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  • 2019-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Becker, Susan; Aoyama, Michio; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Bakker, Karel; +3 Authors

    This GO-SHIP manual is a rewrite of the original version by Hydes et al. (2010), and reviews basic sample collection and storage, aspects of CFA using an Auto-Analyzer, and specific nutrient methods in use by many laboratories doing repeat hydrography. The document also covers laboratory best practices including quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) procedures to obtain the best results, and suggests protocols for the use of reference materials (RM) and certified reference materials (CRMs). Published This is a rewrite of : Hydes, D. J.; Aoyama, M.; Aminot, A.; Bakker, K.; Becker,S.; Coverly, S.; Daniel, A.; Dickson, A. G.; Grosso, O.; Kerouel, R.; van Ooijen, J.; Sato, K.; Tanhua, T.; Woodward, E. M. S. and Zhang, J. Z. (2010) Determination of Dissolved Nutrients (N, P, SI) in Seawater With High Precision and Inter-Comparability Using Gas-Segmented Continuous Flow Analysers. In: The GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: A Collection of Expert Reports and Guidelines. Version 1. (eds Hood, E.M., C.L. Sabine, and B.M. Sloyan). IOCCP Report Number 14, ICPO Publication Series Number 134. Available online at: http://www.go-ship.org/HydroMan.html. Refereed Current 14.A Nutrients Mature: Methodologies are well demonstrated for a given objective, documented and peer reviewed; methods are commonly used by more than one organization (TRL 7-9) Best Practice Standard Operating Procedure

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    Authors: Coffinet, Sarah; Meador, Travis B.; Mühlena, Lukas; Becker, Kevin W.; +6 Authors

    Butanetriol and pentanetriol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (BDGTs and PDGTs) are membrane lipids, recently discovered in sedimentary environments and in the methanogenic archaeon Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis. They possess an unusual structure, which challenges fundamental assumptions in lipid biochemistry. Indeed, they bear a butanetriol or a pentanetriol backbone instead of a glycerol at one end of their core structure. In this study, we unambiguously located the additional methyl group of the BDGT compound on the C3 carbon of the lipid backbone via high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. We further systematically explored the abundance, distribution and isotopic composition of BDGTs and PDGTs as both intact polar and core lipid forms in marine sediments collected in contrasting environments of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. High proportions of intact polar BDGTs and PDGTs in the deeper methane-laden sedimentary layers and relatively 13C-depleted BDGTs, especially in the Rhone Delta and in the Black Sea, are in agreement with a probable methanogenic source for these lipids. However, contributions from heterotrophic Archaea to BDGTs (and PDGTs) cannot be excluded, particularly in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and contrasting BDGT and PDGT headgroup distribution patterns were observed between the different sites studied. This points to additional, non-methanogenic, archaeal sources for these lipids.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2020
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2020
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    Authors: Smith, Craig R.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Colaco, Ana; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; +9 Authors

    Gordon & Betty Moore FoundationGordon and Betty Moore Foundation [5596]; Canada Research Chairs FoundationCanada Research Chairs; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant [747946]; Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia I.P. Portugal (FCT); Direcao-Geral de Politica do Mar (DGPM) [2/2017/001-MiningImpact 2]; FCTPortuguese Foundation for Science and TechnologyEuropean Commission [CEECIND005262017, UID/MAR/00350/2013, IF/01194/2013, IF/00029/2014/CP1230/CT0002, Mining2/0005/2017]; RF State Assignment [0149-2019-0009]; Horizon 2020 Agricultural Interoperability and Analysis System (ATLAS) projects [678760]; JM Kaplan Fund; National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [OCE 1634172]; JPI Oceans project Mining Impact -Environmental Impacts and Risks of Deep-Sea Mining Aug 2018-Feb 2022 (NWO-ALW) [856.18.001] info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sapientia Repositóri...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Seroussi, Hélène; Nowicki, Sophie; Simon, Erika; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; +35 Authors

