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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Krueger, Thomas; Horwitz, Noa; Bodin, Julia; Maria-Evangelia Giovani; +3 Authors

    Coral reefs are currently experiencing substantial ecological impoverishment as a result of anthropogenic stressors and the majority of reefs are facing immediate risk. Increasing ocean surface temperatures induce frequent coral mass bleaching events—the breakdown of the nutritional photo-symbiosis with intracellular algae (genus: Symbiodinium). Here, we report that Stylophora pistillata from a highly diverse reef in the Gulf of Aqaba showed no signs of bleaching despite spending 1.5 months at 1–2°C above their long-term summer maximum (amounting to 11 degree heating weeks) and a seawater pH of 7.8. Instead, their symbiotic dinoflagellates exhibited improved photochemistry, higher pigmentation and a doubling in net oxygen production, leading to a 51% increase in primary productivity. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging revealed subtle cellular-level shifts in carbon and nitrogen metabolism under elevated temperatures, but overall host and symbiont biomass proxies were not significantly affected. Now living well below their thermal threshold in the Gulf of Aqaba, these corals have been evolutionary selected for heat tolerance during their migration through the warm Southern Red Sea after the last ice age. This may allow them to withstand future warming for a longer period of time, provided that successful environmental conservation measures are enacted across national boundaries in the region.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other literature type . 2017
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other literature type . 2017
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other literature type . 2017
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Roshan K. Vijendravarma;

    AbstractInvestigating the evolutionary origins of disease vulnerability is an important aspect of evolutionary medicine that strongly complements our current understanding on proximate causes of disease. Life‐history trade‐offs mediated through evolutionary changes in resource allocation strategies could be one possible explanation to why suboptimal traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease exist. For example, Drosophila melanogaster populations experimentally evolved to tolerate chronic larval malnutrition succumb to intestinal infection despite eliciting a competent immune response, owing to the loss of their intestinal integrity. Here, I test whether evolved changes in resource allocation underlies this trade‐off, by assaying preferential allocation of dietary protein towards growth and tissue repair in the same populations. Using two phenotypic traits, regeneration of intestinal epithelium post‐pathogenic infection and body weight, I show that in accordance with the dynamic energy budget theory (DEB) dietary protein acquired during the larval phase is allocated to both growth and adult tissue repair. Furthermore, by altering the ratio of protein and carbohydrates in the larval diets I demonstrate that in comparison with the control populations, the evolved (selected) populations differ in their protein allocation strategy towards these two traits. While the control populations stored away excess protein for tissue repair, the selected populations invested it towards immediate increase in body weight rather than towards an unanticipated tissue damage. Thus, I show how macronutrient availability and their allocation between traits can alter resistance, and provide empirical evidence that supports the ‘mismatch hypothesis’, wherein vulnerability to disease is proposed to stem from the differences between ancestral and current environment.

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    Journal of Evolutionary Biology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Evolutionary Biology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Krueger, Thomas; Horwitz, Noa; Bodin, Julia; Maria-Evangelia Giovani; +3 Authors

    Coral reefs are currently experiencing substantial ecological impoverishment as a result of anthropogenic stressors and the majority of reefs are facing immediate risk. Increasing ocean surface temperatures induce frequent coral mass bleaching events—the breakdown of the nutritional photo-symbiosis with intracellular algae (genus: Symbiodinium). Here, we report that Stylophora pistillata from a highly diverse reef in the Gulf of Aqaba showed no signs of bleaching despite spending 1.5 months at 1–2°C above their long-term summer maximum (amounting to 11 degree heating weeks) and a seawater pH of 7.8. Instead, their symbiotic dinoflagellates exhibited improved photochemistry, higher pigmentation and a doubling in net oxygen production, leading to a 51% increase in primary productivity. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging revealed subtle cellular-level shifts in carbon and nitrogen metabolism under elevated temperatures, but overall host and symbiont biomass proxies were not significantly affected. Now living well below their thermal threshold in the Gulf of Aqaba, these corals have been evolutionary selected for heat tolerance during their migration through the warm Southern Red Sea after the last ice age. This may allow them to withstand future warming for a longer period of time, provided that successful environmental conservation measures are enacted across national boundaries in the region.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . 2017
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2017
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2017
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • Authors: Davide Zanchettin;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: B. Stevens; S. Bony; D. Farrell; F. Ament; +196 Authors

