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33 Research products, page 1 of 4

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    El Barbri, Noureddine; Llobet, Eduard; El Bari, Nezha; Correig, Xavier; Bouchikhi, Benachir;
    Country: Spain

    The aim of the present study was to develop an electronic nose for the quality control of red meat. Electronic nose and bacteriological measurements are performed to analyse samples of beef and sheep meat stored at 4 degrees C for up to 15 days. Principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) based classification techniques are used to investigate the performance of the electronic nose system in the spoilage classification of red meats. The bacteriological method was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system. The SVM models built classified meat samples based on the total microbial population into unspoiled (microbial counts = 6 log10 cfu/g). The preliminary results obtained by the bacteria total viable counts (TVC) show that the shelf-life of beef and sheep meats stored at 4 C are 7 and 5 days, respectively. The electronic nose system coupled to SVM could discriminate between unspoiled/spoiled beef or sheep meats with a success rate of 98.81 or 96.43 %, respectively. To investigate whether the results of the electronic nose correlated well with the results of the bacteriological analysis, partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were built and validated. Good correlation coefficients between the electronic nose signals and bacteriological data were obtained, a clear indication that the electronic nose system can become a simple and rapid technique for the quality control of red meats.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    MARTÍNEZ GONZÁLEZ, MARÍA SALOMÉ; Valera, Alexandra; Balague, Olga; Colomo, Luis; Martinez, Antonio; Delabie, Jan; Taddesse-Heath, Lekidelu; Jaffe, Elaine S; Campo, Elias;
    Country: Spain

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive lymphoma characterized by a terminally differentiated B-cell phenotype that usually occurs in the immunocompromised or elderly patients. Although the clinical and pathologic characteristics of these tumors have been defined, the genetic alterations involved in their pathogenesis are not well known. In this study, we have investigated the chromosomal alterations of MYC, BCL2, BCL6, MALT1, PAX5, and IGH loci using fluorescence in situ hybridization in 42 PBL and 3 extracavitary primary effusion lymphomas. MYC rearrangements were identified in 20 of 41 (49%) PBL and the immunoglobulin (IG) genes were the partners in most tumors. MYC rearrangements were more common in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive (14 of 19, 74%) than EBV-negative (9 of 21, 43%) tumors (P50?mo) had no or low number of gains (<3). No rearrangements of any of these loci were seen in the primary effusion lymphomas. In conclusion, PBL are genetically characterized by frequent IG/MYC translocations and gains in multiple chromosomal loci. The oncogenic activation of MYC in these lymphomas may be an important pathogenetic element associated with EBV infection.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marques, Montse; Torres, Carmen M.; Garcia-Fernandez, Fernando; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika; Roe, Mark; Wilson, Annette M.; Reuver, Marieke; Nadal, Marti; Domingo, Jose L.;
    Country: Spain

    Since seafood is a significant source of nutrients with known health benefits, its consumption is promoted as a healthy food choice. However, seafood can also contain potentially hazardous environmental pollutants. In the context of the ECsafeSEAFOOD FP7 project, FishChoice (www.fishchoice.eu) was developed as a communication tool to help to the consumers to take the most appropriate decisions on their seafood consumption habits. FishChoice relies on scientific information that allows calculating, on an individual basis, intakes of nutrients and pollutants derived from seafood consumption. In the framework of the EU-H2020 funded SEAFOODTOMORROW project, an optimized version of the online tool has been released. FishChoice is available in 25 EU languages with a customized list of seafood species per EU country, considering specific (national) consumption habits. The list of nutrients has been extended according to the latest EFSA recommendations, while pollutants data incorporate results from recent studies. The sustainability of seafood consumption has been also implemented, providing recommendations to help preserve the marine environment. Finally, FishChoice is suitable not only for consumers, but also health professionals, schools and academia, as well as the industrial sector and public health providers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Párez-Sancho M; Cerdá I; Fernández-Bravo A; Domínguez L; Figueras M; Fernández-Garayzábal J; Vela A;
    Country: Spain

    © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the MALDI-TOF MS to identify 151 isolates of Aeromonas obtained mostly from diseased fish. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified all isolates to the genus level but important differences in the percentage of isolates correctly identified depending on the species were observed. Considering exclusively the first identification option, Aeromonas bestiarum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas sobria were the best identified with results >95%. However, considering the first and second identification options, the only species that showed values >90% was A. hydrophila. Overall, when the database was supplemented with 14 new spectra, the number of accurate identifications increased (41% vs. 55%) and the number of inconclusive identifications decreased (45% vs. 29%), but great differences in the success of species-level identifications were found. Species-distinctive mass peaks were identified only for A. hydrophila and A. bestiarum (5003 and 7360 m/z in 95.5% and 94.1% of their isolates, respectively). This work demonstrates the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for Aeromonas identification to the genus level, but there is no consistency for the accurate identification of some of the most prevalent species implicated in fish disease.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Reverte, Laia; Toldra, Anna; Andree, Karl B.; Fraga, Santiago; de Falco, Giada; Campas, Monica; Diogene, Jorge;
    Country: Spain

    Within the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus several species are well-known producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs). These compounds are potent marine toxins that accumulate through the food chain, leading to a foodborne disease known as ciguatera when contaminated fish is consumed. Given the threat that the presence of these toxins in seafood may pose to human health and fisheries, there is an evident necessity to assess the potential toxicity of Gambierdiscus sp. in a particular area. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the production of CTX and MTX of 10 strains of Gambierdiscus australes isolated from the Selvagem Grande Island (Madeira, Portugal) and El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The strains were first characterized by light microscopy and species were confirmed by molecular biology, being identified as G. australes. Following the species identification, CTX and MTX production of G. australes extracts was evaluated at the exponential growth phase using neuro-2a cell-based assays. Additionally, the production of MTX was also investigated in two of the G. australes strains collected at the stationary growth phase. Interestingly, 9 out of 10 strains were found to produce CTX-like compounds, ranging from 200 to 697 fg equiv. CTX1B cell(-1). None of the G. australes strains showed MTX-like activity at the exponential phase, but MTX production was observed in two strains at the stationary growth phase (227 and 275 pg equiv. MTX cell(-1)). Therefore, the presence of G. australes strains potentially producing CTX and MTX in these Macaronesian Islands was confirmed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Expósito N; Rovira J; Sierra J; Gimenez G; Domingo JL; Schuhmacher M;
    Country: Spain

    Microplastics (MPs) are accessible for organisms with active filter feeding strategies, as are many marine molluscs, which live attached or semi-buried in sediments. In the present study, MPs (from 0.02 to 5 mm) concentration, morphology, and composition were determined in consumed mollusc species of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). Microplastic concentrations, morphologic characteristics and composition were studied according to species, catchment zones and depuration condition. Finally, human intake of MPs through molluscs' consumption was determined. >2300 individuals were analysed, being 1460 MPs extracted and their size, and polymeric composition registered. Big oysters and mussels showed the highest MPs concentration by individual, with levels of 22.8 ± 14.4 and 18.6 ± 23.0 MPs/individual, respectively. Mean annual MPs (≥20 μm) consumption for adult population was estimated in 8103 MPs/year, with a 95th percentile of 19,418 MPs/year. It suggests that the consumption of molluscs is an important route of MPs exposure for the Catalan population.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pérez-Heras A., Mayneris-Perxachs J., Cofán M., Serra-Mir M., Castellote A., López-Sabater C., Fitó M., Salas-Salvadó J., Martínez-González M., Corella D., Estruch R., Ros E., Sala-Vila A.;
    Country: Spain

    The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored.We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial.After adjustment for confounders, including changes in fasting triglycerides, plasma SCD1 index increased in parallel with body weight (0.221 [95% confidence interval, 0.021 to 0.422], P = 0.031) and BMI (0.115 [0.027 to 0.202], P = 0.011). Additionally, dietary LCn-3PUFA (but not MUFA or plant-derived PUFA) were associated with decreased plasma SCD1 index (-0.544 [-1.044 to -0.043], P = 0.033, for each 1 g/d-increase in LCn-3PUFA). No associations were found for other food groups, but there was a trend for fatty fish intake (-0.083 [-0.177 to 0.012], P = 0.085, for each 10 g/d-increase).Our data add clinical evidence on the down-regulation of plasma SCD1 index by LCn-3PUFA in the context of realistic changes in fish consumption in the customary, non-supplemented diet.http://www.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; +12 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COCOS (212196), EC | GEOCARBON (283080), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366)

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cano-Sancho, German; Sioen, Isabelle; Vandermeersch, Griet; Jacobs, Silke; Robbens, Johan; Nadal, Marti; Domingo, Jose L.;
    Country: Spain