    Ice sheet numerical modeling is an important tool to estimate the dynamic contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet to sea level rise over the coming centuries. The influence of initial conditions on ice sheet model simulations, however, is still unclear. To better understand this influence, an initial state intercomparison exercise (initMIP) has been developed to compare, evaluate, and improve initialization procedures and estimate their impact on century-scale simulations. initMIP is the first set of experiments of the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6), which is the primary Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) activity focusing on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Following initMIP-Greenland, initMIP-Antarctica has been designed to explore uncertainties associated with model initialization and spin-up and to evaluate the impact of changes in external forcings. Starting from the state of the Antarctic ice sheet at the end of the initialization procedure, three forward experiments are each run for 100 years: a control run, a run with a surface mass balance anomaly, and a run with a basal melting anomaly beneath floating ice. This study presents the results of initMIP-Antarctica from 25 simulations performed by 16 international modeling groups. The submitted results use different initial conditions and initialization methods, as well as ice flow model parameters and reference external forcings. We find a good agreement among model responses to the surface mass balance anomaly but large variations in responses to the basal melting anomaly. These variations can be attributed to differences in the extent of ice shelves and their upstream tributaries, the numerical treatment of grounding line, and the initial ocean conditions applied, suggesting that ongoing efforts to better represent ice shelves in continental-scale models should continue.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shore, R.M; Freeman, MP; Gjerløv, Jesper;

    We analyze the response of different ionospheric equivalent current modes to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components By and Bz. Each mode comprises a fixed spatial pattern whose amplitude varies in time, identified by a month‐by‐month empirical orthogonal function separation of surface measured magnetic field variance. Here we focus on four sets of modes that have been previously identified as DPY, DP2, NBZ, and DP1. We derive the cross‐correlation function of each mode set with either IMF By or Bz for lags ranging from −10 to +600 mins with respect to the IMF state at the bow shock nose. For all four sets of modes, the average correlation can be reproduced by a sum of up to three linear responses to the IMF component, each centered on a different lag. These are interpreted as the statistical ionospheric responses to magnetopause merging (15‐ to 20‐min lag) and magnetotail reconnection (60‐min lag) and to IMF persistence. Of the mode sets, NBZ and DPY are the most predictable from a given IMF component, with DP1 (the substorm component) the least predictable. The proportion of mode variability explained by the IMF increases for the longer lags, thought to indicate conductivity feedbacks from substorms. In summary, we confirm the postulated physical basis of these modes and quantify their multiple reconfiguration timescales.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Norwegian Open Resea...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Sourdeval, Odran; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Krämer, Martina; Goren, Tom; +4 Authors

    The number concentration of cloud particles is a key quantity for understanding aerosol–cloud interactions and describing clouds in climate and numerical weather prediction models. In contrast with recent advances for liquid clouds, few observational constraints exist regarding the ice crystal number concentration (Ni). This study investigates how combined lidar–radar measurements can be used to provide satellite estimates of Ni, using a methodology that constrains moments of a parameterized particle size distribution (PSD). The operational liDAR–raDAR (DARDAR) product serves as an existing base for this method, which focuses on ice clouds with temperatures Tc<-30 ∘C. Theoretical considerations demonstrate the capability for accurate retrievals of Ni, apart from a possible bias in the concentration in small crystals when Tc≳−50 ∘C, due to the assumption of a monomodal PSD shape in the current method. This is verified via a comparison of satellite estimates to coincident in situ measurements, which additionally demonstrates the sufficient sensitivity of lidar–radar observations to Ni. Following these results, satellite estimates of Ni are evaluated in the context of a case study and a preliminary climatological analysis based on 10 years of global data. Despite a lack of other large-scale references, this evaluation shows a reasonable physical consistency in Ni spatial distribution patterns. Notably, increases in Ni are found towards cold temperatures and, more significantly, in the presence of strong updrafts, such as those related to convective or orographic uplifts. Further evaluation and improvement of this method are necessary, although these results already constitute a first encouraging step towards large-scale observational constraints for Ni. Part 2 of this series uses this new dataset to examine the controls on Ni.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Bohaty, SM; Uenzelmann-Neben, G; Childress, LB; Archontikis, OA; +27 Authors
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    Oxford University Research Archive
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    This newsletter is part of the OCEAN:ICE Dissemination activities, OCEAN:ICE News. Newsletters are released every month on the OCEAN:ICE LinkedIn page and uploaded to the project's website and Zenodo. 

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    Authors: Ward, Ben A.; Wilson, Jamie D.; Death, Ros M.; Monteiro, Fanny M.; +2 Authors

