Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
826 Research products, page 1 of 83

  • European Marine Science
  • Other research products
  • 2013-2022
  • EU
  • KR
  • European Marine Science

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hassenrück, Christiane; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Ramette, Alban; Fabricius, Katharina Elisabeth;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    Bacterial biofilms provide cues for the settlement of marine invertebrates such as coral larvae, and are therefore important for the resilience and recovery of coral reefs. This study aimed to better understand how ocean acidification may affect the community composition and diversity of bacterial biofilms on surfaces under naturally reduced pH conditions. Settlement tiles were deployed at coral reefs in Papua New Guinea along pH gradients created by two CO2 seeps, and upper and lower tiles surfaces were sampled 5 and 13 months after deployment. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis were used to characterize more than 200 separate bacterial communities, complemented by amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene of 16 samples. The bacterial biofilm consisted predominantly of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Cytophaga, whereas putative settlement-inducing taxa only accounted for a small fraction of the community. Bacterial biofilm composition was heterogeneous with approximately 25% shared operational taxonomic units between samples. Among the observed environmental parameters, pH only had a weak effect on community composition (R² ~ 1%) and did not affect community richness and evenness. In contrast, there were strong differences between upper and lower surfaces (contrasting in light exposure and grazing intensity). There also appeared to be a strong interaction between bacterial biofilm composition and the macroscopic components of the tile community. Our results suggest that on mature settlement surfaces in situ, pH does not have a strong impact on the composition of bacterial biofilms. Other abiotic and biotic factors such as light exposure and interactions with other organisms may be more important in shaping bacterial biofilms than changes in seawater pH.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.;
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia–Alcyoniina and Anthomastus–Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    de Kluijver Anna; Soetaert Karline; Schulz Kai Georg; Riebesell Ulf; Bellerby Richard G J; Middelburg Jack J;
    Project: EC | MEECE (212085), EC | EPOCA (211384)

    The potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on carbon transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria was investigated during the 2005 PeECE III mesocosm study in Bergen, Norway. Sets of mesocosms, in which a phytoplankton bloom was induced by nutrient addition, were incubated under 1× (~350 μatm), 2× (~700 μatm), and 3× present day CO2 (~1050 μatm) initial seawater and sustained atmospheric CO2 levels for 3 weeks. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added to all mesocosms to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into phytoplankton and subsequently heterotrophic bacteria, and settling particles. Isotope ratios of polar-lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) were used to infer the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Phytoplankton PLFA were enriched within one day after label addition, whilst it took another 3 days before bacteria showed substantial enrichment. Group-specific primary production measurements revealed that coccolithophores showed higher primary production than green algae and diatoms. Elevated CO2 had a significant positive effect on post-bloom biomass of green algae, diatoms, and bacteria. A simple model based on measured isotope ratios of phytoplankton and bacteria revealed that CO2 had no significant effect on the carbon transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to bacteria during the bloom. There was no indication of CO2 effects on enhanced settling based on isotope mixing models during the phytoplankton bloom, but this could not be determined in the post-bloom phase. Our results suggest that CO2 effects are most pronounced in the post-bloom phase, under nutrient limitation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huse, Geir;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    Acoustic estimates of herring and blue whiting abundance were obtained during the surveys using the Simrad ER60 scientific echosounder. The allocation of NASC-values to herring, blue whiting and other acoustic targets were based on the composition of the trawl catches and the appearance of echo recordings. To estimate the abundance, the allocated NASC -values were averaged for ICES-squares (0.5° latitude by 1° longitude). For each statistical square, the unit area density of fish (rA) in number per square nautical mile (N*nm-2) was calculated using standard equations (Foote et al., 1987; Toresen et al., 1998). To estimate the total abundance of fish, the unit area abundance for each statistical square was multiplied by the number of square nautical miles in each statistical square and then summed for all the statistical squares within defined subareas and over the total area. Biomass estimation was calculated by multiplying abundance in numbers by the average weight of the fish in each statistical square then summing all squares within defined subareas and over the total area. The Norwegian BEAM soft-ware (Totland and Godø 2001) was used to make estimates of total biomass.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Milzer, G.; Giraudeau, J.; Faust, J.; Knies, J.; Eynaud, F.; Rühlemann, C.;
