including planktonic Aulacoseira, benthic fragilarioid (Staurosira), and achnanthoid species increase in their abundance. There is strong correlation between variations of diatom valve accumulation rates (DARs; mean 176.1×109 valves m2 a1), organic carbon accumulation rates (OCARs; mean 4.6 g m−2 a−1), and mercury accumulation rates (HgARs; mean 63.4 µg m−2 a−1). We discuss the environmental forcings behind shifts in diatom species and find moderate responses of key taxa to the cold glacial period, postglacial warming, the Younger Dryas, and the Holocene Thermal Maximum. The short-core data likely suggest recent change of the diatom community at the beginning of the 20th century related to human-induced warming but only little evidence of atmospheric deposition of contaminants. Significant correlation between DAR and OCAR in the Holocene interglacial indicates within-lake bioproduction represents bulk organic carbon deposited in the lake sediment. During both glacial and interglacial episodes HgAR is mainly bound to organic matter in the lake associated with biochemical substrate conditions. There were only ambiguous signs of increased HgAR during the industrialization period. We conclude that if increased short-term emissions are neglected, pristine Arctic lake systems can potentially serve as long-term CO2 and Hg sinks during warm climate episodes driven by insolation-enhanced within-lake primary productivity. Maintaining intact natural lake ecosystems should therefore be of interest to future environmental policy.

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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: DOAJ
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2023
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Copernicus Publications
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    Authors: Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Clerc, Corentin; +5 Authors

    Abstract. The impact of anthropogenic climate change on marine net primary production (NPP) is a reason for concern because changing NPP will have widespread consequences for marine ecosystems and their associated services. Projections by the current generation of Earth system models have suggested decreases in global NPP in response to future climate change, albeit with very large uncertainties. Here, we make use of two versions of the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Climate Model (IPSL-CM) that simulate divergent NPP responses to similar high-emission scenarios in the 21st century and identify nitrogen fixation as the main driver of these divergent NPP responses. Differences in the way N fixation is parameterised in the marine biogeochemical component PISCES (Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies) of the IPSL-CM versions lead to N-fixation rates that are either stable or double over the course of the 21st century, resulting in decreasing or increasing global NPP, respectively. An evaluation of these two model versions does not help constrain future NPP projection uncertainties. However, the use of a more comprehensive version of PISCES, with variable nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios as well as a revised parameterisation of the temperature sensitivity of N fixation, suggests only moderate changes in globally averaged N fixation in the 21st century. This leads to decreasing global NPP, in line with the model-mean changes of a recent multi-model intercomparison. Lastly, despite contrasting trends in NPP, all our model versions simulate similar and significant reductions in planktonic biomass. This suggests that projected plankton biomass may be a more robust indicator than NPP of the potential impact of anthropogenic climate change on marine ecosystems across models. International audience

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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2022
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: L. M. Djeutchouang; L. M. Djeutchouang; N. Chang; L. Gregor; +2 Authors

