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78 Research products, page 1 of 8

  • European Marine Science
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  • 2013-2022
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  • European Marine Science

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marques, Montse; Torres, Carmen M.; Garcia-Fernandez, Fernando; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika; Roe, Mark; Wilson, Annette M.; Reuver, Marieke; Nadal, Marti; Domingo, Jose L.;
    Country: Spain

    Since seafood is a significant source of nutrients with known health benefits, its consumption is promoted as a healthy food choice. However, seafood can also contain potentially hazardous environmental pollutants. In the context of the ECsafeSEAFOOD FP7 project, FishChoice (www.fishchoice.eu) was developed as a communication tool to help to the consumers to take the most appropriate decisions on their seafood consumption habits. FishChoice relies on scientific information that allows calculating, on an individual basis, intakes of nutrients and pollutants derived from seafood consumption. In the framework of the EU-H2020 funded SEAFOODTOMORROW project, an optimized version of the online tool has been released. FishChoice is available in 25 EU languages with a customized list of seafood species per EU country, considering specific (national) consumption habits. The list of nutrients has been extended according to the latest EFSA recommendations, while pollutants data incorporate results from recent studies. The sustainability of seafood consumption has been also implemented, providing recommendations to help preserve the marine environment. Finally, FishChoice is suitable not only for consumers, but also health professionals, schools and academia, as well as the industrial sector and public health providers.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ortego, M. I.; Egozcue, J. J.; Tolosana-Delgado, R.;
    Project: EC | FIELD_AC (242284)

    It has been suggested that climate change might modify the occurrence rate and magnitude of large ocean-wave and wind storms. The hypothesised reason is the increase of available energy in the atmosphere–ocean system. Forecasting models are commonly used to assess these effects, given that good-quality data series are often too short. However, forecasting systems are often tuned to reproduce the average behaviour, and there are concerns on their relevance for extremal regimes. We present a methodology of simultaneous analysis of observed and hindcast data with the aim of extracting potential time drifts as well as systematic regime discrepancies between the two data sources. The method is based on the peak-over-threshold (POT) approach and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) within a Bayesian estimation framework. In this context, storm events are considered points in time, and modelled as a Poisson process. Storm magnitude over a reference threshold is modelled with a GPD, a flexible model that captures the tail behaviour of the magnitude distribution. All model parameters, i.e. shape and location of the magnitude GPD and the Poisson occurrence rate, are affected by a trend in time. Moreover, a systematic difference between parameters of hindcast and observed series is considered. Finally, the posterior joint distribution of all these trend parameters is studied using a conventional Gibbs sampler. This method is applied to compare hindcast and observed series of average wind speed at a deep buoy location off the Catalan coast (NE Spain, western Mediterranean; buoy data from 2001; REMO wind hindcasting from 1958 on). Appropriate scale and domain of attraction are discussed, and the reliability of trends in time is addressed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hopwood, Mark J.; Sanchez, Nicolas; Polyviou, Despo; Leiknes, Øystein; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Achterberg, Eric P.; Ardelan, Murat V.; Aristegui, Javier; Bach, Lennart; Besiktepe, Sengul; +6 more
    Project: EC | OCEAN-CERTAIN (603773)

