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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Peruzzi; Stamatis Varsamos; Béatrice Chatain; Christian Fauvel; Bruno Menu; Jean-Claude Falguiere; Armelle Severe; Gert Flik;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: France, Norway

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether diploid and triploid sea bass differed in terms of main haematological and physiological characteristics. Diploid and triploid fish were produced by sub-optimal pressure treatments and held in communal environments under standard rearing conditions. Total red blood cell count (RBCC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cellular haemoglobin content (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), plasma metabolites, osmotic pressure, gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, electrolytes, cortisol, and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T-3) were measured and compared. Triploidisation in sea bass led to an increase in erythrocyte size (32% in cytoplasm surface area, and 50% in nucleus) and a decrease in erythrocyte number (similar to34%). Haemoglobin and basal plasma cortisol levels were significantly lower in triploid sea bass than in diploids. There were also differences between ploidies in the plasma concentrations of some electrolytes, with triploids showing lower concentrations of K, Fe, Zn, S, and Cu than their diploid counterparts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; S. Nowicki; A. Payne; E. Larour; H. Seroussi; W. H. Lipscomb; J. Gregory; J. Gregory; +43 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium, Belgium, United Kingdom, Belgium, United Kingdom, Germany ...
    Project: NWO | Perturbations of System E... (11030), NSF | Collaborative Research: I... (1504230), NSF | The Management and Operat... (1852977), EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    Abstract. The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest contributors to global meansea-level rise today and is expected to continue to lose mass as the Arcticcontinues to warm. The two predominant mass loss mechanisms are increasedsurface meltwater run-off and mass loss associated with the retreat ofmarine-terminating outlet glaciers. In this paper we use a large ensemble ofGreenland ice sheet models forced by output from a representative subset ofthe Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) global climate models to project ice sheet changes and sea-level risecontributions over the 21st century. The simulations are part of theIce Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6). We estimate thesea-level contribution together with uncertainties due to future climateforcing, ice sheet model formulations and ocean forcing for the twogreenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP2.6. The resultsindicate that the Greenland ice sheet will continue to lose mass in bothscenarios until 2100, with contributions of 90±50 and 32±17 mm to sea-level rise for RCP8.5 and RCP2.6, respectively. The largestmass loss is expected from the south-west of Greenland, which is governed bysurface mass balance changes, continuing what is already observed today.Because the contributions are calculated against an unforced controlexperiment, these numbers do not include any committed mass loss, i.e. massloss that would occur over the coming century if the climate forcingremained constant. Under RCP8.5 forcing, ice sheet model uncertaintyexplains an ensemble spread of 40 mm, while climate model uncertainty andocean forcing uncertainty account for a spread of 36 and 19 mm,respectively. Apart from those formally derived uncertainty ranges, thelargest gap in our knowledge is about the physical understanding andimplementation of the calving process, i.e. the interaction of the ice sheetwith the ocean. info:eu-repo/semantics/published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stephen D. Archer; Susan A. Kimmance; John Stephens; Frances E. Hopkins; Richard G. J. Bellerby; Kai G. Schulz; Judith Piontek; Anja Engel;
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union
    Countries: Germany, Norway