    Project: EC | CASE (238111)

    Instrumental records from the Norwegian Sea and the Trondheimsfjord show evidence that changes of bottom water temperature and salinity in the fjord are linked to the salinity and temperature variability of the North Atlantic Current (NAC). Changes in primary productivity and salinity in the surface and intermediate water masses in the Trondheimsfjord as well as the fjord sedimentary budget are mainly driven by changes in riverine input. In this study we use 59 surface sediment samples that are evenly distributed in the fjord to examine whether dinocyst assemblages and stable isotope ratios of benthic foraminifera reflect the present-day hydrology and can be used as palaeoceanographic proxies. In general, modern benthic δ18O and δ13C values decrease from the fjord entrance towards the fjord head with lowest values close to river inlets. This is essentially explained by gradients in the amounts of fresh water and terrigenous organic matter delivered from the hinterland. The distribution of benthic δ13C ratios across the fjord is controlled by the origin (terrigenous vs. marine) of organic matter, local topography-induced variability in organic matter flux at the water–sediment interface, and organic matter degradation. The dinocyst assemblages display the variations in hydrography with respect to the prevailing currents, the topography, and the freshwater and nutrient supply from rivers. The strength and depth of the pycnocline in the fjord strongly vary seasonally and thereby affect water mass characteristics as well as nutrient availability, temporally creating local conditions that explain the observed species distribution. Our results prove that dinocyst assemblages and benthic foraminiferal isotopes reliably mirror the complex fjord hydrology and can be used as proxies of Holocene climatic variability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Crise, Alessandro; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mariani, Patrizio; Petihakis, George; Robidart, Julie; Iudicone, Daniele; Bachmayer, Ralf; Malfatti, Francesca;
    Project: UKRI | Development and applicati... (NE/N006496/1), EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410), EC | AtlantOS (633211), EC | EMSO-Link (731036)

    In the field of ocean observing, the term of “observatory” is often used without a unique meaning. A clear and unified definition of observatory is needed in order to facilitate the communication in a multidisciplinary community, to capitalize on future technological innovations and to support the observatory design based on societal needs. In this paper, we present a general framework to define the next generation Marine OBservatory (MOB), its capabilities and functionalities in an operational context. The MOB consists of four interconnected components or “gears” (observation infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, support capacity, and knowledge generation engine) that are constantly and adaptively interacting with each other. Therefore, a MOB is a complex infrastructure focused on a specific geographic area with the primary scope to generate knowledge via data synthesis and thereby addressing scientific, societal, or economic challenges. Long-term sustainability is a key MOB feature that should be guaranteed through an appropriate governance. MOBs should be open to innovations and good practices to reduce operational costs and to allow their development in quality and quantity. A deeper biological understanding of the marine ecosystem should be reached with the proliferation of MOBs, thus contributing to effective conservation of ecosystems and management of human activities in the oceans. We provide an actionable model for the upgrade and development of sustained marine observatories producing knowledge to support science-based economic and societal decisions. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2018-09-07

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Grehan, A; Hynes, S; Callery, O; Norton, D; Gafeira, J; Burnett, K; Foley, N; Stirling, D; González-Irusta, J-M; Morato, T; +1 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    The Convention on Biological Diversity in 2004 set out 12 principles to underpin implementation of the ecosystem approach that can be broadly grouped into four categories: People - The care of nature is a shared responsibility for all of society; we most value all knowledge and perspectives; we most involve more of society in decisions. Scale and Dynamics - Work at the right geographic scale and timescale; look well ahead into the future; work with inevitable environmental change. Functions and services - Maintain the flow of ecosystem services; work within the capacity of natural systems; balance the demand for use and conservation of the environment. Management - Allow decisions to be led locally, as far as practicable; assess the effects of decisions on others; consider economic factors. Fifteen years