    Consumption of seafood is one of the most relevant pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants present in food. The list of toxic compounds in seafood is very extensive, including heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to quantify the importance of the problem, tools to combine and simplify large data collections are mandatory for risk managers and decision-makers. In this study, the development of a prioritization setting focusing on chemical hazards taken up through seafood was aimed. For this purpose, the toxicity data of several chemicals was integrated with concentration and seafood consumption data, building an integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC) able to draw a map of risk for each chemical and family of chemicals. A pilot trial was performed on a sample of 74 pollutants, four seafood species and five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The preliminary results revealed that Portugal and Spain presented the highest IRISC, while Belgium was the region with the lowest IRISC. The contribution of each group of contaminants to the IRISC was very similar among countries, with heavy metals being the major contributor, followed by PCBs, PCDD/Fs and endocrine disrupting compounds. When the contribution of different seafood species to the Risk Indexes (RIs) was compared, the results elucidated the high input from sardines, showing the highest rates (54.9-76.1) in the five countries. The IRISC provides a friendly approach to the chemical risk scene in Europe, establishing normalized prioritization criteria considering toxicity and consumption as well as concentration of each chemical.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kumar, Vikas; Kumar, Saurav;
    Country: Spain

    Seafood, one of the most important food commodities consumed worldwide, is considered a high-quality, healthy, and safe food option. However, marine ecosystems are the ultimate destination for a large group of chemicals, including contaminants of emerging concern, and seafood consumption is a major pathway of human exposure. With growing awareness of food safety and food quality, and increased demand for information on the risk of contaminants of emerging concern, there is a need to assess food safety issues related to harmful contaminants in seafood and ensure the safety of marine food resources. In this study, the risks of emerging compounds (endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and toxic elements) in fish and seafood were analyzed according to their PBT (persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity) properties as well as in terms of their concentration levels in seafood. A hazard index (HI) was estimated for each compound by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) approach known as Self-Organizing-Maps. Subsequently, an integrated risk rank (IRI) was developed considering the values of HI and the concentrations of emerging compounds in seafood species gathered from the scientific literature. Current results identified HHCB, MeHg, NP, AHTN and PBDE209 as the top five highest ranked compounds present in seafood, according to the 50th percentile (mean) of the IRI. However, this ranking slightly changed when taking into account the 99th percentile of the IRI, showing toxic elements, methylmercury and inorganic arsenic, as having the highest risk. The outcome of this study identified the priority contaminants and should help in regulatory decision-making and scientific panels to design screening programs as well as t

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
33 Research products, page 1 of 4
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    El Barbri, Noureddine; Llobet, Eduard; El Bari, Nezha; Correig, Xavier; Bouchikhi, Benachir;
    Country: Spain

    The aim of the present study was to develop an electronic nose for the quality control of red meat. Electronic nose and bacteriological measurements are performed to analyse samples of beef and sheep meat stored at 4 degrees C for up to 15 days. Principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) based classification techniques are used to investigate the performance of the electronic nose system in the spoilage classification of red meats. The bacteriological method was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system. The SVM models built classified meat samples based on the total microbial population into unspoiled (microbial counts = 6 log10 cfu/g). The preliminary results obtained by the bacteria total viable counts (TVC) show that the shelf-life of beef and sheep meats stored at 4 C are 7 and 5 days, respectively. The electronic nose system coupled to SVM could discriminate between unspoiled/spoiled beef or sheep meats with a success rate of 98.81 or 96.43 %, respectively. To investigate whether the results of the electronic nose correlated well with the results of the bacteriological analysis, partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were built and validated. Good correlation coefficients between the electronic nose signals and bacteriological data were obtained, a clear indication that the electronic nose system can become a simple and rapid technique for the quality control of red meats.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    MARTÍNEZ GONZÁLEZ, MARÍA SALOMÉ; Valera, Alexandra; Balague, Olga; Colomo, Luis; Martinez, Antonio; Delabie, Jan; Taddesse-Heath, Lekidelu; Jaffe, Elaine S; Campo, Elias;
    Country: Spain

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive lymphoma characterized by a terminally differentiated B-cell phenotype that usually occurs in the immunocompromised or elderly patients. Although the clinical and pathologic characteristics of these tumors have been defined, the genetic alterations involved in their pathogenesis are not well known. In this study, we have investigated the chromosomal alterations of MYC, BCL2, BCL6, MALT1, PAX5, and IGH loci using fluorescence in situ hybridization in 42 PBL and 3 extracavitary primary effusion lymphomas. MYC rearrangements were identified in 20 of 41 (49%) PBL and the immunoglobulin (IG) genes were the partners in most tumors. MYC rearrangements were more common in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive (14 of 19, 74%) than EBV-negative (9 of 21, 43%) tumors (P50?mo) had no or low number of gains (<3). No rearrangements of any of these loci were seen in the primary effusion lymphomas. In conclusion, PBL are genetically characterized by frequent IG/MYC translocations and gains in multiple chromosomal loci. The oncogenic activation of MYC in these lymphomas may be an important pathogenetic element associated with EBV infection.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marques, Montse; Torres, Carmen M.; Garcia-Fernandez, Fernando; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika; Roe, Mark; Wilson, Annette M.; Reuver, Marieke; Nadal, Marti; Domingo, Jose L.;
    Country: Spain