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 is decreasing ocean pH most rapidly in colder regions such as the Arctic. As a component of the EPOCA (European Project on Ocean Acidification) pelagic mesocosm experiment off Spitzbergen in 2010, we examined the consequences of decreased pH and increased pCO2 on the concentrations of dimethylsulphide (DMS). DMS is an important reactant and contributor to aerosol formation and growth in the Arctic troposphere. In the nine mesocosms with initial pHT 8.3 to 7.5, equivalent to pCO2 of 180 to 1420 μatm, highly significant but inverse responses to acidity (hydrogen ion concentration [H+]) occurred following nutrient addition. Compared to ambient [H+], average concentrations of DMS during the mid-phase of the 30 d experiment, when the influence of altered acidity was unambiguous, were reduced by approximately 60% at the highest [H+] and by 35% at [H+] equivalent to 750 μatm pCO2, as projected for 2100. In contrast, concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of DMS, were elevated by approximately 50% at the highest [H+] and by 30% at [H+] corresponding to 750 μatm pCO2. Measurements of the specific rate of synthesis of DMSP by phytoplankton indicate increased production at high [H+], in parallel to rates of inorganic carbon fixation. The elevated DMSP production at high [H+] was largely a consequence of increased dinoflagellate biomass and in particular, the increased abundance of the species Heterocapsa rotundata. We discuss both phytoplankton and bacterial processes that may explain the reduced ratios of DMS:DMSPt (total dimethylsulphoniopropionate) at higher [H+]. The experimental design of eight treatment levels provides comparatively robust empirical relationships of DMS and DMSP concentration, DMSP production and dinoflagellate biomass versus [H+] in Arctic waters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. S. Bogevik; Edward S. Hayman; Målfrid Tofteberg Bjerke; Jens-Erik Dessen; Kjell-Arne Rørvik; J. Adam Luckenbach;
    Country: Norway

    The importance of dietary lipids in male reproduction are not as well understood as in females, in which dietary lipids, such as phospholipids (PL) and associated fatty acids (FA), are important structural components of the eggs and provide energy for their offspring. In mammals, lipids are suggested to be important for spermatogenesis and to structural components of the spermatozoa that could improve fertilization rates. New knowledge of how lipids affect sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important global aquaculture species, could provide tools to delay maturation and/or improve reproductive success. Therefore, changes in testicular composition of lipids and gene transcripts associated with spermatogenesis and lipid metabolism were studied in sexually maturing male salmon compared to immature males and females. An increase in total testis content of FA and PL, and a shift to higher PL composition was observed in maturing males, concomitant with increases in mRNA levels for genes involved in spermatogenesis, FA uptake and synthesis, and production of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and PL. A particularly interesting finding was elevated testis expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (acsl4), and acyl-CoA thioesterase 2 (acot2), critical enzymes that regulate intra-mitochondrial levels of 20:4n-6 FA (arachidonic acid), which have been associated with improved cholesterol transport during steroidogenesis. This suggested that FA may have direct effects on sex steroid production in salmon. Furthermore, we observed increased testis expression of genes for endogenous synthesis of 16:0 and elongation/desaturation to 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid) in sexually maturing males relative to immature fish. Both of these FA are important structural components of the PL, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and were elevated concomitant with increases in the content of phosphatidic acid, an important precursor for PC, in maturing males compared to immature fish. Overall, this study suggests that, similar to mammals, lipids are important to spermatogenesis and serve as structural components during testicular growth and maturation in Atlantic salmon.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ferdinand Marlétaz; Panos N. Firbas; Ignacio Maeso; Juan J. Tena; Ozren Bogdanovic; Malcolm Perry; Christopher D. R. Wyatt; Elisa de la Calle-Mustienes; Stéphanie Bertrand; Demian Burguera; +51 more
    Countries: Netherlands, France, France, France, Spain, United Kingdom, Portugal, United Kingdom, Spain, France ...