    We present an extension to the carbon-centric Grid Enabled Integrated Earth system model (cGEnIE) that explicitly accounts for the growth and interaction of an arbitrary number of plankton species. The new package (ECOGEM) replaces the implicit, flux-based parameterisation of the plankton community currently employed, with explicitly resolved plankton populations and ecological dynamics. In ECOGEM, any number of plankton species, with ecophysiological traits (e.g. growth and grazing rates) assigned according to organism size and functional group (e.g. phytoplankton and zooplankton) can be incorporated at runtime. We illustrate the capability of the marine ecology enabled Earth system model (EcoGEnIE) by comparing results from one configuration of ECOGEM (with eight generic phytoplankton and zooplankton size classes) to climatological and seasonal observations. We find that the new ecological components of the model show reasonable agreement with both global-scale climatological and local-scale seasonal data. We also compare EcoGEnIE results to the existing biogeochemical incarnation of cGEnIE. We find that the resulting global-scale distributions of phosphate, iron, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and oxygen are similar for both iterations of the model. A slight deterioration in some fields in EcoGEnIE (relative to the data) is observed, although we make no attempt to re-tune the overall marine cycling of carbon and nutrients here. The increased capabilities of EcoGEnIE in this regard will enable future exploration of the ecological community on much longer timescales than have previously been examined in global ocean ecosystem models and particularly for past climates and global biogeochemical cycles.

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    Authors: Kamolphat, Atsawawaranunt; Comas-Bru, Laia;

    Files needed for Quality Control checks of the SISALworkbook_v12 (Comas-Bru and Harrison, 2019). This includes a Python script (wb_check_v12_compatible.py) for automatic checks and an R script (plot_agemodels_hiatus_v12) for manual checks. Instructions on how to run these scripts are provided in a README_instructions.txt file. See supplementary material of Comas-Bru et al (2020, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2020-39) for further information on the checks.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Becker, Susan; Aoyama, Michio; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Bakker, Karel; +3 Authors

    This GO-SHIP manual is a rewrite of the original version by Hydes et al. (2010), and reviews basic sample collection and storage, aspects of CFA using an Auto-Analyzer, and specific nutrient methods in use by many laboratories doing repeat hydrography. The document also covers laboratory best practices including quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) procedures to obtain the best results, and suggests protocols for the use of reference materials (RM) and certified reference materials (CRMs). Published This is a rewrite of : Hydes, D. J.; Aoyama, M.; Aminot, A.; Bakker, K.; Becker,S.; Coverly, S.; Daniel, A.; Dickson, A. G.; Grosso, O.; Kerouel, R.; van Ooijen, J.; Sato, K.; Tanhua, T.; Woodward, E. M. S. and Zhang, J. Z. (2010) Determination of Dissolved Nutrients (N, P, SI) in Seawater With High Precision and Inter-Comparability Using Gas-Segmented Continuous Flow Analysers. In: The GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: A Collection of Expert Reports and Guidelines. Version 1. (eds Hood, E.M., C.L. Sabine, and B.M. Sloyan). IOCCP Report Number 14, ICPO Publication Series Number 134. Available online at: http://www.go-ship.org/HydroMan.html. Refereed Current 14.A Nutrients Mature: Methodologies are well demonstrated for a given objective, documented and peer reviewed; methods are commonly used by more than one organization (TRL 7-9) Best Practice Standard Operating Procedure

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    Authors: Coffinet, Sarah; Meador, Travis B.; Mühlena, Lukas; Becker, Kevin W.; +6 Authors

    Butanetriol and pentanetriol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (BDGTs and PDGTs) are membrane lipids, recently discovered in sedimentary environments and in the methanogenic archaeon Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis. They possess an unusual structure, which challenges fundamental assumptions in lipid biochemistry. Indeed, they bear a butanetriol or a pentanetriol backbone instead of a glycerol at one end of their core structure. In this study, we unambiguously located the additional methyl group of the BDGT compound on the C3 carbon of the lipid backbone via high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. We further systematically explored the abundance, distribution and isotopic composition of BDGTs and PDGTs as both intact polar and core lipid forms in marine sediments collected in contrasting environments of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. High proportions of intact polar BDGTs and PDGTs in the deeper methane-laden sedimentary layers and relatively 13C-depleted BDGTs, especially in the Rhone Delta and in the Black Sea, are in agreement with a probable methanogenic source for these lipids. However, contributions from heterotrophic Archaea to BDGTs (and PDGTs) cannot be excluded, particularly in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and contrasting BDGT and PDGT headgroup distribution patterns were observed between the different sites studied. This points to additional, non-methanogenic, archaeal sources for these lipids.