later the integration of ecosystem services and natural capital into environmental assessment is still very much in its infancy. Despite their seemingly remote nature, deep sea benthic habitats generate ecosystem services which provide benefits to society. Examples of these ecosystem services include provisioning ecosystem services such as fisheries, regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and maintenance of biodiversity and cultural ecosystems such as existence value. This report examines the assessment, mapping and valuation of ecosystem services in the marine and specifically for deep sea benthic habitats in the ATLAS case studies. For the provisioning ecosystem service of fisheries, a comparison is made between qualitative and quantitative approaches in methods of measuring and mapping ecosystem services generated from benthic habitats. In addition, this report has collated maps assessing the risk of fisheries impact - the most widespread and impacting human activity in the North Atlantic – in areas where vulnerable marine ecosystems and fish habitat are likely to occur in each ATLAS case study. This work presented as an atlas will provide a foundation to underpin subsequent testing of blue growth scenarios in each of the case studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Capet, A.; Beckers, J.-M.; Grégoire, M.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    The Black Sea northwestern shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which the seasonal stratification of the water column isolates the bottom waters from the atmosphere. This prevents ventilation from counterbalancing the large consumption of oxygen due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments, and sets the stage for the development of seasonal hypoxia. A three-dimensional (3-D) coupled physical–biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS, first at seasonal and then at interannual scales (1981–2009), and to differentiate its driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication). Model skills are evaluated by a quantitative comparison of the model results to 14 123 in situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean and the Black Sea Commission databases, using different error metrics. This validation exercise shows that the model is able to represent the seasonal and interannual variability of the oxygen concentration and of the occurrence of hypoxia, as well as the spatial distribution of oxygen-depleted waters. During the period 1981–2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS – which receives large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniester and Dnieper rivers – and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian bay of Constanta. An index H which merges the aspects of the spatial and temporal extension of the hypoxic event is proposed to quantify, for each year, the intensity of hypoxia as an environmental stressor. In order to explain the interannual variability of H and to disentangle its drivers, we analyze the long time series of model results by means of a stepwise multiple linear regression. This statistical model gives a general relationship that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate-related variables. A total of 82% of the interannual variability of H is explained by the combination of four predictors: the annual riverine nitrate load (N), the sea surface temperature in the month preceding stratification (Ts), the amount of semi-labile organic matter accumulated in the sediments (C) and the sea surface temperature during late summer (Tf). Partial regression indicates that the climatic impact on hypoxia is almost as important as that of eutrophication. Accumulation of organic matter in the sediments introduces an important inertia in the recovery process after eutrophication, with a typical timescale of 9.3 yr. Seasonal fluctuations and the heterogeneous spatial distribution complicate the monitoring of bottom hypoxia, leading to contradictory conclusions when the interpretation is done from different sets of data. In particular, it appears that the recovery reported in the literature after 1995 was overestimated due to the use of observations concentrated in areas and months not typically affected by hypoxia. This stresses the urgent need for a dedicated monitoring effort in the Black Sea NWS focused on the areas and months concerned by recurrent hypoxic events.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Deckker, Patrick; Moros, Matthias; Blanz, Thomas; Schneider, Ralph R; Barrows, Timothy T; Perner, Kerstin;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    The data relate to a paper submitted to Quaternary Science Reviews. All the data support a study of the last 94 ka recorded in core MD03-2611 and an adjacent multicore MD03-MUC 3 taken on the fringe of one of the Murray Canyons offshore Kangaroo Island. Additional data pertain to core SS0206-GC15 taken offshore Victoria south of Warrnambool, but its record only spans the last 25ka. The records are at high resolution and cover a multitude of parameters. Radiocarbon dates for these cores are presented in the supplementary section of this paper.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Burgemeister, Sonja; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Schulz, Alexander;
    Publisher: CNR-DTA
