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471 Research products, page 1 of 48

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This issue, which serves as the annual review on the environment, looks at the Bank's work from July 2002 through June 2003, dedicated this year to Water and the Environment, on the occasion of the Fifth World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa. Following the overview, which reviews progress in the implementation of the Environment strategy, the report presents viewpoints on ways to move forward in delivering water as committed in South Africa, but also reflecting on the need for a more integrated approach to water resources management. Various other articles feature the Bank's new water resources strategy, and environmental flows, that is, from linking catchments to coasts in water resources management, to protected areas as tools for water conservation, and management. Regional articles describe progress in implementing the environment strategy, and supporting client's efforts in promoting appropriate environmental policies, and programs. Highlights from the International Finance Corporation (IFC) scan efforts to promote private sector investment in water supply and sanitation, and environmental improvements, while efforts by the World Bank Institute (WBI) inform on training and learning activities that sponsor policy, and knowledge-sharing as it relates to the environment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xie, Jian;
    Publisher: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This report reviews China's water scarcity situation, assesses the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommends key areas for strengthening and reform. It is a synthesis of the main findings and recommendations from analytical work and case studies prepared under the World Bank Analytical and Advisory Assistance (AAA) program entitled 'Addressing China's Water Scarcity: from Analysis to Action.' These studies focus on several strategically important thematic areas for China where additional research was needed, as identified by the research team and advisory group based on a review of pressing issues. These areas are governance, water rights, pricing, ecological compensation, pollution control, and emergency response. The approach has been to evaluate Chinese and international experience to identify policy and institutional factors that have proven effective in promoting the adoption of water conservation and pollution reduction technologies. The research was based on literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative policy analyses, household surveys, field trips, and case studies to develop feasible recommendations for a plan of action based on realities on the ground.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The technical workshop on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects was held in Washington, D.C., on June 26, 2008. It was hosted by the Social Development Department (SDV) and Water Anchor (ETWWA) of the World Bank. The workshop aimed to provide a platform for a discussion of past and current practices, as well as how to construct development benefits mechanisms within the specific context of hydropower projects. It also provided a forum for sharing knowledge as to how development benefits mechanisms may be applied to Bank-financed projects. The workshop had five sessions and brought together more than 60 experts from different sectors in different regions of the World Bank. Sixteen speakers gave presentations. The workshop had discussions on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects and also covered issues pertaining to the broader range of benefit-sharing, including World Bank engagement in hydropower projects, legacy of hydropower, notion evolution, approaches and mechanisms, and good practices in benefit-sharing of hydropower projects. A range of mechanisms are available to enhance and share benefits. Benefit-sharing consists of a combination of monetary and non-monetary mechanisms adapted to specific project contexts. Monetary development benefits are linked largely to economic rent, fair distribution, full compensation, entitlements, national priorities, and optimization of opportunities, and include basically taxation, royalties, preferential rates, revenue sharing, development funds, and joint ownership. The non-monetary development benefits include, for example, allocation of fishing rights in reservoirs; priority hiring of local community members during construction; start-up support for local companies; capacity building; multipurpose infrastructure; rural electrification; and access to improved infrastructure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westerhold, Thomas;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EARTHSEQUENCING (617462), EC | TiPES (820970), EC | MIONIÑO (796220)

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank Group;
    Publisher: World Bank, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The effects of climate change, from changing precipitation patterns to rising seas, will exacerbate the coastal erosion already affecting West Africa, increasing the exposure and vulnerability of the people and assets located there. Given the importance of the coastal zone to the region as a whole, it is critical that policy makers consider the effects of future climate change in the decisions they make today. Regional cooperation is challenging, but it has been successful in many places, particularly where the issue addressed presented an existential challenge to the coun¬tries affected. Efforts to build trust and coordinate efforts will help policy makers protect the lives and livelihoods of the people in the region and allow their countries to build on the development gains made in recent years rather than see them rolled back as a result of climate change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Krause, Evamaria;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science

