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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Frölicher, T. L.; Bopp, L.; +8 Authors

    Changes in marine net primary productivity (PP) and export of particulate organic carbon (EP) are projected over the 21st century with four global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All four models show a decrease in global mean PP and EP between 2 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in PP and EP. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in PP and EP as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where three models project an increase in PP while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observation-based estimates compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer net primary production from satellite observations.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Crozier, Walter; Whelan, Ken; Buoro, Mathieu; Chaput, Gérald; +10 Authors

    Based on a workshop organised by the Atlantic Salmon Trust, held in Edinburgh Tuesday, 6th November – Thursday, 8th November 2017.; International audience

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eldrogi, Nawal; Luthon, Franck; Larroque, Benoît; Alqaddafi, Sultan; +1 Authors

    Motion analysis of living animals might help to understand the dangers that threaten the species, but it is sometimes technically challenging. This is particularly true for biologists who study migrating fishes of the basin of Adour. Here, we investigate the use of computer vision for automatic tracking and acquisition of knowledge about the migratory behavior of glass eels. For that purpose, some glass eels are color-marked, then introduced into an experimental medium reproducing tidal conditions. Observations are collected in video sequences. To get information about fish behavior, one can track their motion by optical flow methods. Preliminary results show that one can estimate the velocity but also the swimming behavior, hence eventually leading to energetic information about the animals.

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  • Authors: Nobrega, Rafael Henrique; Doretto Lucas, Benites; Thomas, Manon; Chenais, Nathalie; +1 Authors
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    Authors: LACROIX, Denis; DAVID, Bernard; LAMBLIN, Véronique; DE MENTHIERE, Nicolas; +7 Authors

    The perception of ocean areas by policy-makers or by people, living or not on the coast, has significantly varied over centuries. Due to its vastness and complexity, the sea has been studied within distinct academic disciplines. However, the current issues related to the sea, such as climate change, marine pollution or coastal tourism, require an integrated vision of the assets and drawbacks in order to meet the challenges arising from human activities both at sea and onshore. In this study, a group of foresight officers from the French network of public research institutes decided to cross-check and compare several science approaches (biology, sociology, economics, etc) about oceans. Thus, 11 sectors of maritime activity (transportation, fisheries, energy, etc.) were cross-tabulated with 9 basic social functions (providing food, housing, learning, etc.). In this matrix, the main challenges and issues projected for 2030 were sought, in the frame of a baseline scenario. Results were clustered through 4 criteria, leading to 9 major challenges, each of them broken down into two important issues for research. The outcomes were used to create a survey, allowing the ranking of the research priorities. Most of the 9 challenges tally with the research and development objectives of great maritime states, except for governance and monitoring, which remain underscored. As a result, maritime powers still show more interest on securing national resources rather than on promoting international cooperation for secure trade and sustainable exploitation of marine resources. But foresight in this field could help changing the mentalities notably because oceans show clearly now to be a vital common good for mankind.

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  • Authors: Thurstan, Ruth H.; Klein, Emily; Caswell, Bryony; Bennema, Floris; +17 Authors

    The ICES Working Group on the History of Fish and Fisheries (WGHIST) is a forum for interdisciplinary research on social-ecological change in marine and fisheries systems over multi-decadal to centennial timescales.WGHIST comprises a diverse group of researchers, including marine biologists, fisheries scientists, historians, and historical ecologists, from Europe and North America, as well as Australia, Russia, and South Africa. WGHIST provided a platform for the sharing and reporting of a wide range of research on marine and fisheries systems change over time, including the use of novel and non-traditional data sources and methodologies to identify and interpret these changes. WGHIST members also worked with the ICES Secretariat to forward digital tools to make historical resources more accessible and regarding WGHIST’s potential to support ICES Fisheries and Ecosystem Overviews.WGHIST engaged with the larger research community on the following manuscripts, still in development or recently submitted: (1) the acute value of the past in the Anthropocene; (2) the importance of and advice on cross-disciplinary conversations; (3) the legacy of Sidney Holt; (4) the power and consequence of qualitative information; and (5) the social and cultural drivers of technology creep.Finally, WGHIST found extensive evidence for defining elements of blue growth in the past, and explored examples from around the world to delineate lessons for today’s blue growth agendas, research now published in Fish and Fisheries. Future work will forward additional digital tools to access historical resources, develop links to other related data resources, and progress connections between lessons from the past and contemporary management and policy.

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  • Authors: Lazzaro, Xavier;

    Légende manuscrite sur le document original : "Abidjan. La Marine nationale du pont Houphouet-Boigny" Géolocalisation : hypothèse de géolocalisation exacte.

