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309 Research products, page 1 of 31

  • European Marine Science
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  • European Marine Science

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Holcomb, Michael; McCorkle, Daniel C; Cohen, Anne L;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)

    Zooxanthellate colonies of the scleractinian coral Astrangia poculata were grown under combinations of ambient and elevated nutrients (5 µM NO, 0.3 µM PO4, and 2nM Fe) and CO2 (780 ppmv) treatments for a period of 6 months. Coral calcification rates, estimated from buoyant weights, were not significantly affected by moderately elevated nutrients at ambient CO2 and were negatively affected by elevated CO2 at ambient nutrient levels. However, calcification by corals reared under elevated nutrients combined with elevated CO2 was not significantly different from that of corals reared under ambient conditions, suggesting that CO2 enrichment can lead to nutrient limitation in zooxanthellate corals. A conceptual model is proposed to explain how nutrients and CO2 interact to control zooxanthellate coral calcification. Nutrient limited corals are unable to utilize an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as nutrients are already limiting growth, thus the effect of elevated CO2 on saturation state drives the calcification response. Under nutrient replete conditions, corals may have the ability to utilize more DIC, thus the calcification response to CO2 becomes the product of a negative effect on saturation state and a positive effect on gross carbon fixation, depending upon which dominates, the calcification response can be either positive or negative. This may help explain how the range of coral responses found in different studies of ocean acidification can be obtained.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rampen, Sebastiaan W; Willmott, Verónica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Uliana, Eleonora; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Schefuß, Enno; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | PACEMAKER (226600)

    Long chain alkyl diols form a group of lipids occurring widely in marine environments. Recent studies have suggested several palaeoclimatological applications for proxies based on their distributions, but also revealed uncertainties about their applicability. Here we evaluate the use of long chain 1,14-alkyl diol indices for reconstruction of temperature and upwelling conditions by comparing index values, obtained from a comprehensive set of marine surface sediments, with environmental factors like sea surface temperature (SST), salinity and nutrient concentrations. Previous cultivation efforts indicated a strong effect of temperature on the degree of saturation and the chain length distribution of long chain 1,14-alkyl diols in Proboscia spp., quantified in the diol saturation index (DSI) and diol chain length index (DCI), respectively. However, values of these indices in surface sediments show no relationship with annual mean SST of the overlying water. It remains unknown what determines the DSI, although our data suggests that it may be affected by diagenesis, while the relationship between temperature and DCI may be different for different Proboscia species. In addition, contributions of algae other than Proboscia diatoms may affect both indices, although our data provide no direct evidence for additional long chain 1,14-alkyl diol sources. Two other indices using the abundance of 1,14-diols vs. 1,13-diols and C30 1,15-diols have previously been applied as indicators for upwelling intensity at different locations. The geographical distribution of their values supports the use of 1,14 diols vs. 1,13 diols [C28 + C30 1,14-diols]/[(C28 + C30 1,13-diols) + (C28 + C30 1,14-diols)] as a general indicator for high nutrient or upwelling conditions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Badger, Marcus P S; Chalk, Thomas B; Foster, Gavin L; Bown, Paul R; Gibbs, Samantha J; Sexton, Philip F; Schmidt, Daniela N; Pälike, Heiko; Mackensen, Andreas; Pancost, Richard D;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: UKRI | Timing, Causes and Conseq... (NE/H006273/1), EC | TGRES (340923)