    The Southern Ocean is a complex system yet is sparsely sampled in both space and time. These factors raise questions about the confidence in present sampling strategies and associated machine learning (ML) reconstructions. Previous studies have not yielded a clear understanding of the origin of uncertainties and biases for the reconstructions of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) at the surface ocean (pCO(2)(ocean)). We examine these questions through a series of semi-idealized observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using a high-resolution (+/- 10 km) coupled physical and biogeochemical model (NEMO-PISCES, Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies). Here we choose 1 year of the model sub-domain of 10 degrees of latitude (40-50 degrees S) by 20 degrees of longitude (10 degrees W-10 degrees E). This domain is crossed by the sub-Antarctic front and thus includes both the sub-Antarctic zone and the polar frontal zone in the south-east Atlantic Ocean, which are the two most sampled sub-regions of the Southern Ocean. We show that while this sub-domain is small relative to the Southern Ocean scales, it is representative of the scales of variability we aim to examine. The OSSEs simulated the observational scales of pCO(2)(ocean) in ways that are comparable to existing ocean CO2 observing platforms (ships, Wave Gliders, carbon floats, Saildrones) in terms of their temporal sampling scales and not necessarily their spatial ones. The pCO(2) reconstructions were carried out using a two-member ensemble approach that consisted of two machine learning (ML) methods, (1) the feed-forward neural network and (2) the gradient boosting machines. The baseline data were from the ship-based simulations mimicking ship-based observations from the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). For each of the sampling-scale scenarios, we applied the two-member ensemble method to reconstruct the full sub-domain pCO(2)(ocean). The reconstruction skill was then assessed through a statistical comparison of reconstructed pCO(2) cean and the model domain mean. The analysis shows that uncertainties and biases for pCO(2)(ocean) reconstructions are very sensitive to both the spatial and the temporal scales of pCO(2) sampling in the model domain. The four key findings from our investigation are as follows: (1) improving ML-based pCO(2) reconstructions in the Southern Ocean requires simultaneous high-resolution observations (<3 d) of the seasonal cycle of the meridional gradients of pCO(2)(ocean); (2) Saildrones stand out as the optimal platforms to simultaneously address these requirements; (3) Wave Gliders with hourly/daily resolution in pseudomooring mode improve on carbon floats (10 d period), which suggests that sampling aliases from the 10 d sampling period might have a greater negative impact on their uncertainties, biases, and reconstruction means; and (4) the present seasonal sampling biases (towards summer) in SOCAT data in the Southern Ocean may be behind a significant winter bias in the reconstructed seasonal cycle of pCO(2)(ocean). Biogeosciences, 19 (17) ISSN:1726-4170

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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2022
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      Biogeosciences
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      Article . 2022
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      Biogeosciences
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    Authors: Marco Reale; Gianpiero Cossarini; Paolo Lazzari; Tomas Lovato; +4 Authors

    The projected warming, nutrient decline, changes in net primary production, deoxygenation and acidification of the global ocean will affect marine ecosystems during the 21st century. Here, the climate change-related impacts on the marine ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea in the middle and at the end of the 21st century are assessed using high-resolution projections of the physical and biogeochemical state of the basin under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. In both scenarios, the analysis shows changes in the dissolved nutrient contents of the euphotic and intermediate layers of the basin, net primary production, phytoplankton respiration and carbon stock (including phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacterial biomass and particulate organic matter). The projections also show uniform surface and subsurface reductions in the oxygen concentration driven by the warming of the water column and by the increase in ecosystem respiration as well as an acidification signal in the upper water column linked to the increase in the dissolved inorganic carbon content of the water column due to CO2 absorption from the atmosphere and the increase in respiration. The projected changes are stronger in the RCP8.5 (worst-case) scenario and, in particular, in the eastern Mediterranean due to the limited influence of the exchanges in the Strait of Gibraltar in that part of the basin. On the other hand, analysis of the projections under the RCP4.5 emission scenario shows a tendency to recover the values observed at the beginning of the 21st century for several biogeochemical variables in the second half of the period. This result supports the idea – possibly based on the existence in a system such as the Mediterranean Sea of a certain buffer capacity and renewal rate – that the implementation of policies for reducing CO2 emission could indeed be effective and could contribute to the foundation of ocean sustainability science and policies.

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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Biogeosciences
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biogeosciences
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    Authors: Moritz Baumann; Allanah Joy Paul; Jan Taucher; Lennart Thomas Bach; +4 Authors

    As one of Earth's most productive marine ecosystems, the Peruvian upwelling system transports large amounts of biogenic matter from the surface to the deep ocean. Whilst particle sinking velocity is a key factor controlling the biological pump, thereby affecting carbon sequestration and O2-depletion, it has not yet been measured in this system. During a 50 d mesocosm experiment in the surface waters off the coast of Peru, we assessed particle sinking velocities and their biogeochemical and physical drivers. We further characterized the general properties of exported particles under different phytoplankton communities and nutritional states. Average sinking velocities varied between size classes and ranged from 12.8 ± 0.7 m d−1 (particles 40–100 µm) to 19.4 ± 0.7 m d−1 (particles 100–250 µm) and 34.2 ± 1.5 m d−1 (particles 250–1000 µm) (± 95 % CI). Despite a distinct plankton succession from diatoms to dinoflagellates with concomitant 5-fold drop in opal ballasting, substantial changes in sinking velocity were not observed. This illustrates the complexity of counteracting factors driving the settling behaviour of marine particles. In contrast, we found higher sinking velocities with increasing particle size and roundness and decreasing porosity. Size had by far the strongest influence among these physical particle properties, despite a high amount of unexplained variability. Our study provides a detailed analysis of the drivers of particle sinking velocity in the Peruvian upwelling system, which allows modellers to optimize local particle flux parameterization. This will help to better project oxygen concentrations and carbon sequestration in a region that is subject to substantial climate-driven changes.