    The extracellular concentration of H2O2 in surface aquatic environments is controlled by a balance between photochemical production and the microbial synthesis of catalase and peroxidase enzymes to remove H2O2 from solution. In any kind of incubation experiment, the formation rates and equilibrium concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) such as H2O2 may be sensitive to both the experiment design, particularly to the regulation of incident light, and the abundance of different microbial groups, as both cellular H2O2 production and catalase–peroxidase enzyme production rates differ between species. Whilst there are extensive measurements of photochemical H2O2 formation rates and the distribution of H2O2 in the marine environment, it is poorly constrained how different microbial groups affect extracellular H2O2 concentrations, how comparable extracellular H2O2 concentrations within large-scale incubation experiments are to those observed in the surface-mixed layer, and to what extent a mismatch with environmentally relevant concentrations of ROS in incubations could influence biological processes differently to what would be observed in nature. Here we show that both experiment design and bacterial abundance consistently exert control on extracellular H2O2 concentrations across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments. During four large-scale (>1000 L) mesocosm experiments (in Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard) most experimental factors appeared to exert only minor, or no, direct effect on H2O2 concentrations. For example, in three of four experiments where pH was manipulated to 0.4–0.5 below ambient pH, no significant change was evident in extracellular H2O2 concentrations relative to controls. An influence was sometimes inferred from zooplankton density, but not consistently between different incubation experiments, and no change in H2O2 was evident in controlled experiments using different densities of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus grazing on the diatom Skeletonema costatum (<1 % change in [H2O2] comparing copepod densities from 1 to 10 L−1). Instead, the changes in H2O2 concentration contrasting high- and low-zooplankton incubations appeared to arise from the resulting changes in bacterial activity. The correlation between bacterial abundance and extracellular H2O2 was stronger in some incubations than others (R2 range 0.09 to 0.55), yet high bacterial densities were consistently associated with low H2O2. Nonetheless, the main control on H2O2 concentrations during incubation experiments relative to those in ambient, unenclosed waters was the regulation of incident light. In an open (lidless) mesocosm experiment in Gran Canaria, H2O2 was persistently elevated (2–6-fold) above ambient concentrations; whereas using closed high-density polyethylene mesocosms in Crete, Svalbard and Patagonia H2O2 within incubations was always reduced (median 10 %–90 %) relative to ambient waters.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Párez-Sancho M; Cerdá I; Fernández-Bravo A; Domínguez L; Figueras M; Fernández-Garayzábal J; Vela A;
    Country: Spain

    © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the MALDI-TOF MS to identify 151 isolates of Aeromonas obtained mostly from diseased fish. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified all isolates to the genus level but important differences in the percentage of isolates correctly identified depending on the species were observed. Considering exclusively the first identification option, Aeromonas bestiarum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas sobria were the best identified with results >95%. However, considering the first and second identification options, the only species that showed values >90% was A. hydrophila. Overall, when the database was supplemented with 14 new spectra, the number of accurate identifications increased (41% vs. 55%) and the number of inconclusive identifications decreased (45% vs. 29%), but great differences in the success of species-level identifications were found. Species-distinctive mass peaks were identified only for A. hydrophila and A. bestiarum (5003 and 7360 m/z in 95.5% and 94.1% of their isolates, respectively). This work demonstrates the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for Aeromonas identification to the genus level, but there is no consistency for the accurate identification of some of the most prevalent species implicated in fish disease.

  • Open Access Spanish; Castilian
    Authors: 
    Villamor, B. (Begoña); Otero-Pinzas, R. (Rosendo); Antolínez, A. (Ana); Domínguez-Petit, R. (Rosario); Rodríguez-Fernández, L. (Lorena); Hernández, C. (Carmen);
    Publisher: Centro Oceanográfico de Santander
    Country: Spain

    Este manual tiene como objetivo describir los métodos para la determinación de la edad anual del lirio o bacaladilla (Micromesistius poutassou), centrándose en los criterios utilizados y estandarizados a nivel europeo para la interpretación de los anillos de crecimiento anual en los otolitos del lirio del Atlántico Nordeste. Este manual tiene como finalidad servir de referencia para los lectores de edad del lirio en los laboratorios del IEO y se basa en los últimos intercambios, talleres y publicaciones sobre la determinación de la edad del lirio (ICES 2005, 2013, 2017).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Reverte, Laia; Toldra, Anna; Andree, Karl B.; Fraga, Santiago; de Falco, Giada; Campas, Monica; Diogene, Jorge;
    Country: Spain