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | SIOS-PP (261747)
Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
826 Research products, page 1 of 83
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hassenrück, Christiane; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Ramette, Alban; Fabricius, Katharina Elisabeth;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    Bacterial biofilms provide cues for the settlement of marine invertebrates such as coral larvae, and are therefore important for the resilience and recovery of coral reefs. This study aimed to better understand how ocean acidification may affect the community composition and diversity of bacterial biofilms on surfaces under naturally reduced pH conditions. Settlement tiles were deployed at coral reefs in Papua New Guinea along pH gradients created by two CO2 seeps, and upper and lower tiles surfaces were sampled 5 and 13 months after deployment. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis were used to characterize more than 200 separate bacterial communities, complemented by amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene of 16 samples. The bacterial biofilm consisted predominantly of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Cytophaga, whereas putative settlement-inducing taxa only accounted for a small fraction of the community. Bacterial biofilm composition was heterogeneous with approximately 25% shared operational taxonomic units between samples. Among the observed environmental parameters, pH only had a weak effect on community composition (R² ~ 1%) and did not affect community richness and evenness. In contrast, there were strong differences between upper and lower surfaces (contrasting in light exposure and grazing intensity). There also appeared to be a strong interaction between bacterial biofilm composition and the macroscopic components of the tile community. Our results suggest that on mature settlement surfaces in situ, pH does not have a strong impact on the composition of bacterial biofilms. Other abiotic and biotic factors such as light exposure and interactions with other organisms may be more important in shaping bacterial biofilms than changes in seawater pH.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.;
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia–Alcyoniina and Anthomastus–Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    de Kluijver Anna; Soetaert Karline; Schulz Kai Georg; Riebesell Ulf; Bellerby Richard G J; Middelburg Jack J;
    Project: EC | MEECE (212085), EC | EPOCA (211384)

    The potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on carbon transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria was investigated during the 2005 PeECE III mesocosm study in Bergen, Norway. Sets of mesocosms, in which a phytoplankton bloom was induced by nutrient addition, were incubated under 1× (~350 μatm), 2× (~700 μatm), and 3× present day CO2 (~1050 μatm) initial seawater and sustained atmospheric CO2 levels for 3 weeks. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added to all mesocosms to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into phytoplankton and subsequently heterotrophic bacteria, and settling particles. Isotope ratios of polar-lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) were used to infer the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Phytoplankton PLFA were enriched within one day after label addition, whilst it took another 3 days before bacteria showed substantial enrichment. Group-specific primary production measurements revealed that coccolithophores showed higher primary production than green algae and diatoms. Elevated CO2 had a significant positive effect on post-bloom biomass of green algae, diatoms, and bacteria. A simple model based on measured isotope ratios of phytoplankton and bacteria revealed that CO2 had no significant effect on the carbon transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to bacteria during the bloom. There was no indication of CO2 effects on enhanced settling based on isotope mixing models during the phytoplankton bloom, but this could not be determined in the post-bloom phase. Our results suggest that CO2 effects are most pronounced in the post-bloom phase, under nutrient limitation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huse, Geir;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    Acoustic estimates of herring and blue whiting abundance were obtained during the surveys using the Simrad ER60 scientific echosounder. The allocation of NASC-values to herring, blue whiting and other acoustic targets were based on the composition of the trawl catches and the appearance of echo recordings. To estimate the abundance, the allocated NASC -values were averaged for ICES-squares (0.5° latitude by 1° longitude). For each statistical square, the unit area density of fish (rA) in number per square nautical mile (N*nm-2) was calculated using standard equations (Foote et al., 1987; Toresen et al., 1998). To estimate the total abundance of fish, the unit area abundance for each statistical square was multiplied by the number of square nautical miles in each statistical square and then summed for all the statistical squares within defined subareas and over the total area. Biomass estimation was calculated by multiplying abundance in numbers by the average weight of the fish in each statistical square then summing all squares within defined subareas and over the total area. The Norwegian BEAM soft-ware (Totland and Godø 2001) was used to make estimates of total biomass.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Milzer, G.; Giraudeau, J.; Faust, J.; Knies, J.; Eynaud, F.; Rühlemann, C.;