    Atmospheric _p_CO~2~ is a critical component of the global carbon system and is considered to be the major control of Earth's past, present and future climate. Accurate and precise reconstructions of its concentration through geological time are, therefore, crucial to our understanding of the Earth system. Ice core records document _p_CO~2~ for the past 800 kyrs, but at no point during this interval were CO~2~ levels higher than today. Interpretation of older _p_CO~2~ has been hampered by discrepancies during some time intervals between two of the main ocean-based proxy methods used to reconstruct _p_CO~2~: the carbon isotope fractionation that occurs during photosynthesis as recorded by haptophyte biomarkers (alkenones) and the boron isotope composition (δ^11^B) of foraminifer shells. Here we present alkenone and δ^11^B-based _p_CO~2~ reconstructions generated from the same samples from the Plio-Pleistocene at ODP Site 999 across a glacial-interglacial cycle. We find a muted response to _p_CO~2~ in the alkenone record compared to contemporaneous ice core and δ^11^B records, suggesting caution in the interpretation of alkenone-based records at low _p_CO~2~ levels. This is possibly caused by the physiology of CO~2~ uptake in the haptophytes. Our new understanding resolves some of the inconsistencies between the proxies and highlights that caution may be required when interpreting alkenone-based reconstructions of _p_CO~2~.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Deckker, Patrick; Moros, Matthias; Blanz, Thomas; Schneider, Ralph R; Barrows, Timothy T; Perner, Kerstin;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    The data relate to a paper submitted to Quaternary Science Reviews. All the data support a study of the last 94 ka recorded in core MD03-2611 and an adjacent multicore MD03-MUC 3 taken on the fringe of one of the Murray Canyons offshore Kangaroo Island. Additional data pertain to core SS0206-GC15 taken offshore Victoria south of Warrnambool, but its record only spans the last 25ka. The records are at high resolution and cover a multitude of parameters. Radiocarbon dates for these cores are presented in the supplementary section of this paper.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schneider, Robert; Schmitt, Jochen; Koehler, Peter; Joos, Fortunat; Fischer, Hubertus;
    Project: EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (147174)

    The reconstruction of the stable carbon isotope evolution in atmospheric CO2 (d13Catm ), as archived in Antarctic ice cores, bears the potential to disentangle the contributions of the different carbon cycle fluxes causing past CO2 variations. Here we present a new record of d13Catm before, during and after the Marine Isotope Stage 5.5 (155 000 to 105 000 years BP). The record was derived with a well established sublimation method using ice from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the Talos Dome ice cores in East Antarctica. We find a 0.4 permil shift to heavier values between the mean d13Catm level in the Penultimate (~ 140 000 years BP) and Last Glacial Maximum (~ 22 000 years BP), which can be explained by either (i) changes in the isotopic composition or (ii) intensity of the carbon input fluxes to the combined ocean/atmosphere carbon reservoir or (iii) by long-term peat buildup. Our isotopic data suggest that the carbon cycle evolution along Termination II and the subsequent interglacial was controlled by essentially the same processes as during the last 24 000 years, but with different phasing and magnitudes. Furthermore, a 5000 years lag in the CO2 decline relative to EDC temperatures is confirmed during the glacial inception at the end of MIS 5.5 (120 000 years BP). Based on our isotopic data this lag can be explained by terrestrial carbon release and carbonate compensation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Felden, Janine; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Boetius, Antje;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    The Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano is a highly active methane seep hosting different chemosynthetic communities such as thiotrophic bacterial mats and siboglinid tubeworm assemblages. This study focuses on in situ measurements of methane fluxes to and from these different habitats, in comparison to benthic methane and oxygen consumption rates. By quantifying in situ oxygen, methane, and sulfide fluxes in different habitats, a spatial budget covering areas of 10-1000 -m diameter was established. The range of dissolved methane efflux (770-2 mmol m-2 d-1) from the center to the outer rim was associated with a decrease in temperature gradients from 46°C to < 1°C m-1, indicating that spatial variations in fluid flow control the distribution of benthic habitats and activities. Accordingly, total oxygen uptake (TOU) varied between the different habitats by one order of magnitude from 15 mmol m-2 d-1 to 161 mmol m-2 d-1. High fluid flow rates appeared to suppress benthic activities by limiting the availability of electron acceptors. Accordingly, the highest TOU was associated with the lowest fluid flow and methane efflux. This was most likely due to the aerobic oxidation of methane, which may be more relevant as a sink for methane as previously considered in submarine ecosystems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westerhold, Thomas;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | MIONIÑO (796220), UKRI | Dynamics of the Oligocene... (NE/L007452/1), EC | TiPES (820970), EC | EARTHSEQUENCING (617462)