    Within the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus several species are well-known producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs). These compounds are potent marine toxins that accumulate through the food chain, leading to a foodborne disease known as ciguatera when contaminated fish is consumed. Given the threat that the presence of these toxins in seafood may pose to human health and fisheries, there is an evident necessity to assess the potential toxicity of Gambierdiscus sp. in a particular area. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the production of CTX and MTX of 10 strains of Gambierdiscus australes isolated from the Selvagem Grande Island (Madeira, Portugal) and El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The strains were first characterized by light microscopy and species were confirmed by molecular biology, being identified as G. australes. Following the species identification, CTX and MTX production of G. australes extracts was evaluated at the exponential growth phase using neuro-2a cell-based assays. Additionally, the production of MTX was also investigated in two of the G. australes strains collected at the stationary growth phase. Interestingly, 9 out of 10 strains were found to produce CTX-like compounds, ranging from 200 to 697 fg equiv. CTX1B cell(-1). None of the G. australes strains showed MTX-like activity at the exponential phase, but MTX production was observed in two strains at the stationary growth phase (227 and 275 pg equiv. MTX cell(-1)). Therefore, the presence of G. australes strains potentially producing CTX and MTX in these Macaronesian Islands was confirmed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Expósito N; Rovira J; Sierra J; Gimenez G; Domingo JL; Schuhmacher M;
    Country: Spain

    Microplastics (MPs) are accessible for organisms with active filter feeding strategies, as are many marine molluscs, which live attached or semi-buried in sediments. In the present study, MPs (from 0.02 to 5 mm) concentration, morphology, and composition were determined in consumed mollusc species of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). Microplastic concentrations, morphologic characteristics and composition were studied according to species, catchment zones and depuration condition. Finally, human intake of MPs through molluscs' consumption was determined. >2300 individuals were analysed, being 1460 MPs extracted and their size, and polymeric composition registered. Big oysters and mussels showed the highest MPs concentration by individual, with levels of 22.8 ± 14.4 and 18.6 ± 23.0 MPs/individual, respectively. Mean annual MPs (≥20 μm) consumption for adult population was estimated in 8103 MPs/year, with a 95th percentile of 19,418 MPs/year. It suggests that the consumption of molluscs is an important route of MPs exposure for the Catalan population.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pérez-Heras A., Mayneris-Perxachs J., Cofán M., Serra-Mir M., Castellote A., López-Sabater C., Fitó M., Salas-Salvadó J., Martínez-González M., Corella D., Estruch R., Ros E., Sala-Vila A.;
    Country: Spain

    The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored.We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial.After adjustment for confounders, including changes in fasting triglycerides, plasma SCD1 index increased in parallel with body weight (0.221 [95% confidence interval, 0.021 to 0.422], P = 0.031) and BMI (0.115 [0.027 to 0.202], P = 0.011). Additionally, dietary LCn-3PUFA (but not MUFA or plant-derived PUFA) were associated with decreased plasma SCD1 index (-0.544 [-1.044 to -0.043], P = 0.033, for each 1 g/d-increase in LCn-3PUFA). No associations were found for other food groups, but there was a trend for fatty fish intake (-0.083 [-0.177 to 0.012], P = 0.085, for each 10 g/d-increase).Our data add clinical evidence on the down-regulation of plasma SCD1 index by LCn-3PUFA in the context of realistic changes in fish consumption in the customary, non-supplemented diet.http://www.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Allen, John T.; Munoz, Cristian; Gardiner, Jim; Reeve, Krissy A.; Alou-Font, Eva; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos;
    Project: EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410)

    Glider vehicles are now perhaps some of the most prolific providers of real-time and near-real-time operational oceanographic data. However, the data from these vehicles can and should be considered to have a long-term legacy value capable of playing a critical role in understanding and separating inter-annual, inter-decadal, and longterm global change. To achieve this, we have to go further than simply assuming the manufacturer’s calibrations, and field correct glider data in a more traditional way, for example, by careful comparison to water bottle calibrated lowered CTD datasets and/or “gold” standard recent climatologies. In this manuscript, we bring into the 21st century a historical technique that has been used manually by oceanographers for many years/decades for field correction/inter-calibration, thermal lag correction, and adjustment for biological fouling. The technique has now been made semi-automatic for machine processing of oceanographic glider data, although its future and indeed its origins have far wider scope. The subject of this manuscript is drawn from the original Description of Work (DoW) for a key task in the recently completed JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories) EU-funded program, but goes on to consider future application and the suitability for integration with machine learning. Refereed 14.A Sea surface salinity Subsurface salinity TRL 8 Actual system completed and "mission qualified" through test and demonstration in an operational environment (ground or space) Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) Standard Operating Procedure 2019-12-03

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; +12 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COCOS (212196), EC | GEOCARBON (283080), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366)

