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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michaud, Alexander B; Laufer, Katja; Findlay, Alyssa; Pellerin, Andre; Antler, Gilad; Turchyn, Alexandra V; Røy, Hans; Wehrmann, Laura Mariana; Jørgensen, Bo Barker;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | MICROENERGY (294200)

    In the summer of 2016, we collected sediment cores from three fjords (Smeerenburgfjorden, stn. J; Kongsfjorden, stn. P; and Van Keulenfjorden, stn. AC). These cores were both long cores (~80 cm) and short (~25 cm) where we conducted porewater geochemistry and incubation experiments to quantify the rate of sulfide oxidation and changes to the reactive Fe(III)-oxide pool over time. All coordinates of sampling sites are in the data file. The methods are included in the manuscript doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.12.033.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stumpp, Meike; Wren, J; Melzner, Frank; Thorndyke, Mike; Dupont, Sam;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions are acidifying the world's oceans. A growing body of evidence is showing that ocean acidification impacts growth and developmental rates of marine invertebrates. Here we test the impact of elevated seawater pCO2 (129 Pa, 1271 µatm) on early development, larval metabolic and feeding rates in a marine model organism, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Growth and development was assessed by measuring total body length, body rod length, postoral rod length and posterolateral rod length. Comparing these parameters between treatments suggests that larvae suffer from a developmental delay (by ca. 8%) rather than from the previously postulated reductions in size at comparable developmental stages. Further, we found maximum increases in respiration rates of + 100 % under elevated pCO2, while body length corrected feeding rates did not differ between larvae from both treatments. Calculating scope for growth illustrates that larvae raised under high pCO2 spent an average of 39 to 45% of the available energy for somatic growth, while control larvae could allocate between 78 and 80% of the available energy into growth processes. Our results highlight the importance of defining a standard frame of reference when comparing a given parameter between treatments, as observed differences can be easily due to comparison of different larval ages with their specific set of biological characters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Robertson, Elizabeth K.; Conley, Daniel J.; Hermans, Martijn; Humborg, Christoph; Kubeneck, L. Joëlle; Lenstra, Wytze K.; Slomp, Caroline P.;
    Project: EC | PHOXY (278364)

    Coastal systems can act as filters for anthropogenic nutrient input into marine environments. Here, we assess the processes controlling the removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) for four sites in the eutrophic Stockholm Archipelago. Bottom water concentrations of oxygen and P are inversely correlated. This is attributed to the seasonal release of P from iron (Fe)-oxide-bound P in surface sediments and from degrading organic matter. The abundant presence of sulfide in the pore water, linked to prior deposition of organic-rich sediments in a low oxygen setting (legacy of hypoxia), hinders the formation of a larger Fe-oxide-bound P pool in winter. Burial rates of P are high at all sites (0.03–0.3 mol m−2 y−1), a combined result of high sedimentation rates (0.5 to 3.5 cm yr−1) and high sedimentary P at depth (~ 30 to 50 μmol g−1). Organic P accounts for 30–50 % of reactive P burial. Apart from one site in the inner archipelago, where a vivianite-type Fe(II)-P mineral is likely present at depth, there is little evidence for sink-switching of organic or Fe-oxide bound P to authigenic P minerals. Denitrification is the major benthic nitrate-reducing process at all sites (0.09 to 1.7 mmol m−2 d−1), efficiently removing N as N2. Denitrification rates decrease seaward following the decline in bottom water nitrate and sediment organic carbon. Our results explain how sediments in this eutrophic coastal system can efficiently remove land-derived P and N, regardless of whether the bottom waters are oxic or frequently hypoxic. Hence, management strategies involving artificial reoxygenation are not expected to be successful in removing P and N, emphasizing a need for a focus on nutrient load reductions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christensen, A.; Butenschön, M.; Gürkan, Z.; Allen, I. J.;
    Project: EC | MEECE (212085)

    First results of a coupled modelling and forecasting system for fisheries on habitat-bound stocks are being presented. The system consists currently of three mathematically, fundamentally different model subsystems coupled offline: POLCOMS providing the physical environment implemented in the domain of the north-west European shelf, the SPAM model which describes sandeel stocks in the North Sea, and the third component, the SLAM model, which connects POLCOMS and SPAM by computing the physical–biological interaction. Our major experience by the coupling model subsystems is that well-defined and generic model interfaces are very important for a successful and extendable coupled model framework. The integrated approach, simulating ecosystem dynamics from physics to fish, allows for analysis of the pathways in the ecosystem to investigate the propagation of changes in the ocean climate and to quantify the impacts on the higher trophic level, in this case the sandeel population, demonstrated here on the basis of hindcast data. The coupled forecasting system is tested for some typical scientific questions appearing in spatial fish stock management and marine spatial planning, including determination of local and basin-scale maximum sustainable yield, stock connectivity and source/sink structure. Our presented simulations indicate that sandeel stocks are currently exploited close to the maximum sustainable yield, even though periodic overfishing seems to have occurred, but large uncertainty is associated with determining stock maximum sustainable yield due to stock inherent dynamics and climatic variability. Our statistical ensemble simulations indicates that the predictive horizon set by climate interannual variability is 2–6 yr, after which only an asymptotic probability distribution of stock properties, like biomass, are predictable.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Strauss, Jens; Grosse, Guido; Overduin, Pier Paul; Kholodov, Alexander L; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PETA-CARB (338335)

