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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cedric Jasper Hahn; Olivier N. Lemaire; Jörg Kahnt; Sylvain Engilberge; +2 Authors

    How to feed an enzyme ethane When released from ocean floor seeps, small hydrocarbons are rapidly consumed by micro-organisms. Methane is highly abundant and is both produced and consumed by microbes through well understood biochemical pathways. Less well understood is how ethane, also a major natural component of gaseous hydrocarbons, is metabolized. To understand how microbes take advantage of this energy and carbon source, Hahn et al. solved the x-ray crystal structures of an enzyme they call ethyl coenzyme-M reductase, which converts ethane into the thioether ethyl-coenzyme M as the entry point for catabolism. They found an expanded active site and, using a xenon gas derivatization experiment, a distinctive tunnel through the protein that is proposed to permit access of the gaseous substrate. Science , abg1765, this issue p. 118

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MPG.PuRearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Science
    Article . 2020
    Science
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MPG.PuRearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Science
      Article . 2020
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      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Julie Thérèse Pasquier; Jan Henneberger; Alexei Korolev; Fabiola Ramelli; +8 Authors

    The sizes and shapes of ice crystals influence the radiative properties of clouds, as well as precipitation initiation and aerosol scavenging. However, ice crystal growth mechanisms remain only partially characterized. We present the growth processes of two complex ice crystal habits observed in Arctic mixed-phase clouds during the Ny-Ålesund AeroSol Cloud ExperimeNT campaign. First, are capped-columns with multiple columns growing out of the plates' corners that we define as columns on capped-columns. These ice crystals originated from cycling through the columnar and plate temperature growth regimes, during their vertical transport by in-cloud circulation. Second, is aged rime on the surface of ice crystals having grown into faceted columns or plates depending on the environmental conditions. Despite their complexity, the shapes of these ice crystals allow to infer their growth history and provide information about the in-cloud conditions. Additionally, these ice crystals exhibit complex shapes and could enhance aggregation and secondary ice production. Geophysical Research Letters, 50 (1) ISSN:1944-8007 ISSN:0094-8276

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geophysical Research...arrow_drop_down
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    Geophysical Research Letters
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geophysical Research...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Geophysical Research Letters
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Anna Wegner; Hubertus Fischer; Barbara Delmonte; J. R. Petit; +5 Authors

    AbstractWe present a record of particulate dust concentration and size distribution in subannual resolution measured on the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dronning Maud Land (EDML) ice core drilled in the Atlantic sector of the East Antarctic plateau. The record reaches from present day back to the penultimate glacial until 145,000 years B.P. with subannual resolution from 60,000 years B.P. to the present. Mean dust concentrations are a factor of 46 higher during the glacial (~850–4600 ng/mL) compared to the Holocene (~16–112 ng/mL) with slightly smaller dust particles during the glacial compared to the Holocene and with an absolute minimum in the dust size at 16,000 years B.P. The changes in dust concentration are mainly attributed to changes in source conditions in southern South America. An increase in the modal value of the dust size suggests that at 16,000 years B.P. a major change in atmospheric circulation apparently allowed more direct transport of dust particles to the EDML drill site. We find a clear in‐phase relation of the seasonal variation in dust mass concentration and dust size during the glacial (r(conc,size) = 0.8) but no clear phase relationship during the Holocene (0 < r(conc,size) < 0.4). With a simple conceptual 1‐D model describing the transport of the dust to the ice sheet using the size as an indicator for transport intensity, we find that the effect of the changes in the seasonality of the source emission strength and the transport intensity on the dust decrease over Transition 1 can significantly contribute to the large decrease of dust concentration from the glacial to the Holocene.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bern Open Repository...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD...
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
    Other literature type . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bern Open Repository...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD...
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: SNSF P3 Database
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
      Other literature type . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kerstes, Niels AG; Bérénos, Camillo; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Wegner, K Mathias;

    Background One of the big remaining challenges in evolutionary biology is to understand the evolution and maintenance of meiotic recombination. As recombination breaks down successful genotypes, it should be selected for only under very limited conditions. Yet, recombination is very common and phylogenetically widespread. The Red Queen Hypothesis is one of the most prominent hypotheses for the adaptive value of recombination and sexual reproduction. The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts an advantage of recombination for hosts that are coevolving with their parasites. We tested predictions of the hypothesis with experimental coevolution using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and its microsporidian parasite, Nosema whitei. Results By measuring recombination directly in the individuals under selection, we found that recombination in the host population was increased after 11 generations of coevolution. Detailed insights into genotypic and phenotypic changes occurring during the coevolution experiment furthermore helped us to reconstruct the coevolutionary dynamics that were associated with this increase in recombination frequency. As coevolved lines maintained higher genetic diversity than control lines, and because there was no evidence for heterozygote advantage or for a plastic response of recombination to infection, the observed increase in recombination most likely represented an adaptive host response under Red Queen dynamics. Conclusions This study provides direct, experimental evidence for an increase in recombination frequency under host-parasite coevolution in an obligatory outcrossing species. Combined with earlier results, the Red Queen process is the most likely explanation for this observation. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12 ISSN:1471-2148