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
78 Research products, page 1 of 8
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marques, Montse; Torres, Carmen M.; Garcia-Fernandez, Fernando; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika; Roe, Mark; Wilson, Annette M.; Reuver, Marieke; Nadal, Marti; Domingo, Jose L.;
    Country: Spain

    Since seafood is a significant source of nutrients with known health benefits, its consumption is promoted as a healthy food choice. However, seafood can also contain potentially hazardous environmental pollutants. In the context of the ECsafeSEAFOOD FP7 project, FishChoice (www.fishchoice.eu) was developed as a communication tool to help to the consumers to take the most appropriate decisions on their seafood consumption habits. FishChoice relies on scientific information that allows calculating, on an individual basis, intakes of nutrients and pollutants derived from seafood consumption. In the framework of the EU-H2020 funded SEAFOODTOMORROW project, an optimized version of the online tool has been released. FishChoice is available in 25 EU languages with a customized list of seafood species per EU country, considering specific (national) consumption habits. The list of nutrients has been extended according to the latest EFSA recommendations, while pollutants data incorporate results from recent studies. The sustainability of seafood consumption has been also implemented, providing recommendations to help preserve the marine environment. Finally, FishChoice is suitable not only for consumers, but also health professionals, schools and academia, as well as the industrial sector and public health providers.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ortego, M. I.; Egozcue, J. J.; Tolosana-Delgado, R.;
    Project: EC | FIELD_AC (242284)

    It has been suggested that climate change might modify the occurrence rate and magnitude of large ocean-wave and wind storms. The hypothesised reason is the increase of available energy in the atmosphere–ocean system. Forecasting models are commonly used to assess these effects, given that good-quality data series are often too short. However, forecasting systems are often tuned to reproduce the average behaviour, and there are concerns on their relevance for extremal regimes. We present a methodology of simultaneous analysis of observed and hindcast data with the aim of extracting potential time drifts as well as systematic regime discrepancies between the two data sources. The method is based on the peak-over-threshold (POT) approach and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) within a Bayesian estimation framework. In this context, storm events are considered points in time, and modelled as a Poisson process. Storm magnitude over a reference threshold is modelled with a GPD, a flexible model that captures the tail behaviour of the magnitude distribution. All model parameters, i.e. shape and location of the magnitude GPD and the Poisson occurrence rate, are affected by a trend in time. Moreover, a systematic difference between parameters of hindcast and observed series is considered. Finally, the posterior joint distribution of all these trend parameters is studied using a conventional Gibbs sampler. This method is applied to compare hindcast and observed series of average wind speed at a deep buoy location off the Catalan coast (NE Spain, western Mediterranean; buoy data from 2001; REMO wind hindcasting from 1958 on). Appropriate scale and domain of attraction are discussed, and the reliability of trends in time is addressed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hopwood, Mark J.; Sanchez, Nicolas; Polyviou, Despo; Leiknes, Øystein; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Achterberg, Eric P.; Ardelan, Murat V.; Aristegui, Javier; Bach, Lennart; Besiktepe, Sengul; +6 more
    Project: EC | OCEAN-CERTAIN (603773)

