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  • Authors: Davide Zanchettin;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: B. Stevens; S. Bony; D. Farrell; F. Ament; +196 Authors

    The science guiding the EUREC$^4$A campaign and its measurements is presented. EUREC$^4$A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward andsoutheastward of Barbados. Through its ability to characterize processes operating across a wide range of scales, EUREC$^4$A marked a turning point in our ability to observationally study factors influencing clouds in the trades, how they will respond to warming, and their link to other components of the earth system, such as upper-ocean processes or the life cycle of particulate matter. This characterization was made possible by thousands (2500) of sondes distributed to measure circulations on meso- (200 km) and larger (500 km) scales, roughly 400 h of flight time by four heavily instrumented research aircraft; four global-class research vessels; an advanced groundbased cloud observatory; scores of autonomous observing platforms operating in the upper ocean (nearly 10 000 profiles), lower atmosphere (continuous profiling), and along the air–sea interface; a network of water stable isotopologue measurements; targeted tasking of satellite remote sensing; and modeling with a new generation of weather and climate models. In addition to providing an outline of the novel measurements and their composition into a unified and coordinated campaign, the six distinct scientific facets that EUREC$^4$A explored – from North Brazil Current rings to turbulence-induced clustering of cloud droplets and its influence on warm-rain formation – are presented along with an overview of EUREC$^4$A’s outreach activities, environmental impact, and guidelines for scientific practice. Track data for all platforms are standardized and accessible at https://doi.org/10.25326/165 (Stevens, 2021), and a film documenting the campaign is provided as a video supplement This article is part of the special issue “Elucidating the role of clouds–circulation coupling in climate:datasets from the 2020 (EUREC4A) field campaign”. It is not associated with a conference. International audience

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
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    Lille Open Archive
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: Lille Open Archive
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2021
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Nino Maag; Gabriele Cozzi; Andrew W. Bateman; Michael Heistermann; +4 Authors

    Dispersal is a key process influencing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations. Dispersal success is determined by the state of individuals at emigration and the costs incurred after emigration. However, quantification of such costs is often difficult, due to logistical constraints of following wide-ranging individuals. We investigated the effects of dispersal on individual body mass and stress hormone levels in a cooperative breeder, the meerkat ( Suricata suricatta ). We measured body mass and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations from 95 dispersing females in 65 coalitions through the entire dispersal process. Females that successfully settled lost body mass, while females that did not settle but returned to their natal group after a short period of time did not. Furthermore, dispersing females had higher fGCM levels than resident females, and this was especially pronounced during the later stages of dispersal. By adding information on the transient stage of dispersal and by comparing dispersers that successfully settled to dispersers that returned to their natal group, we expand on previous studies focusing on the earlier stages of dispersal. We propose that body mass and stress hormone levels are good indicators to investigate dispersal costs, as these traits often play an important role in mediating the effects of the environment on other life-history events and individual fitness. Swiss National Science Foundation http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001711 ERC Advanced

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Royal Society Data Sharing and Accessibility
    https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-16...
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Royal Society Data Sharing and Accessibility
      https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-16...
      Other literature type . 2019
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Alexandre K. Magnan; Michel Colombier; Raphaël Billé; Fortunat Joos; +5 Authors

    In the aftermath of COP21, potential post-2030 emission trajectories and their consistency with the 2 °C target are a core concern for the ocean scientific community in light of the end-century risks of impact scenarios.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nature Climate Chang...arrow_drop_down
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    Nature Climate Change
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
    Other literature type . 2016
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Nature Climate Change
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
      https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
      Other literature type . 2016
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Schmitt, J.; Schneider, R.; Fischer, H.;