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OceanReparrow_drop_down
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    OceanRep
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2012
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OceanReparrow_drop_down
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: OceanRep
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2012
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2012
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2012
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    Authors: Nander Wever; Lino Schmid; Achim Heilig; Olaf Eisen; +2 Authors

    The widely used detailed SNOWPACK model hasundergone constant development over the years. A notablerecent extension is the introduction of a Richards equation(RE) solver as an alternative for the bucket-type approachfor describing water transport in the snow and soil layers.In addition, continuous updates of snow settling and newsnow density parameterizations have changed model behav-ior. This study presents a detailed evaluation of model per-formance against a comprehensive multiyear data set fromWeissfluhjoch near Davos, Switzerland. The data set is col-lected by automatic meteorological and snowpack measure-ments and manual snow profiles. During the main win-ter season, snow height (RMSE:<4.2 cm), snow waterequivalent (SWE, RMSE:<40 mm w.e.), snow tempera-ture distributions (typical deviation with measurements:<1.0◦C) and snow density (typical deviation with observa-tions:<50 kg m−3) as well as their temporal evolution arewell simulated in the model and the influence of the two wa-ter transport schemes is small. The RE approach reproducesinternal differences over capillary barriers but fails to predictenough grain growth since the growth routines have been cal-ibrated using the bucket scheme in the original SNOWPACKmodel. However, the agreement in both density and grainsize is sufficient to parameterize the hydraulic properties suc-cessfully. In the melt season, a pronounced underestimationof typically 200 mm w.e. in SWE is found. The discrepan-cies between the simulations and the field data are generallylarger than the differences between the two water transport schemes. Nevertheless, the detailed comparison of the inter-nal snowpack structure shows that the timing of internal tem-perature and water dynamics is adequately and better repre-sented with the new RE approach when compared to the con-ventional bucket scheme. On the contrary, the progress of themeltwater front in the snowpack as detected by radar and thetemporal evolution of the vertical distribution of melt formsin manually observed snow profiles do not support this con-clusion. This discrepancy suggests that the implementationof RE partly mimics preferential flow effects. The Cryosphere, 9 (2) ISSN:1994-0424 ISSN:1994-0416

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/tcd-9-...
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
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    http://www.the-cryosphere-disc...
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/tcd-9-...
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      http://www.the-cryosphere-disc...
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
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    Authors: Frank Pennekamp; Alison C. Iles; Joshua Garland; Georgina Brennan; +15 Authors

    Successfully predicting the future states of systems that are complex, stochastic, and potentially chaotic is a major challenge. Model forecasting error (FE) is the usual measure of success; however model predictions provide no insights into the potential for improvement. In short, the realized predictability of a specific model is uninformative about whether the system is inherently predictable or whether the chosen model is a poor match for the system and our observations thereof. Ideally, model proficiency would be judged with respect to the systems’ intrinsic predictability, the highest achievable predictability given the degree to which system dynamics are the result of deterministic vs. stochastic processes. Intrinsic predictability may be quantified with permutation entropy (PE), a model‐free, information‐theoretic measure of the complexity of a time series. By means of simulations, we show that a correlation exists between estimated PE and FE and show how stochasticity, process error, and chaotic dynamics affect the relationship. This relationship is verified for a data set of 461 empirical ecological time series. We show how deviations from the expected PE–FE relationship are related to covariates of data quality and the nonlinearity of ecological dynamics. These results demonstrate a theoretically grounded basis for a model‐free evaluation of a system's intrinsic predictability. Identifying the gap between the intrinsic and realized predictability of time series will enable researchers to understand whether forecasting proficiency is limited by the quality and quantity of their data or the ability of the chosen forecasting model to explain the data. Intrinsic predictability also provides a model‐free baseline of forecasting proficiency against which modeling efforts can be evaluated. Ecological Monographs, 89 (2) ISSN:1557-7015 ISSN:0012-9615 ISSN:1741-7015

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    Ecological Monographs
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    Ecological Monographs
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    https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-16...
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      https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-16...
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    Authors: Julie Loisel; Angela V. Gallego-Sala; Matthew J. Amesbury; Gabriel Magnan; +66 Authors

    Peatlands are impacted by climate and land-use changes, with feedback to warming by acting as either sources or sinks of carbon. Expert elicitation combined with literature review reveals key drivers of change that alter peatland carbon dynamics, with implications for improving models. The carbon balance of peatlands is predicted to shift from a sink to a source this century. However, peatland ecosystems are still omitted from the main Earth system models that are used for future climate change projections, and they are not considered in integrated assessment models that are used in impact and mitigation studies. By using evidence synthesized from the literature and an expert elicitation, we define and quantify the leading drivers of change that have impacted peatland carbon stocks during the Holocene and predict their effect during this century and in the far future. We also identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps in the scientific community and provide insight towards better integration of peatlands into modelling frameworks. Given the importance of the contribution by peatlands to the global carbon cycle, this study shows that peatland science is a critical research area and that we still have a long way to go to fully understand the peatland-carbon-climate nexus. Peer reviewed

