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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The objective of the Functional Review of the Environment, Water and Forestry sector (FR-EWF) is to help the Government of Romania (GoR) develop an action plan for implementation over the short- and medium-term to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the sector administration, and provide input to the Government National Reform Program (NRP 2011- 2013) and beyond, especially in relation to those functions that support Romania's implementation of key EU directives, help speed up convergence with the environmental Acquis, remove constraints to EU structural funds absorption, and manage the country's natural assets sustainably. The report is presented in two volumes, with the first volume providing an integrated view of the sector as currently configured around environmental management, water, and forestry, and the second volume dedicated to a detailed review of the forestry sector. Volume 1 is organized as follows: Part I provides an overall introduction, objectives and context of the review; Part II summarizes the key challenges facing the sector, focusing on the three main sub-sectors, environmental management, water, and forestry; Part III reviews the strategic framework of the sector, pointing out areas where improvements will be needed; Part IV reviews the configuration of the sector, its organization and performance; Part V assesses the salient cross-cutting issues; and Part VI presents the key recommendations. Volume 2, dedicated to the forestry sub-sector, is organized along the four assessment areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.;
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia–Alcyoniina and Anthomastus–Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mayer, Kathryn J;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of the Earth’s climate system. In order to develop better predictive models and understand how the climate will respond to future changes in atmospheric composition, we must determine the sources and nature of aerosols which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thus influencing the properties of clouds. Oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface and represent a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is formed by the action of breaking waves, whereas secondary marine aerosols (SMA) are formed from the oxidation products of gases emitted from the oceans. Biological activity in seawater (i.e. the life, death, and interactions of marine phytoplankton, bacteria, and viruses) can significantly affect the chemical composition of SSA through processing of dissolved organic matter and SMA through the emission of volatile gases. This dissertation investigates the cloud-relevant properties of SSA and SMA generated using ocean-atmosphere simulators in the laboratory, with a specific emphasis on the influence of biological activity in seawater on the properties of these aerosols. For the first time, SMA was produced from the oxidation of the headspace gases of a phytoplankton bloom grown in natural seawater, enabling measurements of its chemical composition and CCN activity. Overall, these studies show that the formation and properties of SMA are much more sensitive to biological activity in seawater than SSA. In addition, the chemical composition of SMA is highly dependent on the extent of photochemical oxidation, with a distinct shift from organic-rich to sulfate-rich composition in response to increased atmospheric aging. This change in SMA composition leads to a significant change in its hygroscopicity. These results suggest that the properties of SMA evolve temporally in the atmosphere, which has implications for CCN concentrations and cloud properties over the oceans.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This report shows that after a decade of moderate growth but little or no long term change in rural poverty in Pakistan, agricultural output, rural incomes, rural poverty and social welfare indicators all showed marked improvements between 2001-02 and 2004-05. However, longer term trends suggest there is little reason for complacency. The agricultural GDP per capita growth rate (1999- 2000 to 2004-05) was only 0.3 percent per year; rural poverty rates in 2004-05 are still at levels that approximate those of the 1990s; and social welfare indicators in Pakistan remain significantly below those of other countries in south Asia. Moreover, problems related to timing and availability of water for irrigation, inadequate rural infrastructure, a skewed distribution of assets, and low levels of health and education continue to slow the progress of economic growth and poverty reduction. Nonetheless, Pakistan has made important strides in the last several years to promote rural growth and poverty reduction. The study concludes that a comprehensive rural growth and poverty reduction strategy is needed, predicated on four main pillars: 1) Promoting efficient and sustainable agricultural growth to raise incomes of small farmers and to generate growth linkages in the rural non-farm economy; 2) Creating an enabling environment for the rural non-farm sector to enhance employment and incomes, and improving rural public-service delivery in infrastructure, health, education and population to serve as a foundation for growth and to increase household welfare; 3) Improving the effectiveness and governance of rural institutions through the decentralization and strengthening of local demand for enhanced accountability as well as through more proactive use of public-private partnerships; 4) Empowering the poor and protecting the most vulnerable through social mobilization, safety nets and facilitating access to productive assets for income generating activities.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Watkins, Ryan; West Meiers, Maurya; Visser, Yusra Laila;