    As the atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, more CO2 will dissolve in the oceans, leading to a reduction in pH. Effects of ocean acidification on bacterial communities have mainly been studied in biologically complex systems, in which indirect effects, mediated through food web interactions, come into play. These approaches come close to nature but suffer from low replication and neglect seasonality. To comprehensively investigate direct pH effects, we conducted highly-replicated laboratory acidification experiments with the natural bacterial community from Helgoland Roads (North Sea). Seasonal variability was accounted for by repeating the experiment four times (spring, summer, autumn, winter). Three dilution approaches were used to select for different ecological strategies, i.e. fast-growing or low-nutrient adapted bacteria. The pH levels investigated were in situ seawater pH (8.15-8.22), pH 7.82 and pH 7.67, representing the present-day situation and two acidification scenarios projected for the North Sea for the year 2100. In all seasons, both automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S ribosomal amplicon pyrosequencing revealed pH-dependent community shifts for two of the dilution approaches. Bacteria susceptible to changes in pH were different members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae and further less abundant groups. Their specific response to reduced pH was often context-dependent. Bacterial abundance was not influenced by pH. Our findings suggest that already moderate changes in pH have the potential to cause compositional shifts, depending on the community assembly and environmental factors. By identifying pH-susceptible groups, this study provides insights for more directed, in-depth community analyses in large-scale and long-term experiments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Orire, A.M.; Abubakar, S.;
    Publisher: FISON

    Utilization of agricultural waste- melon shell by hybrid catfish (heteroclarias) 3.92 ~c 0.05g was investigated in this research. Five isonitrogenous diets containing 40% crude protein with inclusion levels of melon shell meal (MSM) at 0%,25%,50%, 75% and 100% in replacement of maize meal was fed to heteroclarias species for 56.days. The results indicated significant differences (P<0.05) in the growth parameters and body compositions. Diet containing 50% melon shell meal gave a significantly high mean weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, apparent protein utilization and low feed conversion ratio respectively. The experiment supported the inclusion of melon shell meal up to 50% without detrimental effects on the growth of the fish. Includes: 4 tables and 1 figure;Also includes: 14 erfs.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pagiola, Stefano; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Freire-González, Jaume;
    Publisher: World Bank, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The effectiveness of conservation interventions such as Payments for Environmental Services (PES) is often evaluated, if it is evaluated at all, only at the completion of the intervention. Since gains achieved by the intervention may be lost after it ends, even apparently successful interventions may not result in long-term conservation benefits, a problem known as that of permanence. This paper uses a unique dataset to examine the permanence of land use change induced by a short-term PES program implemented in Quindío, Colombia, between 2003 and 2008. This the first PES program to have a control group for comparison. Under this program, PES had been found to have a positive and highly significant impact on land use. To assess the long-term permanence of these changes, both PES recipients and control households were re-surveyed in 2011, four years after the last payment was made. We find that the land use changes that had been induced by PES were broadly sustained in intervening years, with minor differences across specific practices and sub-groups of participants. The patterns of change in the period after the PES program was completed also help better understand the reasons for the program s success. These results suggest that, at least in the case of productive land uses such as silvopastoral practices, PES programs can be effective at encouraging land owners to adopt environmentally-beneficial management practices and that the benefits will persist after payments cease.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mogaka, Hezron; Gichere, Samuel; Davis, Richard; Hirji, Rafik;
    Publisher: Washington, DC: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This report attempts to fill that gap for two of the most important water-related issues facing the effects of climate variability and the steady degradation of the nation's water resources. The study reported here concluded that the El Niño-La Niña episode from 1997-2000 cost the country Ksh 290 billion (about 14 percent of GDP during that period). During El Niño-induced floods, this cost primarily arises from destruction of infrastructure such as roads, water supply infrastructure, and pipe networks. The largest costs incurred during the La Niña droughts (1998-2000) were from loss of industrial production and other costs arising from reduced hydropower generation, as well as from crop and livestock losses. These costs are felt throughout Kenyan society.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David;