    The science guiding the EUREC$^4$A campaign and its measurements is presented. EUREC$^4$A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward andsoutheastward of Barbados. Through its ability to characterize processes operating across a wide range of scales, EUREC$^4$A marked a turning point in our ability to observationally study factors influencing clouds in the trades, how they will respond to warming, and their link to other components of the earth system, such as upper-ocean processes or the life cycle of particulate matter. This characterization was made possible by thousands (2500) of sondes distributed to measure circulations on meso- (200 km) and larger (500 km) scales, roughly 400 h of flight time by four heavily instrumented research aircraft; four global-class research vessels; an advanced groundbased cloud observatory; scores of autonomous observing platforms operating in the upper ocean (nearly 10 000 profiles), lower atmosphere (continuous profiling), and along the air–sea interface; a network of water stable isotopologue measurements; targeted tasking of satellite remote sensing; and modeling with a new generation of weather and climate models. In addition to providing an outline of the novel measurements and their composition into a unified and coordinated campaign, the six distinct scientific facets that EUREC$^4$A explored – from North Brazil Current rings to turbulence-induced clustering of cloud droplets and its influence on warm-rain formation – are presented along with an overview of EUREC$^4$A’s outreach activities, environmental impact, and guidelines for scientific practice. Track data for all platforms are standardized and accessible at https://doi.org/10.25326/165 (Stevens, 2021), and a film documenting the campaign is provided as a video supplement This article is part of the special issue “Elucidating the role of clouds–circulation coupling in climate:datasets from the 2020 (EUREC4A) field campaign”. It is not associated with a conference. International audience

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL Clermont Univers...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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    Lille Open Archive
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: Lille Open Archive
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nino Maag; Gabriele Cozzi; Andrew W. Bateman; Michael Heistermann; +4 Authors

    Dispersal is a key process influencing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations. Dispersal success is determined by the state of individuals at emigration and the costs incurred after emigration. However, quantification of such costs is often difficult, due to logistical constraints of following wide-ranging individuals. We investigated the effects of dispersal on individual body mass and stress hormone levels in a cooperative breeder, the meerkat ( Suricata suricatta ). We measured body mass and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations from 95 dispersing females in 65 coalitions through the entire dispersal process. Females that successfully settled lost body mass, while females that did not settle but returned to their natal group after a short period of time did not. Furthermore, dispersing females had higher fGCM levels than resident females, and this was especially pronounced during the later stages of dispersal. By adding information on the transient stage of dispersal and by comparing dispersers that successfully settled to dispersers that returned to their natal group, we expand on previous studies focusing on the earlier stages of dispersal. We propose that body mass and stress hormone levels are good indicators to investigate dispersal costs, as these traits often play an important role in mediating the effects of the environment on other life-history events and individual fitness. Swiss National Science Foundation http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001711 ERC Advanced

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
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    https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-16...
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      Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
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    Authors: van der Meer, Jan Roelof;

    SummaryThe increasing use of our environment for multiple contrasting activities (e.g. fisheries, tourism) will have to be accompanied by improved monitoring of environmental quality, to avoid transboundary conflicts and ensure long‐term sustainable intensified usage. Biomonitoring approaches are appropriate for this, since they can integrate biological effects of environmental exposure rather than measure individual compound concentrations. Recent advances in biomonitoring concepts and tools focus on single‐cell assays and purified biological components that can be miniaturized and integrated in automated systems. Despite these advances, we are still very far from being able to deploy bioassays routinely in environmental monitoring, mostly because of lack of experience in interpreting responses and insufficient robustness of the biosensors for their environmental application. Further future challenges include broadening the spectrum of detectable compounds by biosensors, accelerate response times and combining sample pretreatment strategies with bioassays.