    Project: EC | EVOREL (658521), EC | Evoland (740041), EC | DEVCOM (607142), EC | NEURAL AS (637591), EC | GENEVA (268513), EC | BLUEandGREEN (692419)

    Vertebrates have greatly elaborated the basic chordate body plan and evolved highly distinctive genomes that have been sculpted by two whole-genome duplications. Here we sequence the genome of the Mediterranean amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) and characterize DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, histone modifications and transcriptomes across multiple developmental stages and adult tissues to investigate the evolution of the regulation of the chordate genome. Comparisons with vertebrates identify an intermediate stage in the evolution of differentially methylated enhancers, and a high conservation of gene expression and its cis-regulatory logic between amphioxus and vertebrates that occurs maximally at an earlier mid-embryonic phylotypic period. We analyse regulatory evolution after whole-genome duplications, and find that—in vertebrates—over 80% of broadly expressed gene families with multiple paralogues derived from whole-genome duplications have members that restricted their ancestral expression, and underwent specialization rather than subfunctionalization. Counter-intuitively, paralogues that restricted their expression increased the complexity of their regulatory landscapes. These data pave the way for a better understanding of the regulatory principles that underlie key vertebrate innovations. This research was funded primarily by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 and Seventh Framework Program FP7 research and innovation programs (ERC-AdG-LS8-740041 to J.L.G.-S., ERC-StG-LS2-637591 to M.I., a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant (658521) to I.M. and a FP7/2007-2013-ERC-268513 to P.W.H.H.), the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (BFU2016-74961-P to J.L.G.-S., RYC-2016-20089 to I.M., BFU2014-55076-P and BFU2017-89201-P to M.I. and BFU2014-55738-REDT to J.L.G.-S, M.I. and J.R.M.-M), the ‘Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2013-2017’(SEV-2012-0208), the ‘Unidad de Excelencia María de Maetzu 2017-2021’(MDM-2016-0687), the People Program (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program FP7 under REA grant agreement number 607142 (DevCom) to J.L.G.-S., and the CNRS and the ANR (ANR16-CE12-0008-01) to H.E. O.B. was supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA; DE140101962).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gregory de Wet; Nicholas L. Balascio; William J. D'Andrea; Jostein Bakke; Raymond S. Bradley; Bianca B. Perren;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Well-dated and highly resolved paleoclimate records from high latitudes allow for a better understanding of past climate change. Lake sediments are excellent archives of environmental change, and can record processes occurring within the catchment, such as the growth or demise of an upstream glacier. Here we present a Holocene-length, multi-proxy lake sediment record from proglacial lake Gjoavatnet on the island of Amsterdamoya, northwest Svalbard. Today, Gjoavatnet receives meltwater from the Annabreen glacier and contains a record of changes in glacier activity linked to regional climate conditions. We measured changes in organic matter content, dry bulk density, bulk carbon isotopes, elemental concentrations via Itrax core-scanning, and diatom community composition to reconstruct variability in glacier extent back through time. Our reconstruction indicates that glacially derived sedimentation in the lake decreased markedly at ∼11.1 cal kyr BP, although a glacier likely persisted in the catchment until ∼8.4 cal kyr BP. During the mid-Holocene (∼8.4–1.0 cal kyr BP) there was significantly limited glacial influence in the catchment and enhanced deposition of organic-rich sediment in the lake. The deposition of organic rich sediments during this time was interrupted by at least three multi-centennial intervals of reduced organic matter accumulation (∼5.9–5.0, 2.7–2.0, and 1.7–1.5 cal kyr BP). Considering our chronological information and a sedimentological comparison with intervals of enhanced glacier input, we interpret these intervals not as glacial advances, but rather as cold/dry episodes that inhibited organic matter production in the lake and surrounding catchment. At ∼1.0 cal kyr BP, input of glacially derived sediment to Gjoavatnet abruptly increased, representing the rapid expansion of the Annabreen glacier.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Remen, Mette; Nederlof, Marit; Folkedal, Ole; Thorsheim, Grethe; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Oppedal, Frode; Olsen, Rolf Eric;
    Publisher: Inter Research
    Countries: Netherlands, Spain
    Project: EC | AQUAEXCEL (262336)