    Project: EC | CASE (238111)

    Instrumental records from the Norwegian Sea and the Trondheimsfjord show evidence that changes of bottom water temperature and salinity in the fjord are linked to the salinity and temperature variability of the North Atlantic Current (NAC). Changes in primary productivity and salinity in the surface and intermediate water masses in the Trondheimsfjord as well as the fjord sedimentary budget are mainly driven by changes in riverine input. In this study we use 59 surface sediment samples that are evenly distributed in the fjord to examine whether dinocyst assemblages and stable isotope ratios of benthic foraminifera reflect the present-day hydrology and can be used as palaeoceanographic proxies. In general, modern benthic δ18O and δ13C values decrease from the fjord entrance towards the fjord head with lowest values close to river inlets. This is essentially explained by gradients in the amounts of fresh water and terrigenous organic matter delivered from the hinterland. The distribution of benthic δ13C ratios across the fjord is controlled by the origin (terrigenous vs. marine) of organic matter, local topography-induced variability in organic matter flux at the water–sediment interface, and organic matter degradation. The dinocyst assemblages display the variations in hydrography with respect to the prevailing currents, the topography, and the freshwater and nutrient supply from rivers. The strength and depth of the pycnocline in the fjord strongly vary seasonally and thereby affect water mass characteristics as well as nutrient availability, temporally creating local conditions that explain the observed species distribution. Our results prove that dinocyst assemblages and benthic foraminiferal isotopes reliably mirror the complex fjord hydrology and can be used as proxies of Holocene climatic variability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Crise, Alessandro; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mariani, Patrizio; Petihakis, George; Robidart, Julie; Iudicone, Daniele; Bachmayer, Ralf; Malfatti, Francesca;
    Project: UKRI | Development and applicati... (NE/N006496/1), EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410), EC | AtlantOS (633211), EC | EMSO-Link (731036)

    In the field of ocean observing, the term of “observatory” is often used without a unique meaning. A clear and unified definition of observatory is needed in order to facilitate the communication in a multidisciplinary community, to capitalize on future technological innovations and to support the observatory design based on societal needs. In this paper, we present a general framework to define the next generation Marine OBservatory (MOB), its capabilities and functionalities in an operational context. The MOB consists of four interconnected components or “gears” (observation infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, support capacity, and knowledge generation engine) that are constantly and adaptively interacting with each other. Therefore, a MOB is a complex infrastructure focused on a specific geographic area with the primary scope to generate knowledge via data synthesis and thereby addressing scientific, societal, or economic challenges. Long-term sustainability is a key MOB feature that should be guaranteed through an appropriate governance. MOBs should be open to innovations and good practices to reduce operational costs and to allow their development in quality and quantity. A deeper biological understanding of the marine ecosystem should be reached with the proliferation of MOBs, thus contributing to effective conservation of ecosystems and management of human activities in the oceans. We provide an actionable model for the upgrade and development of sustained marine observatories producing knowledge to support science-based economic and societal decisions. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2018-09-07

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Grehan, A; Hynes, S; Callery, O; Norton, D; Gafeira, J; Burnett, K; Foley, N; Stirling, D; González-Irusta, J-M; Morato, T; +1 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    The Convention on Biological Diversity in 2004 set out 12 principles to underpin implementation of the ecosystem approach that can be broadly grouped into four categories: People - The care of nature is a shared responsibility for all of society; we most value all knowledge and perspectives; we most involve more of society in decisions. Scale and Dynamics - Work at the right geographic scale and timescale; look well ahead into the future; work with inevitable environmental change. Functions and services - Maintain the flow of ecosystem services; work within the capacity of natural systems; balance the demand for use and conservation of the environment. Management - Allow decisions to be led locally, as far as practicable; assess the effects of decisions on others; consider economic factors. Fifteen years later the integration of ecosystem services and natural