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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Frölicher, T. L.; Bopp, L.; +8 Authors

    Changes in marine net primary productivity (PP) and export of particulate organic carbon (EP) are projected over the 21st century with four global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All four models show a decrease in global mean PP and EP between 2 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in PP and EP. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in PP and EP as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where three models project an increase in PP while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observation-based estimates compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer net primary production from satellite observations.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: World Bank Group;

    Watershed management has come to be recognized as a critical issue in the Nile Basin. Upstream land use can cause degradation and soil erosion, resulting in lower agricultural yields locally and causing sedimentation downstream. The increased sediment load causes economic problems by reducing water quality, and irrigation and hydropower potential, as well as increasing flooding. This note shows how, through Basin-wide cooperation, the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) has led efforts to address these problems, developing successful projects to deliver real results to restore the Nile.

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    Authors: Operations Evaluation Department;

    This OED report finds that the Bank has made progress on the environment, and notes that its commitments were not accompanied by precise goals and performance monitoring. It advances explanations of why things have turned out this way. It offers recommendations which focus on how to restore the environment to its proper role in the Bank's holistic, long-term development agenda.

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    Authors: Lochte, Karin;
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    Authors: World Bank;

    This book is about development and measuring development progress. While precise definitions may vary, development is, at heart, a process of building wealth, the produced, natural, human, and institutional capital which is the source of income and wellbeing. A key finding is that it is intangible wealth, human and institutional capital, which dominates the wealth of all countries, rising as a share of the total as countries climb the development ladder. The book is divided into two parts. The first part provides the big picture of changes in wealth by income group and geographic region, with a focus on natural capital because it is especially important for low-income developing countries. The second part presents case studies that illustrate particular aspects of wealth accounting, including accounting for climate change, the role of intangible capital in growth and development, measuring human capital, and the use of wealth accounting to improve transparency and governance in resource-rich economies. The final chapter reports on the implementation of wealth accounting by countries. The appendixes provide the full wealth accounts for individual countries and for aggregations by income group and geographic region.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    The technical workshop on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects was held in Washington, D.C., on June 26, 2008. It was hosted by the Social Development Department (SDV) and Water Anchor (ETWWA) of the World Bank. The workshop aimed to provide a platform for a discussion of past and current practices, as well as how to construct development benefits mechanisms within the specific context of hydropower projects. It also provided a forum for sharing knowledge as to how development benefits mechanisms may be applied to Bank-financed projects. The workshop had five sessions and brought together more than 60 experts from different sectors in different regions of the World Bank. Sixteen speakers gave presentations. The workshop had discussions on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects and also covered issues pertaining to the broader range of benefit-sharing, including World Bank engagement in hydropower projects, legacy of hydropower, notion evolution, approaches and mechanisms, and good practices in benefit-sharing of hydropower projects. A range of mechanisms are available to enhance and share benefits. Benefit-sharing consists of a combination of monetary and non-monetary mechanisms adapted to specific project contexts. Monetary development benefits are linked largely to economic rent, fair distribution, full compensation, entitlements, national priorities, and optimization of opportunities, and include basically taxation, royalties, preferential rates, revenue sharing, development funds, and joint ownership. The non-monetary development benefits include, for example, allocation of fishing rights in reservoirs; priority hiring of local community members during construction; start-up support for local companies; capacity building; multipurpose infrastructure; rural electrification; and access to improved infrastructure.

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    Authors: Salman, Salman M. A.; Bradlow, Daniel;