    Publisher: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    Bangladesh, with two-thirds of its land area less than five meters above sea level, is one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world. Low-lying coastal districts along the Bay of Bengal are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, tidal flooding, storm surges, and climate-induced increases in soil and water salinity. This paper investigates the impact of drinking water salinity on infant mortality in coastal Bangladesh. It focuses on the salinity of drinking water consumed during pregnancy, which extensive medical research has linked to maternal hypertension, preeclampsia, and post-partum morbidity and mortality. The study combines spatially-formatted salinity measures for 2001-09 provided by Bangladesh with individual and household survey information from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys for 2004 and 2007. It uses probit and logit analyses to estimate mortality probability for infants less than two months old. Controlling for many other determinants of infant mortality, the analysis finds high significance for salinity exposure during the last month of pregnancy and no significance for exposure during the preceding months. The estimated impact of salinity on infant mortality is comparable in magnitude to the estimated effects of traditionally-cited variables such as maternal age and education, gender of the household head, household wealth, toilet facilities, drinking water sources, and cooking fuels.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
471 Research products, page 1 of 48
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This issue, which serves as the annual review on the environment, looks at the Bank's work from July 2002 through June 2003, dedicated this year to Water and the Environment, on the occasion of the Fifth World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa. Following the overview, which reviews progress in the implementation of the Environment strategy, the report presents viewpoints on ways to move forward in delivering water as committed in South Africa, but also reflecting on the need for a more integrated approach to water resources management. Various other articles feature the Bank's new water resources strategy, and environmental flows, that is, from linking catchments to coasts in water resources management, to protected areas as tools for water conservation, and management. Regional articles describe progress in implementing the environment strategy, and supporting client's efforts in promoting appropriate environmental policies, and programs. Highlights from the International Finance Corporation (IFC) scan efforts to promote private sector investment in water supply and sanitation, and environmental improvements, while efforts by the World Bank Institute (WBI) inform on training and learning activities that sponsor policy, and knowledge-sharing as it relates to the environment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xie, Jian;
    Publisher: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This report reviews China's water scarcity situation, assesses the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommends key areas for strengthening and reform. It is a synthesis of the main findings and recommendations from analytical work and case studies prepared under the World Bank Analytical and Advisory Assistance (AAA) program entitled 'Addressing China's Water Scarcity: from Analysis to Action.' These studies focus on several strategically important thematic areas for China where additional research was needed, as identified by the research team and advisory group based on a review of pressing issues. These areas are governance, water rights, pricing, ecological compensation, pollution control, and emergency response. The approach has been to evaluate Chinese and international experience to identify policy and institutional factors that have proven effective in promoting the adoption of water conservation and pollution reduction technologies. The research was based on literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative policy analyses, household surveys, field trips, and case studies to develop feasible recommendations for a plan of action based on realities on the ground.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The technical workshop on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects was held in Washington, D.C., on June 26, 2008. It was hosted by the Social Development Department (SDV) and Water Anchor (ETWWA) of the World Bank. The workshop aimed to provide a platform for a discussion of past and current practices, as well as how to construct development benefits mechanisms within the specific context of hydropower projects. It also provided a forum for sharing knowledge as to how development benefits mechanisms may be applied to Bank-financed projects. The workshop had five sessions and brought together more than 60 experts from different sectors in different regions of the World Bank. Sixteen speakers gave presentations. The workshop had discussions on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects and also covered issues pertaining to the broader range of benefit-sharing, including World Bank engagement in hydropower projects, legacy of hydropower, notion evolution, approaches and mechanisms, and good practices in benefit-sharing of hydropower projects. A range of mechanisms are available to enhance and share benefits. Benefit-sharing consists of a combination of monetary and non-monetary mechanisms adapted to specific project contexts. Monetary development benefits are linked largely to economic rent, fair distribution, full compensation, entitlements, national priorities, and optimization of opportunities, and include basically taxation, royalties, preferential rates, revenue sharing, development funds, and joint ownership. The non-monetary development benefits include, for example, allocation of fishing rights in reservoirs; priority hiring of local community members during construction; start-up support for local companies; capacity building; multipurpose infrastructure; rural electrification; and access to improved infrastructure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westerhold, Thomas;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EARTHSEQUENCING (617462), EC | TiPES (820970), EC | MIONIÑO (796220)