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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
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      Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
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    Authors: N. J. de Winter; N. J. de Winter; D. Killam; L. Fröhlich; +6 Authors

    The chemical composition of mollusk shells is a useful tool in (paleo)climatology since it captures inter- and intra-annual variability in environmental conditions. Trace element and stable isotope analysis with improved sampling resolution now allows in situ determination of the composition of mollusk shell volumes precipitated at daily to sub-daily time intervals. Here, we discuss hourly resolved Mg / Ca, Mn / Ca, Sr / Ca, and Ba / Ca profiles measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) through shells of the photosymbiotic giant clams (Tridacna maxima, T. squamosa, and T. squamosina) and the non-photosymbiotic scallop Pecten maximus. Precise sclerochronological age models and spectral analysis allowed us to extract daily and tidal rhythms in the trace element composition of these shells. We find weak but statistically significant expressions of these periods and conclude that this cyclicity explains less than 10 % of the sub-annual variance in trace element profiles. Tidal and diurnal rhythms explain variability of, at most, 0.2 mmol mol−1 (∼ 10 % of mean value) in Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca, while ultradian Mn / Ca and Ba / Ca cyclicity has a median amplitude of less than 2 µmol mol−1 mol mol−1 (∼ 40 % and 80 % of the mean of Mn / Ca and Ba / Ca, respectively). Daily periodicity in Sr / Ca and Ba / Ca is stronger in Tridacna than in Pecten, with Pecten showing stronger tidal periodicity. One T. squamosa specimen which grew under a sunshade exhibits among the strongest diurnal cyclicity. Daily cycles in the trace element composition of giant clams are therefore unlikely to be driven by variations in direct insolation but rather reflect an inherent biological rhythmic process affecting element incorporation. Finally, the large amount of short-term trace element variability unexplained by tidal and daily rhythms highlights the dominance of aperiodic processes in mollusk physiology and/or environmental conditions over shell composition at the sub-daily scale. Future studies should aim to investigate whether this remaining variability in shell chemistry reliably records weather patterns or circulation changes in the animals' environment. International audience

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    Biogeosciences
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
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    Authors: C. Ulses; C. Estournel; P. Marsaleix; K. Soetaert; +13 Authors

    Deep convection plays a key role in the circulation, thermodynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the Mediterranean Sea, considered as a hotspot of biodiversity and climate change. In the framework of the DEWEX (Dense Water Experiment) project, the seasonal cycle and annual budget of dissolved inorganic carbon in the deep convection area of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are investigated over the period September 2012–September 2013, using a 3-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical-chemical modeling approach. We estimate that the northwestern Mediterranean Sea deep convection region was a moderate sink of CO$_2$ for the atmosphere over the study period. The model results show the reduction of CO$_2$ uptake during deep convection, and its increase during the abrupt spring phytoplankton bloom following the deep convection events. We highlight the dominant role of both biological and physical flows in the annual dissolved inorganic carbon budget. The upper layer of the northwestern deep convection region gained dissolved inorganic carbon through vertical physical supplies and, to a lesser extent, air-sea flux, and lost dissolved inorganic carbon through lateral transport and biological fluxes. The region, covering 2.5 % of the Mediterranean, acted as a source of dissolved inorganic carbon for the surface and intermediate water masses of the western and southern Western Mediterranean Sea and could contribute up to 10 and 20 % to the CO$_2$ exchanges with the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. International audience

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2022
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: DOAJ
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