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the limiting oxygen saturation (LOS) of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. This threshold was defined as the % O2 saturation where fish no longer upheld their routine metabolic rate (RMR, the metabolic rate of fed and active fish) during a progressive decline in oxygen saturation. S. aurata (398 ± 10 g, mean ± SE) were kept in 3 replicate tanks and subjected to 3 changes in temperature: 16 to 20°C, 20 to 16°C and 16 to 12°C. At each temperature, fish were left to acclimatize for 8 to 10 d, before daily feed intake (DFI), the routine oxygen consumption rate (routine MO2, mg kg-1 min-1) and the LOS were measured. In addition, at 20°C the swimming speed was measured in fish subjected to a decline in O2 from full air saturation to levels below the LOS (minimum of 8-10% O2). For the temperature range tested (12-20°C), DFI, MO2 and LOS increased exponentially with temperature (7.5-, 3.6- and 2.2-fold, respectively) with mean (± SE) LOS being 17 ± 1, 21 ± 0 and 35 ± 5% O2 at 12, 16 and 20°C, respectively. A gradual decline in swimming activity was observed as O2 declined below the LOS, indicating increasing metabolic stress and/or a 'sit-out' coping strategy which may prolong survival time in severe hypoxia. The results show the importance of temperature as an influential variable over the environmental O2 requirements of S. aurata. © The authors 2015. The study was funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme by the AQUAEXCEL (FP7-2007-2012; grant agreement no. 262336) and the Norwegian Research Council through the Centre for Research-based Innovation in Aquaculture Technology, CREATE. Peer Reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Evelyn Jäkel; Tim Carlsen; André Ehrlich; Manfred Wendisch; Michael Schäfer; Sophie Rosenburg; Konstantina Nakoudi; Marco Zanatta; Gerit Birnbaum; Veit Helm; +4 more
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | MC2 (758005)

    The size and shape of snow grains directly impacts the reflection by a snowpack. In this article, different approaches to retrieve the optical-equivalent snow grain size (ropt) or, alternatively, the specific surface area (SSA) using satellite, airborne, and ground-based observations are compared and used to evaluate ICON-ART (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic—Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) simulations. The retrieval methods are based on optical measurements and rely on the ropt-dependent absorption of solar radiation in snow. The measurement data were taken during a three-week campaign that was conducted in the North of Greenland in March/April 2018, such that the retrieval methods and radiation measurements are affected by enhanced uncertainties under these low-Sun conditions. An adjusted airborne retrieval method is applied which uses the albedo at 1700 nm wavelength and combines an atmospheric and snow radiative transfer model to account for the direct-to-global fraction of the solar radiation incident on the snow. From this approach, we achieved a significantly improved uncertainty (ropt of 15 µm within a five-day period after a snowfall event which is small compared to previous observations under similar temperature regimes. ICON-ART captured the observed change of ropt during snowfall events, but systematically overestimated the subsequent snow grain growth by about 100%. Adjusting the growth rate factor to 0.012 µm2 s−1 minimized the difference between model and observations. Satellite-based and airborne retrieval methods showed higher ropt over sea ice (<300 µm) than over land surfaces (<100 µm) which was reduced by data filtering of surface roughness features. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals revealed a large spread within a series of subsequent individual overpasses, indicating their limitations in observing the snow grain size evolution in early spring conditions with low Sun.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    van Opzeeland, Ilse; Corkeron, P. J.; Leyssen, T.; Simila, T.; Van Parijs, S. M.;
    Country: Germany
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ben P. Harvey; Balsam Al-Janabi; Stefanie Broszeit; Rebekah Cioffi; Amit Kumar; María Aranguren-Gassis; Allison Bailey; Leon Green; Carina M. Gsottbauer; Emilie F. Hall; +8 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Countries: Italy, Germany, Norway

    Research to date has suggested that both individual marine species and ecological processes are expected to exhibit diverse responses to the environmental effects of climate change. Evolutionary responses can occur on rapid (ecological) timescales, and yet studies typically do not consider the role that adaptive evolution will play in modulating biological responses to climate change. Investigations into such responses have typically been focused at particular biological levels (e.g., cellular, population, community), often lacking interactions among levels. Since all levels of biological organisation are sensitive to global climate change, there is a need to elucidate how different processes and hierarchical interactions will influence species fitness. Therefore, predicting the responses of communities and populations to global change will require multidisciplinary efforts across multiple levels of hierarchy, from the genetic and cellular to communities and ecosystems. Eventually, this may allow us to establish the role that acclimatisation and adaptation will play in determining marine community structures in future scenarios.