    Water is a scarce and finite resource with no substitute, and upon which the very existence of life on earth depends. The challenges facing water resources are daunting. The Millennium Development Goals aim, inter alia, at reducing by half, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Although progress thus far is not encouraging, it is hoped that necessary actions will be taken to achieve this goal during the remaining period. Such actions include financial, institutional, and legal measures. Indeed, without the appropriate legal framework, the ability of the state to regulate, control, and allocate its water resources is hampered; its role in ensuring their efficient and proper use is hindered; and its right to protect those resources is challenged. This study of the regulatory frameworks for water resources management examines water legislation in sixteen jurisdictions, and highlights, in a comparative manner, the key elements needed for an effective regulatory framework. Chapter 1 traces the relevance and importance assigned to water legislation by the different international conferences and forums, including the Mar del Plata, Dublin, and Rio, and the guidance provided by those conferences for preparing such legislation. Chapter 2 surveys the regulatory frameworks for water resources management in sixteen jurisdictions, based on certain key elements. Those jurisdictions were selected based on the availability and accessibility of a water law, as well as on the need to represent different regions and legal systems of the world. Chapter 3 presents a comparative analysis of these regulatory frameworks based on the same elements. The analysis examines the main similarities and differences in the approaches adopted by the jurisdictions selected. Chapter 4 highlights essential elements that need to be addressed in any regulatory framework for water resources management, and identifies emerging trends in water legislation. Finally, Chapter 5 underscores the relevance and importance of the regulatory framework, and specifies conditions supporting its utility and efficacy.

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    Authors: World Bank Group;

    Gross domestic product (GDP) growth was a disappointing 3.5 percent in 2013. It remained largely unchanged compared to 2012, reflecting a decline in cereal production and stagnation in the industrial sector. Services continue to drive the economy. The economic outlook for 2014 was more positive, but poor rainfall and the Ebola outbreak have forced downward revisions in GDP growth projections, now expected to reach 4.5 percent. The plan Senegal emergent aims to break with this trend, with a welcome focus on higher economic growth. However, its ambitions may exceed available resources and will likely depend on accelerated reforms and a strong private sector response. This first economic update begins with an overview of the macroeconomic situation in Senegal, starting with a review of 2013 before examining the initial results of 2014. After a brief look at the challenges posed by unemployment and poverty, the report turns to an assessment of the growth strategy. It presents analysis of past performance since 1990 in order to understand better what needs to be done differently. The report concludes with a few recommendations.

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    Authors: Hilton, Jason Andrew;

    Primary production in a large fraction of the surface ocean communities is limited by the availability of nitrogen (N). Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria associated with diatoms of the genera Hemiaulus, Rhizosolenia, and Chaetoceros can dominate surface communities throughout the global oceans, and are an important source of N to these communities. Additionally, these unique associations are directly linked to a highly efficient carbon export system. In order to study the nature and evolution of these symbioses, the genomes of representatives of symbionts from the three common diatom associations were sequenced. The genomes revealed the evolutionary pressure a symbiont undergoes as a result of long-term associations with unicellular diatoms. The implications of the genome streamlining, specifically in the N metabolism pathways, extend to mechanisms for maintenance of the association as well as possible symbiont regulation mechanisms by the diatom. The genomes could additionally be implemented in an unbiased examination of diatom symbiont transcription through an extensive environmental RNA sequence data set. This revealed significant reduction in photosystem II gene expression and possible regulation on the cyclic electron transport of the most abundant diatom symbiont population. The environmental sequences also showed very low diversity amongst the diatom symbiont populations. Lastly, the examination of interruption elements in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria expanded the framework for which to study these genetic features. Although the majority of the element sequences proved to be highly dynamic, the recombinase sequences on each interruption element gave insights into the evolutionary paths of these unique genetic features. Additionally, the presence of elements in non-N2 fixation genes and in cyanobacteria not capable of cell differentiation implicate the interruption elements in processes beyond heterocyst formation. The genomic sequences of oceanic diatom symbionts have opened a myriad of approaches for which to study the globally significant diatom-diazotroph associations. These analyses have revealed much about the ecology and evolution of diatom symbionts, and carry implications into global oceanic nutrient cycling, as well as plant-microbe associations, in general.