    In order to provide high precision stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13CO2 or δ13C of CO2) from small bubbly, partially and fully clathrated ice core samples we developed a new method based on sublimation coupled to gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). In a first step the trapped air is quantitatively released from ~30 g of ice and CO2 together with N2O are separated from the bulk air components and stored in a miniature glass tube. In an off-line step, the extracted sample is introduced into a helium carrier flow using a minimised tube cracker device. Prior to measurement, N2O and organic sample contaminants are gas chromatographically separated from CO2. Pulses of a CO2/N2O mixture are admitted to the tube cracker and follow the path of the sample through the system. This allows an identical treatment and comparison of sample and standard peaks. The ability of the method to reproduce δ13C from bubble and clathrate ice is verified on different ice cores. We achieve reproducibilities for bubble ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.07 ‰ and for clathrate ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.09 ‰ (dependent on the ice core used). A comparison of our data with measurements on bubble ice from the same ice core but using a mechanical extraction device shows no significant systematic offset. In addition to δ13C, the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios can be volumetrically derived with a precision of 2 ppmv and 8 ppbv, respectively.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2011
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-...
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: SNSF P3 Database
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2018
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2011
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-...
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: SNSF P3 Database
      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Suganya Sivagurunathan; Ohad Medalia; Miriam Sarah Weber;

    Keratin intermediate filaments are an essential and major component of the cytoskeleton in epithelial cells. They form a stable yet dynamic filamentous network extending from the nucleus to the cell periphery, which provides resistance to mechanical stresses. Mutations in keratin genes are related to a variety of epithelial tissue diseases. Despite their importance, the molecular structure of keratin filaments remains largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the structure of keratin 5/keratin 14 filaments within ghost mouse keratinocytes by cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography. By averaging a large number of keratin segments, we have gained insights into the helical architecture of the filaments. Two-dimensional classification revealed profound variations in the diameter of keratin filaments and their subunit organization. Computational reconstitution of filaments of substantial length uncovered a high degree of internal heterogeneity along single filaments, which can contain regions of helical symmetry, regions with less symmetry and regions with significant diameter fluctuations. Cross-section views of filaments revealed that keratins form hollow cylinders consisting of multiple protofilaments, with an electron dense core located in the center of the filament. These findings shed light on the complex and remarkable heterogenic architecture of keratin filaments, suggesting that they are highly flexible, dynamic cytoskeletal structures.

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    eLife; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      eLife; OpenAPC Global Initiative
      Article . Conference object . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mischa Haas; Franziska Baumann; Daniel Castella; Negar Haghipour; +4 Authors

    Abstract Land cover transformations have accompanied the rise and fall of civilizations for thousands of years, exerting strong influence on the surrounding environment. Soil erosion and the associated outwash of nutrients are a main cause of eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Despite the great challenges of water protection in the face of climate change, large uncertainties remain concerning the timescales for recovery of aquatic ecosystems impacted by hypoxia. This study seeks to address this issue by investigating the sedimentary record of Lake Murten (Switzerland), which witnessed several phases of intensive human land-use over the past 2000 years. Application of geophysical and geochemical methods to a 10 m-long sediment core revealed that soil erosion increased drastically with the rise of the Roman City of Aventicum (30 CE). During this period, the radiocarbon age of the bulk sedimentary organic carbon (OC) increasingly deviated from the modeled deposition age, indicating rapid flushing of old soil OC from the surrounding catchment driven by intensive land-use. Enhanced nutrient delivery resulted in an episode of cultural eutrophication, as shown by the deposition of varved sediments. Human activity drastically decreased towards the end of the Roman period (3rd century CE), resulting in land abandonment and renaturation. Recovery of the lake ecosystem from bottom-water hypoxia after the peak in human activity took around 50 years, while approximately 300 years passed until sediment accumulation reached steady state conditions on the surrounding landscape. These findings suggest that the legacy of anthropogenic perturbation to watersheds may persist for centuries.

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    Earth and Planetary Science Letters
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Earth and Planetary Science Letters
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mélissa Lemoine; Kay Lucek; Charles Perrier; Verena Saladin; +23 Authors

    Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species - the great tit Parus major - at different spatial scales. We analysed 884 individuals from 30 sites across Europe including 10 close-by sites (< 50 km), using 22 microsatellite markers. Overall we found a low but significant genetic differentiation among sites (F-ST = 0.008). Genetic differentiation was higher, and genetic diversity lower, in south-western Europe. These regional differences were statistically best explained by winter temperature. Overall, our results suggest that great tits form a single patchy metapopulation across Europe, in which genetic differentiation is independent of geographical distance and gene flow may be regulated by environmental factors via movements related to winter severity. This might have important implications for the evolutionary trajectories of sub-populations, especially in the context of climate change, and calls for future investigations of local differences in costs and benefits of philopatry at large scales. (C) 2016 The Linnean Society of London The study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (3100A0-102017 to HR, P2BEP3_152103 to KL and PMPDP3_151361/161858 to ML). We thank L. Gustafsson and J. Forsman who kindly allowed us to use their nest boxes. We gratefully thank E. Bezault, L. Cornetti and two anonymous reviewers for valuable advice on genetic analyses and helpful comments on the manuscript. All samples were collected under licenses of national authorities and financially supported by the Academy of Finland grant (to NP and 265859 to TE), the Netherland Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO-VICI 86503003 to JK and NWO-VICI to MV), the Netherlands Genomics Initiative (Horizon grant to KvO), the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA 75618 to JT), the Estonian Ministry of Education and Science (IUT 34-8 to RM), the OSU-OREME, the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (CGL2010-21933-CO-02 to EB), the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/13594/2003 to ACN) and the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-08-JCJC-0041-01 to BD).

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    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Jakob Zopfi; Helge Niemann; Tina Treude; Moritz F. Lehmann; +1 Authors

    Abstract. Coastal seas may account for more than 75 % of global oceanic methane emissions. There, methane is mainly produced microbially in anoxic sediments from which it can escape to the overlying water column. Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column acts as a biological filter, reducing the amount of methane that eventually evades to the atmosphere. The efficiency of the MOx filter is potentially controlled by the availability of dissolved methane and oxygen, as well as temperature, salinity, and hydrographic dynamics, and all of these factors undergo strong temporal fluctuations in coastal ecosystems. In order to elucidate the key environmental controls, specifically the effect of oxygen availability, on MOx in a seasonally stratified and hypoxic coastal marine setting, we conducted a 2-year time-series study with measurements of MOx and physico-chemical water column parameters in a coastal inlet in the south-western Baltic Sea (Eckernförde Bay). We found that MOx rates generally increased toward the seafloor, but were not directly linked to methane concentrations. MOx exhibited a strong seasonal variability, with maximum rates (up to 11.6 nmol L−1 d−1) during summer stratification when oxygen concentrations were lowest and bottom-water temperatures were highest. Under these conditions, 2.4–19.0 times more methane was oxidized than emitted to the atmosphere, whereas about the same amount was consumed and emitted during the mixed and oxygenated periods. Laboratory experiments with manipulated oxygen concentrations in the range of 0.2–220 µmol L−1 revealed a submicromolar oxygen optimum for MOx at the study site. In contrast, the fraction of methane–carbon incorporation into the bacterial biomass (compared to the total amount of oxidized methane) was up to 38-fold higher at saturated oxygen concentrations, suggesting a different partitioning of catabolic and anabolic processes under oxygen-replete and oxygen-starved conditions, respectively. Our results underscore the importance of MOx in mitigating methane emission from coastal waters and indicate an organism-level adaptation of the water column methanotrophs to hypoxic conditions.

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    Biogeosciences; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Biogeosciences
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    Authors: M. Sigl; M. Winstrup; J. R. McConnell; K. C. Welten; +20 Authors

    Volcanic eruptions contribute to climate variability, but quantifying these contributions has been limited by inconsistencies in the timing of atmospheric volcanic aerosol loading determined from ice cores and subsequent cooling from climate proxies such as tree rings. Here we resolve these inconsistencies and show that large eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were primary drivers of interannual-to-decadal temperature variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 2,500 years. Our results are based on new records of atmospheric aerosol loading developed from high-resolution, multi-parameter measurements from an array of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores as well as distinctive age markers to constrain chronologies. Overall, cooling was proportional to the magnitude of volcanic forcing and persisted for up to ten years after some of the largest eruptive episodes. Our revised timescale more firmly implicates volcanic eruptions as catalysts in the major sixth-century pandemics, famines, and socioeconomic disruptions in Eurasia and Mesoamerica while allowing multi-millennium quantification of climate response to volcanic forcing.

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  • Authors: Davide Zanchettin;