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    Authors: Smith, Craig R.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Colaco, Ana; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; +9 Authors

    Gordon & Betty Moore FoundationGordon and Betty Moore Foundation [5596]; Canada Research Chairs FoundationCanada Research Chairs; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant [747946]; Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia I.P. Portugal (FCT); Direcao-Geral de Politica do Mar (DGPM) [2/2017/001-MiningImpact 2]; FCTPortuguese Foundation for Science and TechnologyEuropean Commission [CEECIND005262017, UID/MAR/00350/2013, IF/01194/2013, IF/00029/2014/CP1230/CT0002, Mining2/0005/2017]; RF State Assignment [0149-2019-0009]; Horizon 2020 Agricultural Interoperability and Analysis System (ATLAS) projects [678760]; JM Kaplan Fund; National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [OCE 1634172]; JPI Oceans project Mining Impact -Environmental Impacts and Risks of Deep-Sea Mining Aug 2018-Feb 2022 (NWO-ALW) [856.18.001] info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    Authors: Seroussi, Hélène; Nowicki, Sophie; Simon, Erika; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; +35 Authors

    Ice sheet numerical modeling is an important tool to estimate the dynamic contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet to sea level rise over the coming centuries. The influence of initial conditions on ice sheet model simulations, however, is still unclear. To better understand this influence, an initial state intercomparison exercise (initMIP) has been developed to compare, evaluate, and improve initialization procedures and estimate their impact on century-scale simulations. initMIP is the first set of experiments of the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6), which is the primary Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) activity focusing on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Following initMIP-Greenland, initMIP-Antarctica has been designed to explore uncertainties associated with model initialization and spin-up and to evaluate the impact of changes in external forcings. Starting from the state of the Antarctic ice sheet at the end of the initialization procedure, three forward experiments are each run for 100 years: a control run, a run with a surface mass balance anomaly, and a run with a basal melting anomaly beneath floating ice. This study presents the results of initMIP-Antarctica from 25 simulations performed by 16 international modeling groups. The submitted results use different initial conditions and initialization methods, as well as ice flow model parameters and reference external forcings. We find a good agreement among model responses to the surface mass balance anomaly but large variations in responses to the basal melting anomaly. These variations can be attributed to differences in the extent of ice shelves and their upstream tributaries, the numerical treatment of grounding line, and the initial ocean conditions applied, suggesting that ongoing efforts to better represent ice shelves in continental-scale models should continue.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Shore, R.M; Freeman, MP; Gjerløv, Jesper;

    We analyze the response of different ionospheric equivalent current modes to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components By and Bz. Each mode comprises a fixed spatial pattern whose amplitude varies in time, identified by a month‐by‐month empirical orthogonal function separation of surface measured magnetic field variance. Here we focus on four sets of modes that have been previously identified as DPY, DP2, NBZ, and DP1. We derive the cross‐correlation function of each mode set with either IMF By or Bz for lags ranging from −10 to +600 mins with respect to the IMF state at the bow shock nose. For all four sets of modes, the average correlation can be reproduced by a sum of up to three linear responses to the IMF component, each centered on a different lag. These are interpreted as the statistical ionospheric responses to magnetopause merging (15‐ to 20‐min lag) and magnetotail reconnection (60‐min lag) and to IMF persistence. Of the mode sets, NBZ and DPY are the most predictable from a given IMF component, with DP1 (the substorm component) the least predictable. The proportion of mode variability explained by the IMF increases for the longer lags, thought to indicate conductivity feedbacks from substorms. In summary, we confirm the postulated physical basis of these modes and quantify their multiple reconfiguration timescales.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sourdeval, Odran; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Krämer, Martina; Goren, Tom; +4 Authors

    The number concentration of cloud particles is a key quantity for understanding aerosol–cloud interactions and describing clouds in climate and numerical weather prediction models. In contrast with recent advances for liquid clouds, few observational constraints exist regarding the ice crystal number concentration (Ni). This study investigates how combined lidar–radar measurements can be used to provide satellite estimates of Ni, using a methodology that constrains moments of a parameterized particle size distribution (PSD). The operational liDAR–raDAR (DARDAR) product serves as an existing base for this method, which focuses on ice clouds with temperatures Tc<-30 ∘C. Theoretical considerations demonstrate the capability for accurate retrievals of Ni, apart from a possible bias in the concentration in small crystals when Tc≳−50 ∘C, due to the assumption of a monomodal PSD shape in the current method. This is verified via a comparison of satellite estimates to coincident in situ measurements, which additionally demonstrates the sufficient sensitivity of lidar–radar observations to Ni. Following these results, satellite estimates of Ni are evaluated in the context of a case study and a preliminary climatological analysis based on 10 years of global data. Despite a lack of other large-scale references, this evaluation shows a reasonable physical consistency in Ni spatial distribution patterns. Notably, increases in Ni are found towards cold temperatures and, more significantly, in the presence of strong updrafts, such as those related to convective or orographic uplifts. Further evaluation and improvement of this method are necessary, although these results already constitute a first encouraging step towards large-scale observational constraints for Ni. Part 2 of this series uses this new dataset to examine the controls on Ni.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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