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  • Authors: Martin, Marjolaine;

    Macroalgae, and particularly their lignin-free polysaccharides, are increasingly used for their gelling and therapeutic properties and for the production of biofuels and renewable chemical compounds. To extract, hydrolyze and purify this biomass, algae hydrolyzing enzymes are needed. Our work aims to identify and characterize algal biomass hydrolyzing enzymes expressed by microorganisms living on the surface of algae, by functional metagenomics. Therefore, a microbial DNA extraction method was developed to isolate the gDNA from the microorganisms of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum and a metagenomic library was constructed in Escherichia coli. The library was screened for diverse enzymatic activities (esterases, xylanases, cellulases, α-amylases, arabinanases, caseinases and β-glucosidases) on agar plates with specific enzymes substrates. Several new microbial enzymes (esterases, β-glucosidases, α-amylases and cellulases) were identified revealing the wealth of our library. Furthermore, those enzymes had less than 50% sequence identity with known protein sequences; meaning that our approach allows to identify new microbial enzymes expressed by uncultured microorganisms. Plate tests for medium-throughput screening of specific enzymes hydrolyzing algal polysaccharides (agarases, carrageenases and alginate lyases) are currently being developed. Our approach will probably allow us to identify new families of those ill-known enzymes, with particular enzymatic activities.

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  • Authors: Lazzaro, Xavier;

    Légende manuscrite sur le document original : "Abidjan. La Marine nationale du pont Houphouet-Boigny" Géolocalisation : hypothèse de géolocalisation exacte.

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  • Authors: Gattuso Jean-Pierre; Payri Claude E; Pichon Michel; Delesalle Bruno; +1 Authors

    Community metabolism and air-sea carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were investigated in July 1992 on a fringing reef at Moorea (French Polynesia). The benthic community was dominated by macroalgae (85% substratum cover) and comprised of Phaeophyceae Padina tenuis (Bory), Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh, and Hydroclathrus clathratus Bory (Howe); Chlorophyta Halimeda incrassata f. ovata J. Agardh (Howe); and Ventricaria ventricosa J. Agardh (Olsen et West), as well as several Rhodophyta (Actinotrichia fragilis Forskal (Borgesen) and several species of encrusting coralline algae). Algal biomass was 171 g dry weight·m-2. Community gross production (P(g)), respiration (R), and net calcification (G) were measured in an open top enclosure. P(g) and R were respectively 248 and 240 mmol CO2·m-2·d-1, and there was a slight net dissolution of CaCO3 (0.8 mmol·m-2·d-1). This site was a sink for atmospheric CO2 (10 ± 4 mmol CO2·m-2·d-1), and the analysis of data from the literature suggests that this is a general feature of algal-dominated reefs. Measurement of air-sea CO2 fluxes in open water close to the enclosure demonstrated that changes in small-scale hydrodynamics can lead to misleading conclusions. Net CO2 evasion to the atmosphere was measured on the fringing reef due to changes in the current pattern that drove water from the barrier reef (a CO2 source) to the study site.

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  • Authors: Mouchet, Anne;

    Large discrepancies exist among data-based estimates and model reconstructions of the ocean bomb radiocarbon inventory. In order to resolve this gap, it has been proposed that the CO2 piston veloc- ity should be revised downward (Sweeney et al., 2007; Müller et al., 2008). Here we compare the transient 14C distributions in the ocean obtained with different formulations of the isotopic ratio commonly used in modeling studies. It is found that both the CO2 increase and the air-sea CO2 flux significantly contribute to the 1990 ocean bomb radiocarbon inventory, by around 10% each. Moreover, these two processes explain more than 25% of the inventory difference be- tween 1974 and 1990. These results imply that, as already argued by Naegler (2009), inventories based on observations which lack infor- mation about CO2 invasion are underestimated. Further, this work allows to gain insight into the reasons for discrepancies among model results. It suggests that while a comprehensive isotopic formulation is needed when addressing the global radiocarbon cycle, a simplified form is more relevant for model calibration and piston velocity assess- ment based on currently available bomb radiocarbon inventories.