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huse, Geir;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    Acoustic estimates of herring and blue whiting abundance were obtained during the surveys using the Simrad ER60 scientific echosounder. The allocation of NASC-values to herring, blue whiting and other acoustic targets were based on the composition of the trawl catches and the appearance of echo recordings. To estimate the abundance, the allocated NASC -values were averaged for ICES-squares (0.5° latitude by 1° longitude). For each statistical square, the unit area density of fish (rA) in number per square nautical mile (N*nm-2) was calculated using standard equations (Foote et al., 1987; Toresen et al., 1998). To estimate the total abundance of fish, the unit area abundance for each statistical square was multiplied by the number of square nautical miles in each statistical square and then summed for all the statistical squares within defined subareas and over the total area. Biomass estimation was calculated by multiplying abundance in numbers by the average weight of the fish in each statistical square then summing all squares within defined subareas and over the total area. The Norwegian BEAM soft-ware (Totland and Godø 2001) was used to make estimates of total biomass.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pritchard, Hamish D; Ligtenberg, Stefan R M; Fricker, Helen; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Vaughan, David G; Padman, Laurie;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | ICE2SEA (226375)

    Accurate prediction of global sea-level rise requires that we understand the cause of recent, widespread and intensifying glacier acceleration along Antarctic ice-sheet coastal margins. Floating ice shelves buttress the flow of grounded tributary glaciers and their thickness and extent are particularly susceptible to changes in both climate and ocean forcing. Recent ice-shelf collapse led to retreat and acceleration of several glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. However, the extent and magnitude of ice-shelf thickness change, its causes and its link to glacier flow rate are so poorly understood that its influence on the future of the ice sheets cannot yet be predicted. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and modelling of the surface firn layer to reveal for the first time the circum-Antarctic pattern of ice-shelf thinning through increased basal melt. We deduce that this increased melt is the primary driver of Antarctic ice-sheet loss, through a reduction in buttressing of the adjacent ice sheet that has led to accelerated glacier flow. The highest thinning rates (~7 m/a) occur where warm water at depth can access thick ice shelves via submarine troughs crossing the continental shelf. Wind forcing could explain the dominant patterns of both basal melting and the surface melting and collapse of Antarctic ice shelves, through ocean upwelling in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and atmospheric warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. This implies that climate forcing through changing winds influences Antarctic Ice Sheet mass balance, and hence global sea-level, on annual to decadal timescales.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | ICY-LAB (678371), EC | iAtlantic (818123)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
309 Research products, page 1 of 31
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Holcomb, Michael; McCorkle, Daniel C; Cohen, Anne L;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)

    Zooxanthellate colonies of the scleractinian coral Astrangia poculata were grown under combinations of ambient and elevated nutrients (5 µM NO, 0.3 µM PO4, and 2nM Fe) and CO2 (780 ppmv) treatments for a period of 6 months. Coral calcification rates, estimated from buoyant weights, were not significantly affected by moderately elevated nutrients at ambient CO2 and were negatively affected by elevated CO2 at ambient nutrient levels. However, calcification by corals reared under elevated nutrients combined with elevated CO2 was not significantly different from that of corals reared under ambient conditions, suggesting that CO2 enrichment can lead to nutrient limitation in zooxanthellate corals. A conceptual model is proposed to explain how nutrients and CO2 interact to control zooxanthellate coral calcification. Nutrient limited corals are unable to utilize an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as nutrients are already limiting growth, thus the effect of elevated CO2 on saturation state drives the calcification response. Under nutrient replete conditions, corals may have the ability to utilize more DIC, thus the calcification response to CO2 becomes the product of a negative effect on saturation state and a positive effect on gross carbon fixation, depending upon which dominates, the calcification response can be either positive or negative. This may help explain how the range of coral responses found in different studies of ocean acidification can be obtained.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rampen, Sebastiaan W; Willmott, Verónica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Uliana, Eleonora; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Schefuß, Enno; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | PACEMAKER (226600)