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    Microbial Biotechnology
    Article
    License: CC BY
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    Microbial Biotechnology
    Other literature type . Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Microbial Biotechnology
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      Microbial Biotechnology
      Other literature type . Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    AbstractTropical corals and Amphistegina, an example genus of symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera, are presently living close to their thermal bleaching thresholds. As such, these essential reef-building organisms are vulnerable to the future prospect of more frequent sea surface temperature (SST) extremes. Exploring the earth’s paleo-climatic record, including interglacials warmer than present, may provide insights into future oceanographic conditions. We analyse foraminiferal shell geochemical compositions, from Recent surface sediments and Marine Isotope stage (MIS) 9e and MIS11c aged sediments, from the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 359 Site U1467 drilled in the Inner Sea of the Maldives. We illustrate through traditional (pooled) geochemical analysis (δ18O, Mg/Ca) that tropical temperatures were indeed marginally warmer during MIS9e and MIS11c in comparison to the modern ocean. Individual foraminiferal analysis (IFA) from the Recent (representing the last few hundred years) and MIS9e samples shows SSTs occasionally breached the coral bleaching threshold similarly to the modern-day. Significantly, the number of transgressions was four times higher during MIS11c, a recognised analogue for a warmer modern world. This new knowledge and novel IFA insight and application is invaluable given thermal stress is already obvious today with an increasing number of bleaching events over the last few decades.

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    Scientific Reports; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Anshu Uppal; Claus Wedekind; Etienne Vermeirssen;

    AbstractOne of the most common and potent pollutants of freshwater habitats is 17‐alpha‐ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic component of oral contraceptives that is not completely eliminated during sewage treatment and that threatens natural populations of fish. Previous studies found additive genetic variance for the tolerance against EE2 in different salmonid fishes and concluded that rapid evolution to this type of pollution seems possible. However, these previous studies were done with fishes that are lake‐dwelling and hence typically less exposed to EE2 than river‐dwelling species. Here, we test whether there is additive genetic variance for the tolerance against EE2 also in river‐dwelling salmonid populations that have been exposed to various concentrations of EE2 over the last decades. We sampled 287 adult brown trout (Salmo trutta) from seven populations that show much genetic diversity within populations, are genetically differentiated, and that vary in their exposure to sewage‐treated effluent. In order to estimate their potential to evolve tolerance to EE2, we collected their gametes to produce 730 experimental families in blockwise full‐factorial in vitro fertilizations. We then raised 7,302 embryos singly in 2‐ml containers each and either exposed them to 1 ng/L EE2 (an ecologically relevant concentration, i.e., 2 pg per embryo added in a single spike to the water) or sham‐treated them. Exposure to EE2 increased embryo mortality, delayed hatching time, and decreased hatchling length. We found no population differences and no additive genetic variance for tolerance to EE2. We conclude that EE2 has detrimental effects that may adversely affect population even at a very low concentration, but that our study populations lack the potential for rapid genetic adaptation to this type of pollution. One possible explanation for the latter is that continuous selection over the last decades has depleted genetic variance for tolerance to this synthetic stressor.

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    Evolutionary Applications
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    Evolutionary Applications; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Evolutionary Applications; OpenAPC Global Initiative
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    Authors: Alexandre K. Magnan; Michel Colombier; Raphaël Billé; Fortunat Joos; +5 Authors

    In the aftermath of COP21, potential post-2030 emission trajectories and their consistency with the 2 °C target are a core concern for the ocean scientific community in light of the end-century risks of impact scenarios.

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    Nature Climate Change
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
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      Nature Climate Change
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    Authors: Krueger, Thomas; Horwitz, Noa; Bodin, Julia; Maria-Evangelia Giovani; +3 Authors

    Coral reefs are currently experiencing substantial ecological impoverishment as a result of anthropogenic stressors and the majority of reefs are facing immediate risk. Increasing ocean surface temperatures induce frequent coral mass bleaching events—the breakdown of the nutritional photo-symbiosis with intracellular algae (genus: Symbiodinium). Here, we report that Stylophora pistillata from a highly diverse reef in the Gulf of Aqaba showed no signs of bleaching despite spending 1.5 months at 1–2°C above their long-term summer maximum (amounting to 11 degree heating weeks) and a seawater pH of 7.8. Instead, their symbiotic dinoflagellates exhibited improved photochemistry, higher pigmentation and a doubling in net oxygen production, leading to a 51% increase in primary productivity. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging revealed subtle cellular-level shifts in carbon and nitrogen metabolism under elevated temperatures, but overall host and symbiont biomass proxies were not significantly affected. Now living well below their thermal threshold in the Gulf of Aqaba, these corals have been evolutionary selected for heat tolerance during their migration through the warm Southern Red Sea after the last ice age. This may allow them to withstand future warming for a longer period of time, provided that successful environmental conservation measures are enacted across national boundaries in the region.

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