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  • Authors: Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme; Zondervan, Ingrid; Chou, Lei; +5 Authors

    Numerous experiments to date have demonstrated that elevated PCO2 is detrimental to biogenic calcification rates. However, most of these experiments have been realized in batch or continuous cultures and give little information on the dynamics of calcification in natural conditions. The present work describes the development and decay of a nutrient-induced bloom of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi in a mesocosm experiment. The monitoring of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) and Total Alkalinity (TAlk) within the seawater enclosures allowed us to describe comprehensively day to day dynamics of both calcification and organic carbon production. Three atmospheric PCO2 conditions (glacial, present and next century) were simulated by bubbling CO2 mixtures, while total alkalinity was left to evolve from its present value. No conspicuous change of Net Community Production under elevated PCO2 was recorded while the production of inorganic carbon appeared to be affected in two ways. Firstly, the production rate of inorganic carbon appeared to be lowered by 40% in the next century PCO2 conditions, decreasing concomitantly the calcification to photosynthesis ratio from 0.75 (glacial conditions) to 0.45 (next century conditions). Secondly, the onset of calcification was delayed by 24~48h under elevated PCO2 conditions, reducing the overall length of calcification in the course of the bloom. These two effects would act to reduce the amount of precipitated CaCO3 by coccolithophorids in a High CO2 world

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    Authors: Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Montagna, Paolo; Siani, Giuseppe; Douville, Eric; +9 Authors

    We present the neodymium isotopic composition (epsilon-Nd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as epsilon-Nd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (d18O) and carbon (d13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral epsilon-Nd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ~13 kyr, with mean values of -8.94 ± 0.26 (1 Sigma; n = 24) and -8.91 ± 0.18 (1 Sigma; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal epsilon-Nd values are slightly lower (-9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic epsilon-Nd values. The slight epsilon-Nd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal d13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ~16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic epsilon-Nd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of epsilon-Nd values, from -8.66 ± 0.30 to 5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (-7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the epsilon-Nd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (-8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ~8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin. We propose that western Mediterranean intermediate waters replaced the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), and thus there was a strong reduction of the LIW during the mid-sapropel (~8.7 ka BP). This observation supports a notable change of Mediterranean circulation pattern centered on sapropel S1 that needs further investigation to be confirmed.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    Nitrate and UV-absorbance spectra were measured by a SUNA V2 UV-spectrometer (Satlantic) mounted in the sensor skid of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023. The instrument header is SATSLS0847. Data use manufacturer calibration.

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  • Authors: Malaise, Constantin;
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    Authors: Gao, K.;
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    Authors: Michaud, H.; Marsaleix, P.; Leredde, Y.; Estournel, C.; +4 Authors

    We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a) following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c). These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010) and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999). The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009)and Uchiyama et al. (2010). A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002) of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data. Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea) for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the inner shelf are less visible since wind and regional circulation seem to be the predominant forcings. Besides, a discrepancy between model and observations is noted at that scale, possibly linked to an underestimation of the wind stress. This three-dimensional method allows a good representation of vertical current profiles and permits the calculation of the shear stress associated with waves and currents. Future work will focus on the combination with a sediment transport model.

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628 Research products
  • Authors: Martin, Marjolaine;

    Macroalgae, and particularly their lignin-free polysaccharides, are increasingly used for their gelling and therapeutic properties and for the production of biofuels and renewable chemical compounds. To extract, hydrolyze and purify this biomass, algae hydrolyzing enzymes are needed. Our work aims to identify and characterize algal biomass hydrolyzing enzymes expressed by microorganisms living on the surface of algae, by functional metagenomics. Therefore, a microbial DNA extraction method was developed to isolate the gDNA from the microorganisms of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum and a metagenomic library was constructed in Escherichia coli. The library was screened for diverse enzymatic activities (esterases, xylanases, cellulases, α-amylases, arabinanases, caseinases and β-glucosidases) on agar plates with specific enzymes substrates. Several new microbial enzymes (esterases, β-glucosidases, α-amylases and cellulases) were identified revealing the wealth of our library. Furthermore, those enzymes had less than 50% sequence identity with known protein sequences; meaning that our approach allows to identify new microbial enzymes expressed by uncultured microorganisms. Plate tests for medium-throughput screening of specific enzymes hydrolyzing algal polysaccharides (agarases, carrageenases and alginate lyases) are currently being developed. Our approach will probably allow us to identify new families of those ill-known enzymes, with particular enzymatic activities.

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  • Authors: Lazzaro, Xavier;

    Légende manuscrite sur le document original : "Abidjan. La Marine nationale du pont Houphouet-Boigny" Géolocalisation : hypothèse de géolocalisation exacte.