    Long chain alkyl diols form a group of lipids occurring widely in marine environments. Recent studies have suggested several palaeoclimatological applications for proxies based on their distributions, but also revealed uncertainties about their applicability. Here we evaluate the use of long chain 1,14-alkyl diol indices for reconstruction of temperature and upwelling conditions by comparing index values, obtained from a comprehensive set of marine surface sediments, with environmental factors like sea surface temperature (SST), salinity and nutrient concentrations. Previous cultivation efforts indicated a strong effect of temperature on the degree of saturation and the chain length distribution of long chain 1,14-alkyl diols in Proboscia spp., quantified in the diol saturation index (DSI) and diol chain length index (DCI), respectively. However, values of these indices in surface sediments show no relationship with annual mean SST of the overlying water. It remains unknown what determines the DSI, although our data suggests that it may be affected by diagenesis, while the relationship between temperature and DCI may be different for different Proboscia species. In addition, contributions of algae other than Proboscia diatoms may affect both indices, although our data provide no direct evidence for additional long chain 1,14-alkyl diol sources. Two other indices using the abundance of 1,14-diols vs. 1,13-diols and C30 1,15-diols have previously been applied as indicators for upwelling intensity at different locations. The geographical distribution of their values supports the use of 1,14 diols vs. 1,13 diols [C28 + C30 1,14-diols]/[(C28 + C30 1,13-diols) + (C28 + C30 1,14-diols)] as a general indicator for high nutrient or upwelling conditions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Badger, Marcus P S; Chalk, Thomas B; Foster, Gavin L; Bown, Paul R; Gibbs, Samantha J; Sexton, Philip F; Schmidt, Daniela N; Pälike, Heiko; Mackensen, Andreas; Pancost, Richard D;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: UKRI | Timing, Causes and Conseq... (NE/H006273/1), EC | TGRES (340923)

    Atmospheric _p_CO~2~ is a critical component of the global carbon system and is considered to be the major control of Earth's past, present and future climate. Accurate and precise reconstructions of its concentration through geological time are, therefore, crucial to our understanding of the Earth system. Ice core records document _p_CO~2~ for the past 800 kyrs, but at no point during this interval were CO~2~ levels higher than today. Interpretation of older _p_CO~2~ has been hampered by discrepancies during some time intervals between two of the main ocean-based proxy methods used to reconstruct _p_CO~2~: the carbon isotope fractionation that occurs during photosynthesis as recorded by haptophyte biomarkers (alkenones) and the boron isotope composition (δ^11^B) of foraminifer shells. Here we present alkenone and δ^11^B-based _p_CO~2~ reconstructions generated from the same samples from the Plio-Pleistocene at ODP Site 999 across a glacial-interglacial cycle. We find a muted response to _p_CO~2~ in the alkenone record compared to contemporaneous ice core and δ^11^B records, suggesting caution in the interpretation of alkenone-based records at low _p_CO~2~ levels. This is possibly caused by the physiology of CO~2~ uptake in the haptophytes. Our new understanding resolves some of the inconsistencies between the proxies and highlights that caution may be required when interpreting alkenone-based reconstructions of _p_CO~2~.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Deckker, Patrick; Moros, Matthias; Blanz, Thomas; Schneider, Ralph R; Barrows, Timothy T; Perner, Kerstin;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    The data relate to a paper submitted to Quaternary Science Reviews. All the data support a study of the last 94 ka recorded in core MD03-2611 and an adjacent multicore MD03-MUC 3 taken on the fringe of one of the Murray Canyons offshore Kangaroo Island. Additional data pertain to core SS0206-GC15 taken offshore Victoria south of Warrnambool, but its record only spans the last 25ka. The records are at high resolution and cover a multitude of parameters. Radiocarbon dates for these cores are presented in the supplementary section of this paper.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schneider, Robert; Schmitt, Jochen; Koehler, Peter; Joos, Fortunat; Fischer, Hubertus;
    Project: EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (147174)