    The extracellular concentration of H2O2 in surface aquatic environments is controlled by a balance between photochemical production and the microbial synthesis of catalase and peroxidase enzymes to remove H2O2 from solution. In any kind of incubation experiment, the formation rates and equilibrium concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) such as H2O2 may be sensitive to both the experiment design, particularly to the regulation of incident light, and the abundance of different microbial groups, as both cellular H2O2 production and catalase–peroxidase enzyme production rates differ between species. Whilst there are extensive measurements of photochemical H2O2 formation rates and the distribution of H2O2 in the marine environment, it is poorly constrained how different microbial groups affect extracellular H2O2 concentrations, how comparable extracellular H2O2 concentrations within large-scale incubation experiments are to those observed in the surface-mixed layer, and to what extent a mismatch with environmentally relevant concentrations of ROS in incubations could influence biological processes differently to what would be observed in nature. Here we show that both experiment design and bacterial abundance consistently exert control on extracellular H2O2 concentrations across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments. During four large-scale (>1000 L) mesocosm experiments (in Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard) most experimental factors appeared to exert only minor, or no, direct effect on H2O2 concentrations. For example, in three of four experiments where pH was manipulated to 0.4–0.5 below ambient pH, no significant change was evident in extracellular H2O2 concentrations relative to controls. An influence was sometimes inferred from zooplankton density, but not consistently between different incubation experiments, and no change in H2O2 was evident in controlled experiments using different densities of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus grazing on the diatom Skeletonema costatum (<1 % change in [H2O2] comparing copepod densities from 1 to 10 L−1). Instead, the changes in H2O2 concentration contrasting high- and low-zooplankton incubations appeared to arise from the resulting changes in bacterial activity. The correlation between bacterial abundance and extracellular H2O2 was stronger in some incubations than others (R2 range 0.09 to 0.55), yet high bacterial densities were consistently associated with low H2O2. Nonetheless, the main control on H2O2 concentrations during incubation experiments relative to those in ambient, unenclosed waters was the regulation of incident light. In an open (lidless) mesocosm experiment in Gran Canaria, H2O2 was persistently elevated (2–6-fold) above ambient concentrations; whereas using closed high-density polyethylene mesocosms in Crete, Svalbard and Patagonia H2O2 within incubations was always reduced (median 10 %–90 %) relative to ambient waters.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Párez-Sancho M; Cerdá I; Fernández-Bravo A; Domínguez L; Figueras M; Fernández-Garayzábal J; Vela A;
    Country: Spain

    © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the MALDI-TOF MS to identify 151 isolates of Aeromonas obtained mostly from diseased fish. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified all isolates to the genus level but important differences in the percentage of isolates correctly identified depending on the species were observed. Considering exclusively the first identification option, Aeromonas bestiarum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas sobria were the best identified with results >95%. However, considering the first and second identification options, the only species that showed values >90% was A. hydrophila. Overall, when the database was supplemented with 14 new spectra, the number of accurate identifications increased (41% vs. 55%) and the number of inconclusive identifications decreased (45% vs. 29%), but great differences in the success of species-level identifications were found. Species-distinctive mass peaks were identified only for A. hydrophila and A. bestiarum (5003 and 7360 m/z in 95.5% and 94.1% of their isolates, respectively). This work demonstrates the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for Aeromonas identification to the genus level, but there is no consistency for the accurate identification of some of the most prevalent species implicated in fish disease.

  • Open Access Spanish; Castilian
    Authors: 
    Villamor, B. (Begoña); Otero-Pinzas, R. (Rosendo); Antolínez, A. (Ana); Domínguez-Petit, R. (Rosario); Rodríguez-Fernández, L. (Lorena); Hernández, C. (Carmen);
    Publisher: Centro Oceanográfico de Santander
    Country: Spain

    Este manual tiene como objetivo describir los métodos para la determinación de la edad anual del lirio o bacaladilla (Micromesistius poutassou), centrándose en los criterios utilizados y estandarizados a nivel europeo para la interpretación de los anillos de crecimiento anual en los otolitos del lirio del Atlántico Nordeste. Este manual tiene como finalidad servir de referencia para los lectores de edad del lirio en los laboratorios del IEO y se basa en los últimos intercambios, talleres y publicaciones sobre la determinación de la edad del lirio (ICES 2005, 2013, 2017).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Reverte, Laia; Toldra, Anna; Andree, Karl B.; Fraga, Santiago; de Falco, Giada; Campas, Monica; Diogene, Jorge;
    Country: Spain