    Publisher: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This book will benefit people and teams involved in planning and decision making. On the basis of their pragmatic value in guiding decisions, needs assessments are used in various professions and settings from emergency rooms to corporate boardrooms to guide decision making. Nonetheless, although needs assessments have many different applications, in this book on needs assessments as they are applied in organizations to accomplish results, as opposed to their use in personal decisions or medical triage. This book, in turn, is guide to assessing needs and then making essential decisions about what to do next. This book filled with practical strategies, tools, and guides covers both large-scale, formal needs assessments and less-formal assessments that guide daily decisions. Included in the book is a blend of rigorous methods and realistic tools that can help make informed and reasoned decisions. Together, these methods and tools offer a comprehensive, yet realistic, approach to identifying needs and selecting among alternative ways as go forward. Sections one and two offer quick, yet full, answers to many frequently asked questions regarding how to make justifiable decisions. Next, section three examines a variety of tools and techniques that can be used for both collecting information and making decisions. Appendix A then offers a number of checklists and guides for managing the systematic assessment processes that lead to quality decisions. Finally, the reference list at the end of the book is a valuable resource to research, tools, and discussions of needs assessment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    Chemicals are used in the production of many items that we depend on every day. Evidence demonstrates that certain organic chemicals are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic and that these chemicals cause long-term harm to the health of human beings and the planet s environment. Throughout the world, people and their environments are exposed on a daily basis to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). POPs and their effects on human health and the environment is a global issue of concern. They accumulate in animals and humans, predominantly in fatty tissue. As these chemicals move up the food chain they concentrate to levels that are harmful to humans, wildlife and fish. From the date of its inception, the Canada POPs Trust Fund (CPF) has focused on assisting developing countries and countries with economies in transition (CEITs) in developing their capacity to reduce or eliminate persistent organic pollutants. The Trust Fund has accomplished this through critical financial support, providing technical expertise and access to technology, and by transferring knowledge and know-how.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Crise, Alessandro; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mariani, Patrizio; Petihakis, George; Robidart, Julie; Iudicone, Daniele; Bachmayer, Ralf; Malfatti, Francesca;
    Project: UKRI | Development and applicati... (NE/N006496/1), EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410), EC | AtlantOS (633211), EC | EMSO-Link (731036)

    In the field of ocean observing, the term of “observatory” is often used without a unique meaning. A clear and unified definition of observatory is needed in order to facilitate the communication in a multidisciplinary community, to capitalize on future technological innovations and to support the observatory design based on societal needs. In this paper, we present a general framework to define the next generation Marine OBservatory (MOB), its capabilities and functionalities in an operational context. The MOB consists of four interconnected components or “gears” (observation infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, support capacity, and knowledge generation engine) that are constantly and adaptively interacting with each other. Therefore, a MOB is a complex infrastructure focused on a specific geographic area with the primary scope to generate knowledge via data synthesis and thereby addressing scientific, societal, or economic challenges. Long-term sustainability is a key MOB feature that should be guaranteed through an appropriate governance. MOBs should be open to innovations and good practices to reduce operational costs and to allow their development in quality and quantity. A deeper biological understanding of the marine ecosystem should be reached with the proliferation of MOBs, thus contributing to effective conservation of ecosystems and management of human activities in the oceans. We provide an actionable model for the upgrade and development of sustained marine observatories producing knowledge to support science-based economic and societal decisions. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2018-09-07

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    In addition to some of the most acclaimed beaches in the world, the Indian ocean islands offer one of the planet's greatest concentrations of biodiversity and stunning landscapes that include active volcanoes, sculpted canyons, and verdant seaside cliffs. Yet, despite its many attributes and accolades, the region is not very well known within the global tourism marketplace. This note is an analysis aimed at assessing opportunities for tourism integration among the four Indian ocean island nations of Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles. To inform this regional analysis and recommendations, the four reviews were conducted to provide a basis for understanding each country's tourism sector in terms of its development and current performance, contribution to the economy, and principal challenges. As a basis for analysis of the prospect of regional integration, the current state of tourism in each of the countries is