Advanced search in Research products
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Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
3,535 Research products, page 1 of 354
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Peruzzi; Stamatis Varsamos; Béatrice Chatain; Christian Fauvel; Bruno Menu; Jean-Claude Falguiere; Armelle Severe; Gert Flik;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: France, Norway

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether diploid and triploid sea bass differed in terms of main haematological and physiological characteristics. Diploid and triploid fish were produced by sub-optimal pressure treatments and held in communal environments under standard rearing conditions. Total red blood cell count (RBCC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cellular haemoglobin content (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), plasma metabolites, osmotic pressure, gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, electrolytes, cortisol, and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T-3) were measured and compared. Triploidisation in sea bass led to an increase in erythrocyte size (32% in cytoplasm surface area, and 50% in nucleus) and a decrease in erythrocyte number (similar to34%). Haemoglobin and basal plasma cortisol levels were significantly lower in triploid sea bass than in diploids. There were also differences between ploidies in the plasma concentrations of some electrolytes, with triploids showing lower concentrations of K, Fe, Zn, S, and Cu than their diploid counterparts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; S. Nowicki; A. Payne; E. Larour; H. Seroussi; W. H. Lipscomb; J. Gregory; J. Gregory; +43 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium, Belgium, United Kingdom, Belgium, United Kingdom, Germany ...
    Project: NWO | Perturbations of System E... (11030), NSF | Collaborative Research: I... (1504230), NSF | The Management and Operat... (1852977), EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    Abstract. The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest contributors to global meansea-level rise today and is expected to continue to lose mass as the Arcticcontinues to warm. The two predominant mass loss mechanisms are increasedsurface meltwater run-off and mass loss associated with the retreat ofmarine-terminating outlet glaciers. In this paper we use a large ensemble ofGreenland ice sheet models forced by output from a representative subset ofthe Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) global climate models to project ice sheet changes and sea-level risecontributions over the 21st century. The simulations are part of theIce Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6). We estimate thesea-level contribution together with uncertainties due to future climateforcing, ice sheet model formulations and ocean forcing for the twogreenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP2.6. The resultsindicate that the Greenland ice sheet will continue to lose mass in bothscenarios until 2100, with contributions of 90±50 and 32±17 mm to sea-level rise for RCP8.5 and RCP2.6, respectively. The largestmass loss is expected from the south-west of Greenland, which is governed bysurface mass balance changes, continuing what is already observed today.Because the contributions are calculated against an unforced controlexperiment, these numbers do not include any committed mass loss, i.e. massloss that would occur over the coming century if the climate forcingremained constant. Under RCP8.5 forcing, ice sheet model uncertaintyexplains an ensemble spread of 40 mm, while climate model uncertainty andocean forcing uncertainty account for a spread of 36 and 19 mm,respectively. Apart from those formally derived uncertainty ranges, thelargest gap in our knowledge is about the physical understanding andimplementation of the calving process, i.e. the interaction of the ice sheetwith the ocean. info:eu-repo/semantics/published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stephen D. Archer; Susan A. Kimmance; John Stephens; Frances E. Hopkins; Richard G. J. Bellerby; Kai G. Schulz; Judith Piontek; Anja Engel;
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union
    Countries: Germany, Norway