    Since seafood is a significant source of nutrients with known health benefits, its consumption is promoted as a healthy food choice. However, seafood can also contain potentially hazardous environmental pollutants. In the context of the ECsafeSEAFOOD FP7 project, FishChoice (www.fishchoice.eu) was developed as a communication tool to help to the consumers to take the most appropriate decisions on their seafood consumption habits. FishChoice relies on scientific information that allows calculating, on an individual basis, intakes of nutrients and pollutants derived from seafood consumption. In the framework of the EU-H2020 funded SEAFOODTOMORROW project, an optimized version of the online tool has been released. FishChoice is available in 25 EU languages with a customized list of seafood species per EU country, considering specific (national) consumption habits. The list of nutrients has been extended according to the latest EFSA recommendations, while pollutants data incorporate results from recent studies. The sustainability of seafood consumption has been also implemented, providing recommendations to help preserve the marine environment. Finally, FishChoice is suitable not only for consumers, but also health professionals, schools and academia, as well as the industrial sector and public health providers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Párez-Sancho M; Cerdá I; Fernández-Bravo A; Domínguez L; Figueras M; Fernández-Garayzábal J; Vela A;
    Country: Spain

    © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the MALDI-TOF MS to identify 151 isolates of Aeromonas obtained mostly from diseased fish. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified all isolates to the genus level but important differences in the percentage of isolates correctly identified depending on the species were observed. Considering exclusively the first identification option, Aeromonas bestiarum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas sobria were the best identified with results >95%. However, considering the first and second identification options, the only species that showed values >90% was A. hydrophila. Overall, when the database was supplemented with 14 new spectra, the number of accurate identifications increased (41% vs. 55%) and the number of inconclusive identifications decreased (45% vs. 29%), but great differences in the success of species-level identifications were found. Species-distinctive mass peaks were identified only for A. hydrophila and A. bestiarum (5003 and 7360 m/z in 95.5% and 94.1% of their isolates, respectively). This work demonstrates the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for Aeromonas identification to the genus level, but there is no consistency for the accurate identification of some of the most prevalent species implicated in fish disease.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Reverte, Laia; Toldra, Anna; Andree, Karl B.; Fraga, Santiago; de Falco, Giada; Campas, Monica; Diogene, Jorge;
    Country: Spain

    Within the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus several species are well-known producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs). These compounds are potent marine toxins that accumulate through the food chain, leading to a foodborne disease known as ciguatera when contaminated fish is consumed. Given the threat that the presence of these toxins in seafood may pose to human health and fisheries, there is an evident necessity to assess the potential toxicity of Gambierdiscus sp. in a particular area. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the production of CTX and MTX of 10 strains of Gambierdiscus australes isolated from the Selvagem Grande Island (Madeira, Portugal) and El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The strains were first characterized by light microscopy and species were confirmed by molecular biology, being identified as G. australes. Following the species identification, CTX and MTX production of G. australes extracts was evaluated at the exponential growth phase using neuro-2a cell-based assays. Additionally, the production of MTX was also investigated in two of the G. australes strains collected at the stationary growth phase. Interestingly, 9 out of 10 strains were found to produce CTX-like compounds, ranging from 200 to 697 fg equiv. CTX1B cell(-1). None of the G. australes strains showed MTX-like activity at the exponential phase, but MTX production was observed in two strains at the stationary growth phase (227 and 275 pg equiv. MTX cell(-1)). Therefore, the presence of G. australes strains potentially producing CTX and MTX in these Macaronesian Islands was confirmed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Expósito N; Rovira J; Sierra J; Gimenez G; Domingo JL; Schuhmacher M;
    Country: Spain