considered within a regional context and recommendations for specific regional tourism integration initiatives are provided as guidance for the way forward. The tourism sector reviews were completed through a combination of desk research and country visits that involved consultations with a range of stakeholders from the public sector, private sector, civil society, and donor community. Each country review also contains a set of recommendations for addressing the identified challenges. Included in the key issues identified for each country's tourism sector are those issues that have regional implications. This report is organized as follows: section one gives introduction to the regional integration study; section two gives regional integration: the promises and the reality; section three presents overview of four countries' tourism sectors; section four presents regional tourism integration overview; section five gives key issues for regional integration; section six gives recommendations; section seven gives way forward; and section eight gives conclusion.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hargreaves, Geoffs;
    Publisher: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom

    The overflow of cold dense water from the Denmark Strait is one of the key elements of the north Atlantic thermohaline circulation and has important consequences for global climate change. It is important to measure the transport of this water and to understand its variability on seasonal and at longer time scales. The European funded project "Variability of Exchanges in Northern Seas" (VEINS MAS3CT960070) is an attempt to measure variations in the Arctic circulation using modern oceanographic instrumentation. Two combined Inverted Echo Sounder and Bottom Pressure Recorders were successfully recovered and re-deployed in the Denmark Strait to measure the thickness of this cold dense water and thus determine transport.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank Group;
    Publisher: World Bank, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The effects of climate change, from changing precipitation patterns to rising seas, will exacerbate the coastal erosion already affecting West Africa, increasing the exposure and vulnerability of the people and assets located there. Given the importance of the coastal zone to the region as a whole, it is critical that policy makers consider the effects of future climate change in the decisions they make today. Regional cooperation is challenging, but it has been successful in many places, particularly where the issue addressed presented an existential challenge to the coun¬tries affected. Efforts to build trust and coordinate efforts will help policy makers protect the lives and livelihoods of the people in the region and allow their countries to build on the development gains made in recent years rather than see them rolled back as a result of climate change.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
829 Research products, page 1 of 83
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The objective of the Functional Review of the Environment, Water and Forestry sector (FR-EWF) is to help the Government of Romania (GoR) develop an action plan for implementation over the short- and medium-term to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the sector administration, and provide input to the Government National Reform Program (NRP 2011- 2013) and beyond, especially in relation to those functions that support Romania's implementation of key EU directives, help speed up convergence with the environmental Acquis, remove constraints to EU structural funds absorption, and manage the country's natural assets sustainably. The report is presented in two volumes, with the first volume providing an integrated view of the sector as currently configured around environmental management, water, and forestry, and the second volume dedicated to a detailed review of the forestry sector. Volume 1 is organized as follows: Part I provides an overall introduction, objectives and context of the review; Part II summarizes the key challenges facing the sector, focusing on the three main sub-sectors, environmental management, water, and forestry; Part III reviews the strategic framework of the sector, pointing out areas where improvements will be needed; Part IV reviews the configuration of the sector, its organization and performance; Part V assesses the salient cross-cutting issues; and Part VI presents the key recommendations. Volume 2, dedicated to the forestry sub-sector, is organized along the four assessment areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.;
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia–Alcyoniina and Anthomastus–Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mayer, Kathryn J;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of the Earth’s climate system. In order to develop better predictive models and understand how the climate will respond to future changes in atmospheric composition, we must determine the sources and nature of aerosols which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thus influencing the properties of clouds. Oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface and represent a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is formed by the action of breaking waves, whereas secondary marine aerosols (SMA) are formed from the oxidation products of gases emitted from the oceans. Biological activity in seawater (i.e. the life, death, and interactions of marine phytoplankton, bacteria, and viruses) can significantly affect the chemical composition of SSA through processing of dissolved organic matter and SMA through the emission of volatile gases. This dissertation investigates the cloud-relevant properties of SSA and SMA generated using ocean-atmosphere simulators in the laboratory, with a specific emphasis on the influence of biological activity in seawater on the properties of these aerosols. For the first time, SMA was produced from the oxidation of the headspace gases of a phytoplankton bloom grown in natural seawater, enabling measurements of its chemical composition and CCN activity. Overall, these studies show that the formation and properties of SMA are much more sensitive to biological activity in seawater than SSA. In addition, the chemical composition of SMA is highly dependent on the extent of photochemical oxidation, with a distinct shift from organic-rich to sulfate-rich composition in response to increased atmospheric aging. This change in SMA composition leads to a significant change in its hygroscopicity. These results suggest that the properties of SMA evolve temporally in the atmosphere, which has implications for CCN concentrations and cloud properties over the oceans.