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 is decreasing ocean pH most rapidly in colder regions such as the Arctic. As a component of the EPOCA (European Project on Ocean Acidification) pelagic mesocosm experiment off Spitzbergen in 2010, we examined the consequences of decreased pH and increased pCO2 on the concentrations of dimethylsulphide (DMS). DMS is an important reactant and contributor to aerosol formation and growth in the Arctic troposphere. In the nine mesocosms with initial pHT 8.3 to 7.5, equivalent to pCO2 of 180 to 1420 μatm, highly significant but inverse responses to acidity (hydrogen ion concentration [H+]) occurred following nutrient addition. Compared to ambient [H+], average concentrations of DMS during the mid-phase of the 30 d experiment, when the influence of altered acidity was unambiguous, were reduced by approximately 60% at the highest [H+] and by 35% at [H+] equivalent to 750 μatm pCO2, as projected for 2100. In contrast, concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of DMS, were elevated by approximately 50% at the highest [H+] and by 30% at [H+] corresponding to 750 μatm pCO2. Measurements of the specific rate of synthesis of DMSP by phytoplankton indicate increased production at high [H+], in parallel to rates of inorganic carbon fixation. The elevated DMSP production at high [H+] was largely a consequence of increased dinoflagellate biomass and in particular, the increased abundance of the species Heterocapsa rotundata. We discuss both phytoplankton and bacterial processes that may explain the reduced ratios of DMS:DMSPt (total dimethylsulphoniopropionate) at higher [H+]. The experimental design of eight treatment levels provides comparatively robust empirical relationships of DMS and DMSP concentration, DMSP production and dinoflagellate biomass versus [H+] in Arctic waters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. S. Bogevik; Edward S. Hayman; Målfrid Tofteberg Bjerke; Jens-Erik Dessen; Kjell-Arne Rørvik; J. Adam Luckenbach;
    Country: Norway

    The importance of dietary lipids in male reproduction are not as well understood as in females, in which dietary lipids, such as phospholipids (PL) and associated fatty acids (FA), are important structural components of the eggs and provide energy for their offspring. In mammals, lipids are suggested to be important for spermatogenesis and to structural components of the spermatozoa that could improve fertilization rates. New knowledge of how lipids affect sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important global aquaculture species, could provide tools to delay maturation and/or improve reproductive success. Therefore, changes in testicular composition of lipids and gene transcripts associated with spermatogenesis and lipid metabolism were studied in sexually maturing male salmon compared to immature males and females. An increase in total testis content of FA and PL, and a shift to higher PL composition was observed in maturing males, concomitant with increases in mRNA levels for genes involved in spermatogenesis, FA uptake and synthesis, and production of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and PL. A particularly interesting finding was elevated testis expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (acsl4), and acyl-CoA thioesterase 2 (acot2), critical enzymes that regulate intra-mitochondrial levels of 20:4n-6 FA (arachidonic acid), which have been associated with improved cholesterol transport during steroidogenesis. This suggested that FA may have direct effects on sex steroid production in salmon. Furthermore, we observed increased testis expression of genes for endogenous synthesis of 16:0 and elongation/desaturation to 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid) in sexually maturing males relative to immature fish. Both of these FA are important structural components of the PL, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and were elevated concomitant with increases in the content of phosphatidic acid, an important precursor for PC, in maturing males compared to immature fish. Overall, this study suggests that, similar to mammals, lipids are important to spermatogenesis and serve as structural components during testicular growth and maturation in Atlantic salmon.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ferdinand Marlétaz; Panos N. Firbas; Ignacio Maeso; Juan J. Tena; Ozren Bogdanovic; Malcolm Perry; Christopher D. R. Wyatt; Elisa de la Calle-Mustienes; Stéphanie Bertrand; Demian Burguera; +51 more
    Countries: Netherlands, France, France, France, Spain, United Kingdom, Portugal, United Kingdom, Spain, France ...