    Microplastics (MPs) are accessible for organisms with active filter feeding strategies, as are many marine molluscs, which live attached or semi-buried in sediments. In the present study, MPs (from 0.02 to 5 mm) concentration, morphology, and composition were determined in consumed mollusc species of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). Microplastic concentrations, morphologic characteristics and composition were studied according to species, catchment zones and depuration condition. Finally, human intake of MPs through molluscs' consumption was determined. >2300 individuals were analysed, being 1460 MPs extracted and their size, and polymeric composition registered. Big oysters and mussels showed the highest MPs concentration by individual, with levels of 22.8 ± 14.4 and 18.6 ± 23.0 MPs/individual, respectively. Mean annual MPs (≥20 μm) consumption for adult population was estimated in 8103 MPs/year, with a 95th percentile of 19,418 MPs/year. It suggests that the consumption of molluscs is an important route of MPs exposure for the Catalan population.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pérez-Heras A., Mayneris-Perxachs J., Cofán M., Serra-Mir M., Castellote A., López-Sabater C., Fitó M., Salas-Salvadó J., Martínez-González M., Corella D., Estruch R., Ros E., Sala-Vila A.;
    Country: Spain

    The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored.We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial.After adjustment for confounders, including changes in fasting triglycerides, plasma SCD1 index increased in parallel with body weight (0.221 [95% confidence interval, 0.021 to 0.422], P = 0.031) and BMI (0.115 [0.027 to 0.202], P = 0.011). Additionally, dietary LCn-3PUFA (but not MUFA or plant-derived PUFA) were associated with decreased plasma SCD1 index (-0.544 [-1.044 to -0.043], P = 0.033, for each 1 g/d-increase in LCn-3PUFA). No associations were found for other food groups, but there was a trend for fatty fish intake (-0.083 [-0.177 to 0.012], P = 0.085, for each 10 g/d-increase).Our data add clinical evidence on the down-regulation of plasma SCD1 index by LCn-3PUFA in the context of realistic changes in fish consumption in the customary, non-supplemented diet.http://www.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; +12 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COCOS (212196), EC | GEOCARBON (283080), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366)

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cano-Sancho, German; Sioen, Isabelle; Vandermeersch, Griet; Jacobs, Silke; Robbens, Johan; Nadal, Marti; Domingo, Jose L.;
    Country: Spain

    Consumption of seafood is one of the most relevant pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants present in food. The list of toxic compounds in seafood is very extensive, including heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to quantify the importance of the problem, tools to combine and simplify large data collections are mandatory for risk managers and decision-makers. In this study, the development of a prioritization setting focusing on chemical hazards taken up through seafood was aimed. For this purpose, the toxicity data of several chemicals was integrated with concentration and seafood consumption data, building an integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC) able to draw a map of risk for each chemical and family of chemicals. A pilot trial was performed on a sample of 74 pollutants, four seafood species and five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The preliminary results revealed that Portugal and Spain presented the highest IRISC, while Belgium was the region with the lowest IRISC. The contribution of each group of contaminants to the IRISC was very similar among countries, with heavy metals being the major contributor, followed by PCBs, PCDD/Fs and endocrine disrupting compounds. When the contribution of different seafood species to the Risk Indexes (RIs) was compared, the results elucidated the high input from sardines, showing the highest rates (54.9-76.1) in the five countries. The IRISC provides a friendly approach to the chemical risk scene in Europe, establishing normalized prioritization criteria considering toxicity and consumption as well as concentration of each chemical.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kumar, Vikas; Kumar, Saurav;
    Country: Spain

    Seafood, one of the most important food commodities consumed worldwide, is considered a high-quality, healthy, and safe food option. However, marine ecosystems are the ultimate destination for a large group of chemicals, including contaminants of emerging concern, and seafood consumption is a major pathway of human exposure. With growing awareness of food safety and food quality, and increased demand for information on the risk of contaminants of emerging concern, there is a need to assess food safety issues related to harmful contaminants in seafood and ensure the safety of marine food resources. In this study, the risks of emerging compounds (endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and toxic elements) in fish and seafood were analyzed according to their PBT (persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity) properties as well as in terms of their concentration levels in seafood. A hazard index (HI) was estimated for each compound by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) approach known as Self-Organizing-Maps. Subsequently, an integrated risk rank (IRI) was developed considering the values of HI and the concentrations of emerging compounds in seafood species gathered from the scientific literature. Current results identified HHCB, MeHg, NP, AHTN and PBDE209 as the top five highest ranked compounds present in seafood, according to the 50th percentile (mean) of the IRI. However, this ranking slightly changed when taking into account the 99th percentile of the IRI, showing toxic elements, methylmercury and inorganic arsenic, as having the highest risk. The outcome of this study identified the priority contaminants and should help in regulatory decision-making and scientific panels to design screening programs as well as t