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  • Authors: Gattuso Jean-Pierre; Payri Claude E; Pichon Michel; Delesalle Bruno; +1 Authors

    Community metabolism and air-sea carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were investigated in July 1992 on a fringing reef at Moorea (French Polynesia). The benthic community was dominated by macroalgae (85% substratum cover) and comprised of Phaeophyceae Padina tenuis (Bory), Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh, and Hydroclathrus clathratus Bory (Howe); Chlorophyta Halimeda incrassata f. ovata J. Agardh (Howe); and Ventricaria ventricosa J. Agardh (Olsen et West), as well as several Rhodophyta (Actinotrichia fragilis Forskal (Borgesen) and several species of encrusting coralline algae). Algal biomass was 171 g dry weight·m-2. Community gross production (P(g)), respiration (R), and net calcification (G) were measured in an open top enclosure. P(g) and R were respectively 248 and 240 mmol CO2·m-2·d-1, and there was a slight net dissolution of CaCO3 (0.8 mmol·m-2·d-1). This site was a sink for atmospheric CO2 (10 ± 4 mmol CO2·m-2·d-1), and the analysis of data from the literature suggests that this is a general feature of algal-dominated reefs. Measurement of air-sea CO2 fluxes in open water close to the enclosure demonstrated that changes in small-scale hydrodynamics can lead to misleading conclusions. Net CO2 evasion to the atmosphere was measured on the fringing reef due to changes in the current pattern that drove water from the barrier reef (a CO2 source) to the study site.

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  • Authors: Mouchet, Anne;

    Large discrepancies exist among data-based estimates and model reconstructions of the ocean bomb radiocarbon inventory. In order to resolve this gap, it has been proposed that the CO2 piston veloc- ity should be revised downward (Sweeney et al., 2007; Müller et al., 2008). Here we compare the transient 14C distributions in the ocean obtained with different formulations of the isotopic ratio commonly used in modeling studies. It is found that both the CO2 increase and the air-sea CO2 flux significantly contribute to the 1990 ocean bomb radiocarbon inventory, by around 10% each. Moreover, these two processes explain more than 25% of the inventory difference be- tween 1974 and 1990. These results imply that, as already argued by Naegler (2009), inventories based on observations which lack infor- mation about CO2 invasion are underestimated. Further, this work allows to gain insight into the reasons for discrepancies among model results. It suggests that while a comprehensive isotopic formulation is needed when addressing the global radiocarbon cycle, a simplified form is more relevant for model calibration and piston velocity assess- ment based on currently available bomb radiocarbon inventories.

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  • Authors: Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme; Zondervan, Ingrid; Chou, Lei; +5 Authors

    Numerous experiments to date have demonstrated that elevated PCO2 is detrimental to biogenic calcification rates. However, most of these experiments have been realized in batch or continuous cultures and give little information on the dynamics of calcification in natural conditions. The present work describes the development and decay of a nutrient-induced bloom of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi in a mesocosm experiment. The monitoring of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) and Total Alkalinity (TAlk) within the seawater enclosures allowed us to describe comprehensively day to day dynamics of both calcification and organic carbon production. Three atmospheric PCO2 conditions (glacial, present and next century) were simulated by bubbling CO2 mixtures, while total alkalinity was left to evolve from its present value. No conspicuous change of Net Community Production under elevated PCO2 was recorded while the production of inorganic carbon appeared to be affected in two ways. Firstly, the production rate of inorganic carbon appeared to be lowered by 40% in the next century PCO2 conditions, decreasing concomitantly the calcification to photosynthesis ratio from 0.75 (glacial conditions) to 0.45 (next century conditions). Secondly, the onset of calcification was delayed by 24~48h under elevated PCO2 conditions, reducing the overall length of calcification in the course of the bloom. These two effects would act to reduce the amount of precipitated CaCO3 by coccolithophorids in a High CO2 world

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    Authors: Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Montagna, Paolo; Siani, Giuseppe; Douville, Eric; +9 Authors

    We present the neodymium isotopic composition (epsilon-Nd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as epsilon-Nd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (d18O) and carbon (d13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral epsilon-Nd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ~13 kyr, with mean values of -8.94 ± 0.26 (1 Sigma; n = 24) and -8.91 ± 0.18 (1 Sigma; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal epsilon-Nd values are slightly lower (-9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic epsilon-Nd values. The slight epsilon-Nd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal d13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ~16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic epsilon-Nd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of epsilon-Nd values, from -8.66 ± 0.30 to 5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (-7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the epsilon-Nd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (-8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ~8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin. We propose that western Mediterranean intermediate waters replaced the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), and thus there was a strong reduction of the LIW during the mid-sapropel (~8.7 ka BP). This observation supports a notable change of Mediterranean circulation pattern centered on sapropel S1 that needs further investigation to be confirmed.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    Nitrate and UV-absorbance spectra were measured by a SUNA V2 UV-spectrometer (Satlantic) mounted in the sensor skid of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023. The instrument header is SATSLS0847. Data use manufacturer calibration.

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  • Authors: Malaise, Constantin;
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