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    Authors: AULANIER, Florian; NICOLAS, Barbara; ROUX, Philippe; MARS, Jerome;

    Broadband acoustic signals around 1 kHz propagate through shallow water oceanic waveguides of ~100 m in depth and ~2 km in range as multiple ray-like wavefronts. These acoustic arrivals can be characterized by the following observables: travel-time (TT), direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD). By applying double-beamforming on the point-to-point signals recorded between two source-receiver arrays, the acoustic contribution of each arrival can be separated from the multi-reverberated data and the TT, DOA and DOD observable variations are accurately measured. This study deals with the use of time-angle sensitivity kernels (TASK) to estimate the observable variations induced by sound speed perturbations in the waveguide. This approach is based on the first order Born approximation and takes into account the finite-frequency effects associated with wave propagation. The robustness the TASK approach is analyzed and compared to numerical parabolic equation simulations involving different sound speed perturbations. For example, parameters such as the perturbation location, the value and shape of the perturbation in the waveguide are modified. The combination of several perturbations and the influence of the source-receiver array apertures on the TT, DOA and DOD estimates are also studied.

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    Authors: Rehfeld, K.; Molkenthin, N.; Kurths, J.;

    A critical challenge in paleoclimate data analysis is the fact that the proxy data are heterogeneously distributed in space, which affects statistical methods that rely on spatial embedding of data. In the paleoclimate network approach nodes represent paleoclimate proxy time series, and links in the network are given by statistically significant similarities between them. Their location in space, proxy and archive type is coded in the node attributes. We develop a semi-empirical model for Spatio-Temporally AutocoRrelated Time series, inspired by the interplay of different Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) systems. We use an ensemble of transition runs of this START model to test whether and how spatio–temporal climate transitions could be detectable from (paleo)climate networks. We sample model time series both on a grid and at locations at which paleoclimate data are available to investigate the effect of the spatially heterogeneous availability of data. Node betweenness centrality, averaged over the transition region, does not respond to the transition displayed by the START model, neither in the grid-based nor in the scattered sampling arrangement. The regionally defined measures of regional node degree and cross link ratio, however, are indicative of the changes in both scenarios, although the magnitude of the changes differs according to the sampling. We find that the START model is particularly suitable for pseudo-proxy experiments to test the technical reconstruction limits of paleoclimate data based on their location, and we conclude that (paleo)climate networks are suitable for investigating spatio–temporal transitions in the dependence structure of underlying climatic fields.

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  • Authors: Pasquier, Jérémy; Cabau, Cédric; Nguyen, Thuy Thao Vi; Dupin-De-Beyssat, Elodie; +7 Authors

    Evolution of gene expression in fish: The PhyloFish database. 8. Aquatic Models of Human Disease Conference

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Frölicher, T. L.; Bopp, L.; +8 Authors

    Changes in marine net primary productivity (PP) and export of particulate organic carbon (EP) are projected over the 21st century with four global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All four models show a decrease in global mean PP and EP between 2 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in PP and EP. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in PP and EP as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where three models project an increase in PP while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observation-based estimates compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer net primary production from satellite observations.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biogeosciences (BG)arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Crozier, Walter; Whelan, Ken; Buoro, Mathieu; Chaput, Gérald; +10 Authors

    Based on a workshop organised by the Atlantic Salmon Trust, held in Edinburgh Tuesday, 6th November – Thursday, 8th November 2017.; International audience

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    Authors: Eldrogi, Nawal; Luthon, Franck; Larroque, Benoît; Alqaddafi, Sultan; +1 Authors

    Motion analysis of living animals might help to understand the dangers that threaten the species, but it is sometimes technically challenging. This is particularly true for biologists who study migrating fishes of the basin of Adour. Here, we investigate the use of computer vision for automatic tracking and acquisition of knowledge about the migratory behavior of glass eels. For that purpose, some glass eels are color-marked, then introduced into an experimental medium reproducing tidal conditions. Observations are collected in video sequences. To get information about fish behavior, one can track their motion by optical flow methods. Preliminary results show that one can estimate the velocity but also the swimming behavior, hence eventually leading to energetic information about the animals.

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  • Authors: Nobrega, Rafael Henrique; Doretto Lucas, Benites; Thomas, Manon; Chenais, Nathalie; +1 Authors
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    Authors: LACROIX, Denis; DAVID, Bernard; LAMBLIN, Véronique; DE MENTHIERE, Nicolas; +7 Authors

    The perception of ocean areas by policy-makers or by people, living or not on the coast, has significantly varied over centuries. Due to its vastness and complexity, the sea has been studied within distinct academic disciplines. However, the current issues related to the sea, such as climate change, marine pollution or coastal tourism, require an integrated vision of the assets and drawbacks in order to meet the challenges arising from human activities both at sea and onshore. In this study, a group of foresight officers from the French network of public research institutes decided to cross-check and compare several science approaches (biology, sociology, economics, etc) about oceans. Thus, 11 sectors of maritime activity (transportation, fisheries, energy, etc.) were cross-tabulated with 9 basic social functions (providing food, housing, learning, etc.). In this matrix, the main challenges and issues projected for 2030 were sought, in the frame of a baseline scenario. Results were clustered through 4 criteria, leading to 9 major challenges, each of them broken down into two important issues for research. The outcomes were used to create a survey, allowing the ranking of the research priorities. Most of the 9 challenges tally with the research and development objectives of great maritime states, except for governance and monitoring, which remain underscored. As a result, maritime powers still show more interest on securing national resources rather than on promoting international cooperation for secure trade and sustainable exploitation of marine resources. But foresight in this field could help changing the mentalities notably because oceans show clearly now to be a vital common good for mankind.