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank Group;
    Publisher: World Bank, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The effects of climate change, from changing precipitation patterns to rising seas, will exacerbate the coastal erosion already affecting West Africa, increasing the exposure and vulnerability of the people and assets located there. Given the importance of the coastal zone to the region as a whole, it is critical that policy makers consider the effects of future climate change in the decisions they make today. Regional cooperation is challenging, but it has been successful in many places, particularly where the issue addressed presented an existential challenge to the coun¬tries affected. Efforts to build trust and coordinate efforts will help policy makers protect the lives and livelihoods of the people in the region and allow their countries to build on the development gains made in recent years rather than see them rolled back as a result of climate change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Krause, Evamaria;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science

    As the atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, more CO2 will dissolve in the oceans, leading to a reduction in pH. Effects of ocean acidification on bacterial communities have mainly been studied in biologically complex systems, in which indirect effects, mediated through food web interactions, come into play. These approaches come close to nature but suffer from low replication and neglect seasonality. To comprehensively investigate direct pH effects, we conducted highly-replicated laboratory acidification experiments with the natural bacterial community from Helgoland Roads (North Sea). Seasonal variability was accounted for by repeating the experiment four times (spring, summer, autumn, winter). Three dilution approaches were used to select for different ecological strategies, i.e. fast-growing or low-nutrient adapted bacteria. The pH levels investigated were in situ seawater pH (8.15-8.22), pH 7.82 and pH 7.67, representing the present-day situation and two acidification scenarios projected for the North Sea for the year 2100. In all seasons, both automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S ribosomal amplicon pyrosequencing revealed pH-dependent community shifts for two of the dilution approaches. Bacteria susceptible to changes in pH were different members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae and further less abundant groups. Their specific response to reduced pH was often context-dependent. Bacterial abundance was not influenced by pH. Our findings suggest that already moderate changes in pH have the potential to cause compositional shifts, depending on the community assembly and environmental factors. By identifying pH-susceptible groups, this study provides insights for more directed, in-depth community analyses in large-scale and long-term experiments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Orire, A.M.; Abubakar, S.;
    Publisher: FISON

    Utilization of agricultural waste- melon shell by hybrid catfish (heteroclarias) 3.92 ~c 0.05g was investigated in this research. Five isonitrogenous diets containing 40% crude protein with inclusion levels of melon shell meal (MSM) at 0%,25%,50%, 75% and 100% in replacement of maize meal was fed to heteroclarias species for 56.days. The results indicated significant differences (P<0.05) in the growth parameters and body compositions. Diet containing 50% melon shell meal gave a significantly high mean weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, apparent protein utilization and low feed conversion ratio respectively. The experiment supported the inclusion of melon shell meal up to 50% without detrimental effects on the growth of the fish. Includes: 4 tables and 1 figure;Also includes: 14 erfs.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pagiola, Stefano; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Freire-González, Jaume;
    Publisher: World Bank, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The effectiveness of conservation interventions such as Payments for Environmental Services (PES) is often evaluated, if it is evaluated at all, only at the completion of the intervention. Since gains achieved by the intervention may be lost after it ends, even apparently successful interventions may not result in long-term conservation benefits, a problem known as that of permanence. This paper uses a unique dataset to examine the permanence of land use change induced by a short-term PES program implemented in Quindío, Colombia, between 2003 and 2008. This the first PES program to have a control group for comparison. Under this program, PES had been found to have a positive and highly significant impact on land use. To assess the long-term permanence of these changes, both PES recipients and control households were re-surveyed in 2011, four years after the last payment was made. We find that the land use changes that had been induced by PES were broadly sustained in intervening years, with minor differences across specific practices and sub-groups of participants. The patterns of change in the period after the PES program was completed also help better understand the reasons for the program s success. These results suggest that, at least in the case of productive land uses such as silvopastoral practices, PES programs can be effective at encouraging land owners to adopt environmentally-beneficial management practices and that the benefits will persist after payments cease.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mogaka, Hezron; Gichere, Samuel; Davis, Richard; Hirji, Rafik;
    Publisher: Washington, DC: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This report attempts to fill that gap for two of the most important water-related issues facing the effects of climate variability and the steady degradation of the nation's water resources. The study reported here concluded that the El Niño-La Niña episode from 1997-2000 cost the country Ksh 290 billion (about 14 percent of GDP during that period). During El Niño-induced floods, this cost primarily arises from destruction of infrastructure such as roads, water supply infrastructure, and pipe networks. The largest costs incurred during the La Niña droughts (1998-2000) were from loss of industrial production and other costs arising from reduced hydropower generation, as well as from crop and livestock losses. These costs are felt throughout Kenyan society.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David;
    Publisher: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    Bangladesh, with two-thirds of its land area less than five meters above sea level, is one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world. Low-lying coastal districts along the Bay of Bengal are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, tidal flooding, storm surges, and climate-induced increases in soil and water salinity. This paper investigates the impact of drinking water salinity on infant mortality in coastal Bangladesh. It focuses on the salinity of drinking water consumed during pregnancy, which extensive medical research has linked to maternal hypertension, preeclampsia, and post-partum morbidity and mortality. The study combines spatially-formatted salinity measures for 2001-09 provided by Bangladesh with individual and household survey information from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys for 2004 and 2007. It uses probit and logit analyses to estimate mortality probability for infants less than two months old. Controlling for many other determinants of infant mortality, the analysis finds high significance for salinity exposure during the last month of pregnancy and no significance for exposure during the preceding months. The estimated impact of salinity on infant mortality is comparable in magnitude to the estimated effects of traditionally-cited variables such as maternal age and education, gender of the household head, household wealth, toilet facilities, drinking water sources, and cooking fuels.