    Project: EC | EVOREL (658521), EC | Evoland (740041), EC | DEVCOM (607142), EC | NEURAL AS (637591), EC | GENEVA (268513), EC | BLUEandGREEN (692419)

    Vertebrates have greatly elaborated the basic chordate body plan and evolved highly distinctive genomes that have been sculpted by two whole-genome duplications. Here we sequence the genome of the Mediterranean amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) and characterize DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, histone modifications and transcriptomes across multiple developmental stages and adult tissues to investigate the evolution of the regulation of the chordate genome. Comparisons with vertebrates identify an intermediate stage in the evolution of differentially methylated enhancers, and a high conservation of gene expression and its cis-regulatory logic between amphioxus and vertebrates that occurs maximally at an earlier mid-embryonic phylotypic period. We analyse regulatory evolution after whole-genome duplications, and find that—in vertebrates—over 80% of broadly expressed gene families with multiple paralogues derived from whole-genome duplications have members that restricted their ancestral expression, and underwent specialization rather than subfunctionalization. Counter-intuitively, paralogues that restricted their expression increased the complexity of their regulatory landscapes. These data pave the way for a better understanding of the regulatory principles that underlie key vertebrate innovations. This research was funded primarily by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 and Seventh Framework Program FP7 research and innovation programs (ERC-AdG-LS8-740041 to J.L.G.-S., ERC-StG-LS2-637591 to M.I., a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant (658521) to I.M. and a FP7/2007-2013-ERC-268513 to P.W.H.H.), the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (BFU2016-74961-P to J.L.G.-S., RYC-2016-20089 to I.M., BFU2014-55076-P and BFU2017-89201-P to M.I. and BFU2014-55738-REDT to J.L.G.-S, M.I. and J.R.M.-M), the ‘Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2013-2017’(SEV-2012-0208), the ‘Unidad de Excelencia María de Maetzu 2017-2021’(MDM-2016-0687), the People Program (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program FP7 under REA grant agreement number 607142 (DevCom) to J.L.G.-S., and the CNRS and the ANR (ANR16-CE12-0008-01) to H.E. O.B. was supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA; DE140101962).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gregory de Wet; Nicholas L. Balascio; William J. D'Andrea; Jostein Bakke; Raymond S. Bradley; Bianca B. Perren;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Well-dated and highly resolved paleoclimate records from high latitudes allow for a better understanding of past climate change. Lake sediments are excellent archives of environmental change, and can record processes occurring within the catchment, such as the growth or demise of an upstream glacier. Here we present a Holocene-length, multi-proxy lake sediment record from proglacial lake Gjoavatnet on the island of Amsterdamoya, northwest Svalbard. Today, Gjoavatnet receives meltwater from the Annabreen glacier and contains a record of changes in glacier activity linked to regional climate conditions. We measured changes in organic matter content, dry bulk density, bulk carbon isotopes, elemental concentrations via Itrax core-scanning, and diatom community composition to reconstruct variability in glacier extent back through time. Our reconstruction indicates that glacially derived sedimentation in the lake decreased markedly at ∼11.1 cal kyr BP, although a glacier likely persisted in the catchment until ∼8.4 cal kyr BP. During the mid-Holocene (∼8.4–1.0 cal kyr BP) there was significantly limited glacial influence in the catchment and enhanced deposition of organic-rich sediment in the lake. The deposition of organic rich sediments during this time was interrupted by at least three multi-centennial intervals of reduced organic matter accumulation (∼5.9–5.0, 2.7–2.0, and 1.7–1.5 cal kyr BP). Considering our chronological information and a sedimentological comparison with intervals of enhanced glacier input, we interpret these intervals not as glacial advances, but rather as cold/dry episodes that inhibited organic matter production in the lake and surrounding catchment. At ∼1.0 cal kyr BP, input of glacially derived sediment to Gjoavatnet abruptly increased, representing the rapid expansion of the Annabreen glacier.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Remen, Mette; Nederlof, Marit; Folkedal, Ole; Thorsheim, Grethe; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Oppedal, Frode; Olsen, Rolf Eric;
    Publisher: Inter Research
    Countries: Netherlands, Spain
    Project: EC | AQUAEXCEL (262336)