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This report shows that after a decade of moderate growth but little or no long term change in rural poverty in Pakistan, agricultural output, rural incomes, rural poverty and social welfare indicators all showed marked improvements between 2001-02 and 2004-05. However, longer term trends suggest there is little reason for complacency. The agricultural GDP per capita growth rate (1999- 2000 to 2004-05) was only 0.3 percent per year; rural poverty rates in 2004-05 are still at levels that approximate those of the 1990s; and social welfare indicators in Pakistan remain significantly below those of other countries in south Asia. Moreover, problems related to timing and availability of water for irrigation, inadequate rural infrastructure, a skewed distribution of assets, and low levels of health and education continue to slow the progress of economic growth and poverty reduction. Nonetheless, Pakistan has made important strides in the last several years to promote rural growth and poverty reduction. The study concludes that a comprehensive rural growth and poverty reduction strategy is needed, predicated on four main pillars: 1) Promoting efficient and sustainable agricultural growth to raise incomes of small farmers and to generate growth linkages in the rural non-farm economy; 2) Creating an enabling environment for the rural non-farm sector to enhance employment and incomes, and improving rural public-service delivery in infrastructure, health, education and population to serve as a foundation for growth and to increase household welfare; 3) Improving the effectiveness and governance of rural institutions through the decentralization and strengthening of local demand for enhanced accountability as well as through more proactive use of public-private partnerships; 4) Empowering the poor and protecting the most vulnerable through social mobilization, safety nets and facilitating access to productive assets for income generating activities.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Watkins, Ryan; West Meiers, Maurya; Visser, Yusra Laila;
    Publisher: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This book will benefit people and teams involved in planning and decision making. On the basis of their pragmatic value in guiding decisions, needs assessments are used in various professions and settings from emergency rooms to corporate boardrooms to guide decision making. Nonetheless, although needs assessments have many different applications, in this book on needs assessments as they are applied in organizations to accomplish results, as opposed to their use in personal decisions or medical triage. This book, in turn, is guide to assessing needs and then making essential decisions about what to do next. This book filled with practical strategies, tools, and guides covers both large-scale, formal needs assessments and less-formal assessments that guide daily decisions. Included in the book is a blend of rigorous methods and realistic tools that can help make informed and reasoned decisions. Together, these methods and tools offer a comprehensive, yet realistic, approach to identifying needs and selecting among alternative ways as go forward. Sections one and two offer quick, yet full, answers to many frequently asked questions regarding how to make justifiable decisions. Next, section three examines a variety of tools and techniques that can be used for both collecting information and making decisions. Appendix A then offers a number of checklists and guides for managing the systematic assessment processes that lead to quality decisions. Finally, the reference list at the end of the book is a valuable resource to research, tools, and discussions of needs assessment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    Chemicals are used in the production of many items that we depend on every day. Evidence demonstrates that certain organic chemicals are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic and that these chemicals cause long-term harm to the health of human beings and the planet s environment. Throughout the world, people and their environments are exposed on a daily basis to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). POPs and their effects on human health and the environment is a global issue of concern. They accumulate in animals and humans, predominantly in fatty tissue. As these chemicals move up the food chain they concentrate to levels that are harmful to humans, wildlife and fish. From the date of its inception, the Canada POPs Trust Fund (CPF) has focused on assisting developing countries and countries with economies in transition (CEITs) in developing their capacity to reduce or eliminate persistent organic pollutants. The Trust Fund has accomplished this through critical financial support, providing technical expertise and access to technology, and by transferring knowledge and know-how.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Crise, Alessandro; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mariani, Patrizio; Petihakis, George; Robidart, Julie; Iudicone, Daniele; Bachmayer, Ralf; Malfatti, Francesca;