    We here present lithological, geochronological, and geochemical data from a core drilled in 1999 in the Ivashkina Lagoon on the Bykovsky Peninsula, Northeast Siberia.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liu, Sisi; Stoof-Leichsenring, Kathleen Rosmarie; Kruse, Stefan; Pestryakova, Luidmila A; Herzschuh, Ulrike;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | GlacialLegacy (772852)

    Here, we provide the raw pollen data archived in three Siberian lake sediment cores spanning the mid-Holocene to the present (7.6-0 cal ka BP), from northern typical tundra to southern open larch forest in the Omoloy region. There are three cores: 1. 14-OM-20B, Lat. / °: 70.53, Lon. / °: 132.91, Ele. / m a.s.l.: 52, Modern vegetation: open larch forest, Lake area / km2: 0.26, Maximal depth / m: 3.4 2. 14-OM-02B, Lat. / °: 70.72, Lon. / °: 132.67, Ele. / m a.s.l.: 58, Modern vegetation: forest tundra, Lake area / km2: 0.08, Maximal depth / m: 3.5 3. 14-OM-12A, Lat. / °: 70.96, Lon. / °: 132.57, Ele. / m a.s.l.: 60, Modern vegetation: tundra, Lake area / km2: 0.09, Maximal depth / m: 4.5 Three lake sediment cores, 14OM12A (33 cm long), 14OM02B (49.5 cm long) and 14OM20B (86 cm long), were recovered from three sites using a UWITEC gravity corer (6 cm internal diameter) equipped with a hammer tool in July 2014. From the three cores, 16 bulk organic carbon samples were selected because of the lack of macrofossil remains and radiocarbon dated using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Poznań radiocarbon laboratory of Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland. In addition, 30 freeze-dried samples per core at 0.25 or 0.5 cm intervals between 0 and 15 cm were analysed for 210Pb/137Cs at the Liverpool University Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory. In this project, we analyse pollen and sedaDNA (Liu et al., 2020; doi:10.5061/dryad.69p8cz900) from three lake sediment cores from the Omoloy region in north-eastern Siberia (northern Yakutia), which are currently surrounded by different vegetation types ranging from typical tundra to open larch forest. First, our aim is to compare sedaDNA with the pollen data to see whether both methods track the same pattern with respect to compositional changes and diversity changes across the northern Russian treeline zone or are complementary to each other. Second, we reconstruct the mid- to late-Holocene changes of vegetation composition along a north–south transect. Third, we use the sedaDNA data to reconstruct variations in species richness and relate this to vegetation and climate change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bayon, Germain; Schefuß, Enno; Dupont, Lydie M; Borges, Alberto Vieira; Dennielou, Bernard; Lambert, Thibault; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Monin, Laurence; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Skonieczny, Charlotte; +1 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | AMECO (327778)

    There is increasing evidence that abrupt vegetation shifts and large-scale erosive phases occurred in Central Africa during the third millennium before present. Debate exists as to whether these events were caused by climate change and/or intensifying human activities related to the Bantu expansion. In this study, we report on a multi-proxy investigation of a sediment core (KZR-23) recovered from the Congo submarine canyon. Our aim was to reconstruct climate, erosion and vegetation patterns in the Congo Basin for the last 10,000 yrs, with a particular emphasis on the late Holocene period. Samples of modern riverine suspended particulates were also analyzed to characterize sediment source geochemical signatures from across the Congo watershed. We find that a sudden increase of bulk sediment aluminium-to-potassium (Al/K) ratios and initial radiocarbon ages of bulk organic matter occurred after 2,200 yrs ago, coincident with a pollen-inferred vegetation change suggesting forest retreat and development of savannas. Although hydrogen isotope compositions of plant waxes (δDwax) do not reveal a substantial hydroclimate shift during this period, neodymium isotopes and rare earth elements in detrital fractions indicate provenance changes for the sediment exported from the Congo Basin at that time, hence suggesting a reorganization of spatial rainfall patterns across Central Africa during this event. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for changing landscapes in Central Africa from about 2,200 yrs ago, associated with synchronous events of vegetation changes and enhanced erosion of pre-aged and highly weathered soils. These events coincided remarkably well with the arrival of Iron Age communities into the rainforest, as inferred from comparison to regional archaeological syntheses. While the human impact on the environment remains difficult to quantify at the scale of the vast Congo Basin, we tentatively propose that strengthening of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability at that time played a key role in triggering the observed environmental changes, and possibly acted as a driver for the eastward migration of Bantu-speaking peoples across Central Africa.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michaud, H.; Marsaleix, P.; Leredde, Y.; Estournel, C.; Bourrin, F.; Lyard, F.; Mayet, C.; Ardhuin, F.;
    Project: EC | IOWAGA (240009)

    We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a) following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c). These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010) and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999). The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009)and Uchiyama et al. (2010). A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002) of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data. Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea) for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the inner shelf are less visible since wind and regional circulation seem to be the predominant forcings. Besides, a discrepancy between model and observations is noted at that scale, possibly linked to an underestimation of the wind stress. This three-dimensional method allows a good representation of vertical current profiles and permits the calculation of the shear stress associated with waves and currents. Future work will focus on the combination with a sediment transport model.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borit, Melania; Weber, Charlotte; Johnsen, Hanne Risan;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SAF21 (642080)

    Eurodoc Newsletter Issue #21