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the limiting oxygen saturation (LOS) of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. This threshold was defined as the % O2 saturation where fish no longer upheld their routine metabolic rate (RMR, the metabolic rate of fed and active fish) during a progressive decline in oxygen saturation. S. aurata (398 ± 10 g, mean ± SE) were kept in 3 replicate tanks and subjected to 3 changes in temperature: 16 to 20°C, 20 to 16°C and 16 to 12°C. At each temperature, fish were left to acclimatize for 8 to 10 d, before daily feed intake (DFI), the routine oxygen consumption rate (routine MO2, mg kg-1 min-1) and the LOS were measured. In addition, at 20°C the swimming speed was measured in fish subjected to a decline in O2 from full air saturation to levels below the LOS (minimum of 8-10% O2). For the temperature range tested (12-20°C), DFI, MO2 and LOS increased exponentially with temperature (7.5-, 3.6- and 2.2-fold, respectively) with mean (± SE) LOS being 17 ± 1, 21 ± 0 and 35 ± 5% O2 at 12, 16 and 20°C, respectively. A gradual decline in swimming activity was observed as O2 declined below the LOS, indicating increasing metabolic stress and/or a 'sit-out' coping strategy which may prolong survival time in severe hypoxia. The results show the importance of temperature as an influential variable over the environmental O2 requirements of S. aurata. © The authors 2015. The study was funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme by the AQUAEXCEL (FP7-2007-2012; grant agreement no. 262336) and the Norwegian Research Council through the Centre for Research-based Innovation in Aquaculture Technology, CREATE. Peer Reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Evelyn Jäkel; Tim Carlsen; André Ehrlich; Manfred Wendisch; Michael Schäfer; Sophie Rosenburg; Konstantina Nakoudi; Marco Zanatta; Gerit Birnbaum; Veit Helm; +4 more
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | MC2 (758005)

    The size and shape of snow grains directly impacts the reflection by a snowpack. In this article, different approaches to retrieve the optical-equivalent snow grain size (ropt) or, alternatively, the specific surface area (SSA) using satellite, airborne, and ground-based observations are compared and used to evaluate ICON-ART (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic—Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) simulations. The retrieval methods are based on optical measurements and rely on the ropt-dependent absorption of solar radiation in snow. The measurement data were taken during a three-week campaign that was conducted in the North of Greenland in March/April 2018, such that the retrieval methods and radiation measurements are affected by enhanced uncertainties under these low-Sun conditions. An adjusted airborne retrieval method is applied which uses the albedo at 1700 nm wavelength and combines an atmospheric and snow radiative transfer model to account for the direct-to-global fraction of the solar radiation incident on the snow. From this approach, we achieved a significantly improved uncertainty (ropt of 15 µm within a five-day period after a snowfall event which is small compared to previous observations under similar temperature regimes. ICON-ART captured the observed change of ropt during snowfall events, but systematically overestimated the subsequent snow grain growth by about 100%. Adjusting the growth rate factor to 0.012 µm2 s−1 minimized the difference between model and observations. Satellite-based and airborne retrieval methods showed higher ropt over sea ice (<300 µm) than over land surfaces (<100 µm) which was reduced by data filtering of surface roughness features. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals revealed a large spread within a series of subsequent individual overpasses, indicating their limitations in observing the snow grain size evolution in early spring conditions with low Sun.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    van Opzeeland, Ilse; Corkeron, P. J.; Leyssen, T.; Simila, T.; Van Parijs, S. M.;
    Country: Germany
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ben P. Harvey; Balsam Al-Janabi; Stefanie Broszeit; Rebekah Cioffi; Amit Kumar; María Aranguren-Gassis; Allison Bailey; Leon Green; Carina M. Gsottbauer; Emilie F. Hall; +8 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Countries: Italy, Germany, Norway

    Research to date has suggested that both individual marine species and ecological processes are expected to exhibit diverse responses to the environmental effects of climate change. Evolutionary responses can occur on rapid (ecological) timescales, and yet studies typically do not consider the role that adaptive evolution will play in modulating biological responses to climate change. Investigations into such responses have typically been focused at particular biological levels (e.g., cellular, population, community), often lacking interactions among levels. Since all levels of biological organisation are sensitive to global climate change, there is a need to elucidate how different processes and hierarchical interactions will influence species fitness. Therefore, predicting the responses of communities and populations to global change will require multidisciplinary efforts across multiple levels of hierarchy, from the genetic and cellular to communities and ecosystems. Eventually, this may allow us to establish the role that acclimatisation and adaptation will play in determining marine community structures in future scenarios.