    Within the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus several species are well-known producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs). These compounds are potent marine toxins that accumulate through the food chain, leading to a foodborne disease known as ciguatera when contaminated fish is consumed. Given the threat that the presence of these toxins in seafood may pose to human health and fisheries, there is an evident necessity to assess the potential toxicity of Gambierdiscus sp. in a particular area. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the production of CTX and MTX of 10 strains of Gambierdiscus australes isolated from the Selvagem Grande Island (Madeira, Portugal) and El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The strains were first characterized by light microscopy and species were confirmed by molecular biology, being identified as G. australes. Following the species identification, CTX and MTX production of G. australes extracts was evaluated at the exponential growth phase using neuro-2a cell-based assays. Additionally, the production of MTX was also investigated in two of the G. australes strains collected at the stationary growth phase. Interestingly, 9 out of 10 strains were found to produce CTX-like compounds, ranging from 200 to 697 fg equiv. CTX1B cell(-1). None of the G. australes strains showed MTX-like activity at the exponential phase, but MTX production was observed in two strains at the stationary growth phase (227 and 275 pg equiv. MTX cell(-1)). Therefore, the presence of G. australes strains potentially producing CTX and MTX in these Macaronesian Islands was confirmed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Expósito N; Rovira J; Sierra J; Gimenez G; Domingo JL; Schuhmacher M;
    Country: Spain

    Microplastics (MPs) are accessible for organisms with active filter feeding strategies, as are many marine molluscs, which live attached or semi-buried in sediments. In the present study, MPs (from 0.02 to 5 mm) concentration, morphology, and composition were determined in consumed mollusc species of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). Microplastic concentrations, morphologic characteristics and composition were studied according to species, catchment zones and depuration condition. Finally, human intake of MPs through molluscs' consumption was determined. >2300 individuals were analysed, being 1460 MPs extracted and their size, and polymeric composition registered. Big oysters and mussels showed the highest MPs concentration by individual, with levels of 22.8 ± 14.4 and 18.6 ± 23.0 MPs/individual, respectively. Mean annual MPs (≥20 μm) consumption for adult population was estimated in 8103 MPs/year, with a 95th percentile of 19,418 MPs/year. It suggests that the consumption of molluscs is an important route of MPs exposure for the Catalan population.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pérez-Heras A., Mayneris-Perxachs J., Cofán M., Serra-Mir M., Castellote A., López-Sabater C., Fitó M., Salas-Salvadó J., Martínez-González M., Corella D., Estruch R., Ros E., Sala-Vila A.;
    Country: Spain

    The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored.We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial.After adjustment for confounders, including changes in fasting triglycerides, plasma SCD1 index increased in parallel with body weight (0.221 [95% confidence interval, 0.021 to 0.422], P = 0.031) and BMI (0.115 [0.027 to 0.202], P = 0.011). Additionally, dietary LCn-3PUFA (but not MUFA or plant-derived PUFA) were associated with decreased plasma SCD1 index (-0.544 [-1.044 to -0.043], P = 0.033, for each 1 g/d-increase in LCn-3PUFA). No associations were found for other food groups, but there was a trend for fatty fish intake (-0.083 [-0.177 to 0.012], P = 0.085, for each 10 g/d-increase).Our data add clinical evidence on the down-regulation of plasma SCD1 index by LCn-3PUFA in the context of realistic changes in fish consumption in the customary, non-supplemented diet.http://www.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Allen, John T.; Munoz, Cristian; Gardiner, Jim; Reeve, Krissy A.; Alou-Font, Eva; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos;
    Project: EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410)

    Glider vehicles are now perhaps some of the most prolific providers of real-time and near-real-time operational oceanographic data. However, the data from these vehicles can and should be considered to have a long-term legacy value capable of playing a critical role in understanding and separating inter-annual, inter-decadal, and longterm global change. To achieve this, we have to go further than simply assuming the manufacturer’s calibrations, and field correct glider data in a more traditional way, for example, by careful comparison to water bottle calibrated lowered CTD datasets and/or “gold” standard recent climatologies. In this manuscript, we bring into the 21st century a historical technique that has been used manually by oceanographers for many years/decades for field correction/inter-calibration, thermal lag correction, and adjustment for biological fouling. The technique has now been made semi-automatic for machine processing of oceanographic glider data, although its future and indeed its origins have far wider scope. The subject of this manuscript is drawn from the original Description of Work (DoW) for a key task in the recently completed JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories) EU-funded program, but goes on to consider future application and the suitability for integration with machine learning. Refereed 14.A Sea surface salinity Subsurface salinity TRL 8 Actual system completed and "mission qualified" through test and demonstration in an operational environment (ground or space) Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) Standard Operating Procedure 2019-12-03

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; +12 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COCOS (212196), EC | GEOCARBON (283080), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366)

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.