capital into environmental assessment is still very much in its infancy. Despite their seemingly remote nature, deep sea benthic habitats generate ecosystem services which provide benefits to society. Examples of these ecosystem services include provisioning ecosystem services such as fisheries, regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and maintenance of biodiversity and cultural ecosystems such as existence value. This report examines the assessment, mapping and valuation of ecosystem services in the marine and specifically for deep sea benthic habitats in the ATLAS case studies. For the provisioning ecosystem service of fisheries, a comparison is made between qualitative and quantitative approaches in methods of measuring and mapping ecosystem services generated from benthic habitats. In addition, this report has collated maps assessing the risk of fisheries impact - the most widespread and impacting human activity in the North Atlantic – in areas where vulnerable marine ecosystems and fish habitat are likely to occur in each ATLAS case study. This work presented as an atlas will provide a foundation to underpin subsequent testing of blue growth scenarios in each of the case studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Capet, A.; Beckers, J.-M.; Grégoire, M.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    The Black Sea northwestern shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which the seasonal stratification of the water column isolates the bottom waters from the atmosphere. This prevents ventilation from counterbalancing the large consumption of oxygen due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments, and sets the stage for the development of seasonal hypoxia. A three-dimensional (3-D) coupled physical–biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS, first at seasonal and then at interannual scales (1981–2009), and to differentiate its driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication). Model skills are evaluated by a quantitative comparison of the model results to 14 123 in situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean and the Black Sea Commission databases, using different error metrics. This validation exercise shows that the model is able to represent the seasonal and interannual variability of the oxygen concentration and of the occurrence of hypoxia, as well as the spatial distribution of oxygen-depleted waters. During the period 1981–2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS – which receives large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniester and Dnieper rivers – and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian bay of Constanta. An index H which merges the aspects of the spatial and temporal extension of the hypoxic event is proposed to quantify, for each year, the intensity of hypoxia as an environmental stressor. In order to explain the interannual variability of H and to disentangle its drivers, we analyze the long time series of model results by means of a stepwise multiple linear regression. This statistical model gives a general relationship that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate-related variables. A total of 82% of the interannual variability of H is explained by the combination of four predictors: the annual riverine nitrate load (N), the sea surface temperature in the month preceding stratification (Ts), the amount of semi-labile organic matter accumulated in the sediments (C) and the sea surface temperature during late summer (Tf). Partial regression indicates that the climatic impact on hypoxia is almost as important as that of eutrophication. Accumulation of organic matter in the sediments introduces an important inertia in the recovery process after eutrophication, with a typical timescale of 9.3 yr. Seasonal fluctuations and the heterogeneous spatial distribution complicate the monitoring of bottom hypoxia, leading to contradictory conclusions when the interpretation is done from different sets of data. In particular, it appears that the recovery reported in the literature after 1995 was overestimated due to the use of observations concentrated in areas and months not typically affected by hypoxia. This stresses the urgent need for a dedicated monitoring effort in the Black Sea NWS focused on the areas and months concerned by recurrent hypoxic events.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Deckker, Patrick; Moros, Matthias; Blanz, Thomas; Schneider, Ralph R; Barrows, Timothy T; Perner, Kerstin;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    The data relate to a paper submitted to Quaternary Science Reviews. All the data support a study of the last 94 ka recorded in core MD03-2611 and an adjacent multicore MD03-MUC 3 taken on the fringe of one of the Murray Canyons offshore Kangaroo Island. Additional data pertain to core SS0206-GC15 taken offshore Victoria south of Warrnambool, but its record only spans the last 25ka. The records are at high resolution and cover a multitude of parameters. Radiocarbon dates for these cores are presented in the supplementary section of this paper.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Burgemeister, Sonja; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Schulz, Alexander;
    Publisher: CNR-DTA
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | SIOS-PP (261747)