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  • Authors: Thurstan, Ruth H.; Klein, Emily; Caswell, Bryony; Bennema, Floris; +17 Authors

    The ICES Working Group on the History of Fish and Fisheries (WGHIST) is a forum for interdisciplinary research on social-ecological change in marine and fisheries systems over multi-decadal to centennial timescales.WGHIST comprises a diverse group of researchers, including marine biologists, fisheries scientists, historians, and historical ecologists, from Europe and North America, as well as Australia, Russia, and South Africa. WGHIST provided a platform for the sharing and reporting of a wide range of research on marine and fisheries systems change over time, including the use of novel and non-traditional data sources and methodologies to identify and interpret these changes. WGHIST members also worked with the ICES Secretariat to forward digital tools to make historical resources more accessible and regarding WGHIST’s potential to support ICES Fisheries and Ecosystem Overviews.WGHIST engaged with the larger research community on the following manuscripts, still in development or recently submitted: (1) the acute value of the past in the Anthropocene; (2) the importance of and advice on cross-disciplinary conversations; (3) the legacy of Sidney Holt; (4) the power and consequence of qualitative information; and (5) the social and cultural drivers of technology creep.Finally, WGHIST found extensive evidence for defining elements of blue growth in the past, and explored examples from around the world to delineate lessons for today’s blue growth agendas, research now published in Fish and Fisheries. Future work will forward additional digital tools to access historical resources, develop links to other related data resources, and progress connections between lessons from the past and contemporary management and policy.

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  • Authors: Lazzaro, Xavier;

    Légende manuscrite sur le document original : "Abidjan. La Marine nationale du pont Houphouet-Boigny" Géolocalisation : hypothèse de géolocalisation exacte.

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    Authors: AULANIER, Florian; NICOLAS, Barbara; ROUX, Philippe; MARS, Jerome;

    Broadband acoustic signals around 1 kHz propagate through shallow water oceanic waveguides of ~100 m in depth and ~2 km in range as multiple ray-like wavefronts. These acoustic arrivals can be characterized by the following observables: travel-time (TT), direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD). By applying double-beamforming on the point-to-point signals recorded between two source-receiver arrays, the acoustic contribution of each arrival can be separated from the multi-reverberated data and the TT, DOA and DOD observable variations are accurately measured. This study deals with the use of time-angle sensitivity kernels (TASK) to estimate the observable variations induced by sound speed perturbations in the waveguide. This approach is based on the first order Born approximation and takes into account the finite-frequency effects associated with wave propagation. The robustness the TASK approach is analyzed and compared to numerical parabolic equation simulations involving different sound speed perturbations. For example, parameters such as the perturbation location, the value and shape of the perturbation in the waveguide are modified. The combination of several perturbations and the influence of the source-receiver array apertures on the TT, DOA and DOD estimates are also studied.

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    Authors: Rehfeld, K.; Molkenthin, N.; Kurths, J.;

    A critical challenge in paleoclimate data analysis is the fact that the proxy data are heterogeneously distributed in space, which affects statistical methods that rely on spatial embedding of data. In the paleoclimate network approach nodes represent paleoclimate proxy time series, and links in the network are given by statistically significant similarities between them. Their location in space, proxy and archive type is coded in the node attributes. We develop a semi-empirical model for Spatio-Temporally AutocoRrelated Time series, inspired by the interplay of different Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) systems. We use an ensemble of transition runs of this START model to test whether and how spatio–temporal climate transitions could be detectable from (paleo)climate networks. We sample model time series both on a grid and at locations at which paleoclimate data are available to investigate the effect of the spatially heterogeneous availability of data. Node betweenness centrality, averaged over the transition region, does not respond to the transition displayed by the START model, neither in the grid-based nor in the scattered sampling arrangement. The regionally defined measures of regional node degree and cross link ratio, however, are indicative of the changes in both scenarios, although the magnitude of the changes differs according to the sampling. We find that the START model is particularly suitable for pseudo-proxy experiments to test the technical reconstruction limits of paleoclimate data based on their location, and we conclude that (paleo)climate networks are suitable for investigating spatio–temporal transitions in the dependence structure of underlying climatic fields.

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    Copernicus Publications
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  • Authors: Pasquier, Jérémy; Cabau, Cédric; Nguyen, Thuy Thao Vi; Dupin-De-Beyssat, Elodie; +7 Authors

    Evolution of gene expression in fish: The PhyloFish database. 8. Aquatic Models of Human Disease Conference

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