    Project: UKRI | Development and applicati... (NE/N006496/1), EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410), EC | AtlantOS (633211), EC | EMSO-Link (731036)

    In the field of ocean observing, the term of “observatory” is often used without a unique meaning. A clear and unified definition of observatory is needed in order to facilitate the communication in a multidisciplinary community, to capitalize on future technological innovations and to support the observatory design based on societal needs. In this paper, we present a general framework to define the next generation Marine OBservatory (MOB), its capabilities and functionalities in an operational context. The MOB consists of four interconnected components or “gears” (observation infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, support capacity, and knowledge generation engine) that are constantly and adaptively interacting with each other. Therefore, a MOB is a complex infrastructure focused on a specific geographic area with the primary scope to generate knowledge via data synthesis and thereby addressing scientific, societal, or economic challenges. Long-term sustainability is a key MOB feature that should be guaranteed through an appropriate governance. MOBs should be open to innovations and good practices to reduce operational costs and to allow their development in quality and quantity. A deeper biological understanding of the marine ecosystem should be reached with the proliferation of MOBs, thus contributing to effective conservation of ecosystems and management of human activities in the oceans. We provide an actionable model for the upgrade and development of sustained marine observatories producing knowledge to support science-based economic and societal decisions. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2018-09-07

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    In addition to some of the most acclaimed beaches in the world, the Indian ocean islands offer one of the planet's greatest concentrations of biodiversity and stunning landscapes that include active volcanoes, sculpted canyons, and verdant seaside cliffs. Yet, despite its many attributes and accolades, the region is not very well known within the global tourism marketplace. This note is an analysis aimed at assessing opportunities for tourism integration among the four Indian ocean island nations of Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles. To inform this regional analysis and recommendations, the four reviews were conducted to provide a basis for understanding each country's tourism sector in terms of its development and current performance, contribution to the economy, and principal challenges. As a basis for analysis of the prospect of regional integration, the current state of tourism in each of the countries is considered within a regional context and recommendations for specific regional tourism integration initiatives are provided as guidance for the way forward. The tourism sector reviews were completed through a combination of desk research and country visits that involved consultations with a range of stakeholders from the public sector, private sector, civil society, and donor community. Each country review also contains a set of recommendations for addressing the identified challenges. Included in the key issues identified for each country's tourism sector are those issues that have regional implications. This report is organized as follows: section one gives introduction to the regional integration study; section two gives regional integration: the promises and the reality; section three presents overview of four countries' tourism sectors; section four presents regional tourism integration overview; section five gives key issues for regional integration; section six gives recommendations; section seven gives way forward; and section eight gives conclusion.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hargreaves, Geoffs;
    Publisher: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom

    The overflow of cold dense water from the Denmark Strait is one of the key elements of the north Atlantic thermohaline circulation and has important consequences for global climate change. It is important to measure the transport of this water and to understand its variability on seasonal and at longer time scales. The European funded project "Variability of Exchanges in Northern Seas" (VEINS MAS3CT960070) is an attempt to measure variations in the Arctic circulation using modern oceanographic instrumentation. Two combined Inverted Echo Sounder and Bottom Pressure Recorders were successfully recovered and re-deployed in the Denmark Strait to measure the thickness of this cold dense water and thus determine transport.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank Group;
    Publisher: World Bank, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The effects of climate change, from changing precipitation patterns to rising seas, will exacerbate the coastal erosion already affecting West Africa, increasing the exposure and vulnerability of the people and assets located there. Given the importance of the coastal zone to the region as a whole, it is critical that policy makers consider the effects of future climate change in the decisions they make today. Regional cooperation is challenging, but it has been successful in many places, particularly where the issue addressed presented an existential challenge to the coun¬tries affected. Efforts to build trust and coordinate efforts will help policy makers protect the lives and livelihoods of the people in the region and allow their countries to build on the development gains made in recent years rather than see them rolled back as a result of climate change.