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    Cranfield CERES
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    OceanRep; Nature Climate Change
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nature Climate Chang...arrow_drop_down
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      Cranfield CERES
      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: Cranfield CERES
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      OceanRep; Nature Climate Change
      Article . 2021 . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jean-Louis Tison; M. de Angelis; Geneviève C Littot; Eric W. Wolff; +25 Authors

    An important share of paleoclimatic information is buried within the lowermost layers of deep ice cores. Because improving our records further back in time is one of the main challenges in the near future, it is essential to judge how deep these records remain unaltered, since the proximity of the bedrock is likely to interfere both with the recorded temporal sequence and the ice properties. In this paper, we present a multiparametric study (δD-δ18Oice, δ18Oatm, total air content, CO2, CH4, N2O, dust, high-resolution chemistry, ice texture) of the bottom 60 m of the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) Dome C ice core from central Antarctica. These bottom layers were subdivided into two distinct facies: the lower 12 m showing visible solid inclusions (basal dispersed ice facies) and the upper 48 m, which we will refer to as the "basal clean ice facies". Some of the data are consistent with a pristine paleoclimatic signal, others show clear anomalies. It is demonstrated that neither large-scale bottom refreezing of subglacial water, nor mixing (be it internal or with a local basal end term from a previous/initial ice sheet configuration) can explain the observed bottom-ice properties. We focus on the high-resolution chemical profiles and on the available remote sensing data on the subglacial topography of the site to propose a mechanism by which relative stretching of the bottom-ice sheet layers is made possible, due to the progressively confining effect of subglacial valley sides. This stress field change, combined with bottom-ice temperature close to the pressure melting point, induces accelerated migration recrystallization, which results in spatial chemical sorting of the impurities, depending on their state (dissolved vs. solid) and if they are involved or not in salt formation. This chemical sorting effect is responsible for the progressive build-up of the visible solid aggregates that therefore mainly originate "from within", and not from incorporation processes of debris from the ice sheet's substrate. We further discuss how the proposed mechanism is compatible with the other ice properties described. We conclude that the paleoclimatic signal is only marginally affected in terms of global ice properties at the bottom of EPICA Dome C, but that the timescale was considerably distorted by mechanical stretching of MIS20 due to the increasing influence of the subglacial topography, a process that might have started well above the bottom ice. A clear paleoclimatic signal can therefore not be inferred from the deeper part of the EPICA Dome C ice core. Our work suggests that the existence of a flat monotonic ice-bedrock interface, extending for several times the ice thickness, would be a crucial factor in choosing a future "oldest ice" drilling location in Antarctica. info:eu-repo/semantics/published SCOPUS: ar.j

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.57694/7216...
    Article . 2015
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2015
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: DI-fusion
    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
    Other literature type . 2015
    Data sources: Datacite
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      NERC Open Research Archive
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.57694/7216...
      Article . 2015
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      Data sources: Datacite
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2015
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Apollo
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      DI-fusion
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: DI-fusion
      https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
      Other literature type . 2015
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Patrick J. Keeling; Fabien Burki; Heather M. Wilcox; Bassem Allam; +77 Authors

    Microbial ecology is plagued by problems of an abstract nature. Cell sizes are so small and population sizes so large that both are virtually incomprehensible. Niches are so far from our everyday experience as to make their very definition elusive. Organisms that may be abundant and critical to our survival are little understood, seldom described and/or cultured, and sometimes yet to be even seen. One way to confront these problems is to use data of an even more abstract nature: molecular sequence data. Massive environmental nucleic acid sequencing, such as metagenomics or metatranscriptomics, promises functional analysis of microbial communities as a whole, without prior knowledge of which organisms are in the environment or exactly how they are interacting. But sequence-based ecological studies nearly always use a comparative approach, and that requires relevant reference sequences, which are an extremely limited resource when it comes to microbial eukaryotes [1]. In practice, this means sequence databases need to be populated with enormous quantities of data for which we have some certainties about the source. Most important is the taxonomic identity of the organism from which a sequence is derived and as much functional identification of the encoded proteins as possible. In an ideal world, such information would be available as a large set of complete, well-curated, and annotated genomes for all the major organisms from the environment in question. Reality substantially diverges from this ideal, but at least for bacterial molecular ecology, there is a database consisting of thousands of complete genomes from a wide range of taxa, supplemented by a phylogeny-driven approach to diversifying genomics [2]. For eukaryotes, the number of available genomes is far, far fewer, and we have relied much more heavily on random growth of sequence databases [3],[4], raising the question as to whether this is fit for purpose.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    OceanRep
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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    PLoS Biology
    Article
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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    http://journals.plos.org/plosb...
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: SNSF P3 Database
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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2014
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    PLoS Biology
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS Biology
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    UNC Dataverse
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: Datacite
    https://doi.org/10.7916/d8445m...
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: Datacite
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