    The reconstruction of the stable carbon isotope evolution in atmospheric CO2 (d13Catm ), as archived in Antarctic ice cores, bears the potential to disentangle the contributions of the different carbon cycle fluxes causing past CO2 variations. Here we present a new record of d13Catm before, during and after the Marine Isotope Stage 5.5 (155 000 to 105 000 years BP). The record was derived with a well established sublimation method using ice from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the Talos Dome ice cores in East Antarctica. We find a 0.4 permil shift to heavier values between the mean d13Catm level in the Penultimate (~ 140 000 years BP) and Last Glacial Maximum (~ 22 000 years BP), which can be explained by either (i) changes in the isotopic composition or (ii) intensity of the carbon input fluxes to the combined ocean/atmosphere carbon reservoir or (iii) by long-term peat buildup. Our isotopic data suggest that the carbon cycle evolution along Termination II and the subsequent interglacial was controlled by essentially the same processes as during the last 24 000 years, but with different phasing and magnitudes. Furthermore, a 5000 years lag in the CO2 decline relative to EDC temperatures is confirmed during the glacial inception at the end of MIS 5.5 (120 000 years BP). Based on our isotopic data this lag can be explained by terrestrial carbon release and carbonate compensation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Felden, Janine; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Boetius, Antje;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    The Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano is a highly active methane seep hosting different chemosynthetic communities such as thiotrophic bacterial mats and siboglinid tubeworm assemblages. This study focuses on in situ measurements of methane fluxes to and from these different habitats, in comparison to benthic methane and oxygen consumption rates. By quantifying in situ oxygen, methane, and sulfide fluxes in different habitats, a spatial budget covering areas of 10-1000 -m diameter was established. The range of dissolved methane efflux (770-2 mmol m-2 d-1) from the center to the outer rim was associated with a decrease in temperature gradients from 46°C to < 1°C m-1, indicating that spatial variations in fluid flow control the distribution of benthic habitats and activities. Accordingly, total oxygen uptake (TOU) varied between the different habitats by one order of magnitude from 15 mmol m-2 d-1 to 161 mmol m-2 d-1. High fluid flow rates appeared to suppress benthic activities by limiting the availability of electron acceptors. Accordingly, the highest TOU was associated with the lowest fluid flow and methane efflux. This was most likely due to the aerobic oxidation of methane, which may be more relevant as a sink for methane as previously considered in submarine ecosystems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westerhold, Thomas;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | MIONIÑO (796220), UKRI | Dynamics of the Oligocene... (NE/L007452/1), EC | TiPES (820970), EC | EARTHSEQUENCING (617462)

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huse, Geir;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    Acoustic estimates of herring and blue whiting abundance were obtained during the surveys using the Simrad ER60 scientific echosounder. The allocation of NASC-values to herring, blue whiting and other acoustic targets were based on the composition of the trawl catches and the appearance of echo recordings. To estimate the abundance, the allocated NASC -values were averaged for ICES-squares (0.5° latitude by 1° longitude). For each statistical square, the unit area density of fish (rA) in number per square nautical mile (N*nm-2) was calculated using standard equations (Foote et al., 1987; Toresen et al., 1998). To estimate the total abundance of fish, the unit area abundance for each statistical square was multiplied by the number of square nautical miles in each statistical square and then summed for all the statistical squares within defined subareas and over the total area. Biomass estimation was calculated by multiplying abundance in numbers by the average weight of the fish in each statistical square then summing all squares within defined subareas and over the total area. The Norwegian BEAM soft-ware (Totland and Godø 2001) was used to make estimates of total biomass.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pritchard, Hamish D; Ligtenberg, Stefan R M; Fricker, Helen; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Vaughan, David G; Padman, Laurie;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | ICE2SEA (226375)

    Accurate prediction of global sea-level rise requires that we understand the cause of recent, widespread and intensifying glacier acceleration along Antarctic ice-sheet coastal margins. Floating ice shelves buttress the flow of grounded tributary glaciers and their thickness and extent are particularly susceptible to changes in both climate and ocean forcing. Recent ice-shelf collapse led to retreat and acceleration of several glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. However, the extent and magnitude of ice-shelf thickness change, its causes and its link to glacier flow rate are so poorly understood that its influence on the future of the ice sheets cannot yet be predicted. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and modelling of the surface firn layer to reveal for the first time the circum-Antarctic pattern of ice-shelf thinning through increased basal melt. We deduce that this increased melt is the primary driver of Antarctic ice-sheet loss, through a reduction in buttressing of the adjacent ice sheet that has led to accelerated glacier flow. The highest thinning rates (~7 m/a) occur where warm water at depth can access thick ice shelves via submarine troughs crossing the continental shelf. Wind forcing could explain the dominant patterns of both basal melting and the surface melting and collapse of Antarctic ice shelves, through ocean upwelling in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and atmospheric warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. This implies that climate forcing through changing winds influences Antarctic Ice Sheet mass balance, and hence global sea-level, on annual to decadal timescales.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Project: EC | ICY-LAB (678371), EC | iAtlantic (818123)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.