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    Authors: Love, Connor;

    The creation, movement, and consumption of distinct biomolecules by marine organisms has far reaching implications regarding ecosystem material and energy flow and how we manage the marine environment. Lipids are ubiquitous, energy rich biomolecules that are essential for all life and are used for cell membrane structure, energy storage and serve as useful indicators for ecosystem and food web dynamics. In this dissertation, the flow of specific lipid biomolecules through multiple marine environments is measured, explored, and clarified to better understand biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs and ecosystem connectivity. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I measure, quantify, and close the loop of the open ocean microbial hydrocarbon cycle, with implications for priming effects of the ocean microbiome to oil spills. It is estimated that seeps, spills, and other oil pollution introduce ~ 1.3 million tons (1.3 Tg) of hydrocarbons into the ocean each year. Additionally, it is known that globally abundant marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus which account for ~25% of ocean net primary production also produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids. But little is known about the size, turnover and fate of these cyanobacterial hydrocarbons and the implications for the ocean’s microbiome response to future oil spills. From a research expedition in the North Atlantic, I report that cyanobacteria in an oligotrophic gyre mainly produce n-pentadecane which correlates tightly with fluorescence and Prochlorococcus abundance in oligotrophic waters. Using chemical and isotopic tracing I find that pentadecane production and diel dynamics mainly occurs in the lower euphotic zone at the deep chlorophyll maximum. I estimate the global flux of cyanobacteria-produced pentadecane exceeds total oil input in the ocean by 100 to 500-fold, with cyanobacteria producing ~ 130-650 million tons of pentadecane per year. Analysis of sinking particles at the base of the euphotic zone show that nearly all pentadecane (< 0.001 % remaining) is consumed within the euphotic zone, suggesting near complete consumption of these hydrocarbons by hydrocarbon degrading microbes. These findings characterize a wide-spread microbial hydrocarbon cycle that selectively primes the ocean’s microbiome with long-chain alkanes. In the second chapter of my dissertation, I conduct a large-scale feeding experiment on a symbiotic reef-building coral (Stylophora pistillata) in the Red Sea to clarify fatty acid and isotopic biomarker patterns of coral heterotrophy for use in the field. Coral heterotrophy is an often-overlooked facet of coral nutrition that provides essential nutrients that help corals resist and recover from thermally induced bleaching that is degrading reef ecosystems around the world due to rising global ocean temperatures. Yet, methods for measuring coral mixotrophy, the balance between organic matter contributions to the coral host from autotrophic photo endosymbionts and heterotrophy on particles and plankton have typically been too coarse to elucidate source contributions. Through my experiment I show that fatty acids and isotopic biomarkers reliably separate experimental and reef nutritional source groups (heterotrophic or autotrophic). I show that heterotrophic fatty acid biomarkers are reliably recorded into coral host and symbiont tissues, with a divergent metabolic pattern of autotrophic biomarkers as feeding increases due to positive feedback of heterotrophy on the in hospite photo symbiont population. Additionally, I show that nitrogen and essential fatty acids are preferentially recorded into coral tissue while most heterotrophic carbon is respired or exuded as mucous; this shows that the use of bulk carbon isotopes as a feeding proxy for the last ~ 40 years is largely underestimating the contribution of heterotrophy to the trophic ecology of reef building corals. Overall, this finding underscores a connectivity between oceanic phyto- and zooplankton and reef-building coral. In the third chapter of my dissertation, I explore the mixotrophic differences of divergent bleaching responses of Acropora hyacinthus colonies on the forereef of Mo’orea during the 2019 mass bleaching event. During this bleaching event, all colonies of A. hyacinthus on the deep forereef (14 m) bleached and recovered, while colonies on the shallow forereef (5 m) near the reef crest resisted bleaching entirely, despite the same temperature stress. Using fatty acid and isotopic biomarkers I show through several lines of evidence that bleaching resistant colonies near the reef crest were likely consuming more particulate organic matter than deep forereef colonies. This conclusion is supported by isotopic feeding proxies, less isotopic niche overlap of the host and symbiont of resistant colonies, and larger proportions of putative POM fatty acid biomarkers in the host of resistant colonies relative to recovered colonies. This interpretation is in line with observations that benthic communities on the reef crest are a net sink of oceanic POM and that increased reliance on heterotrophy is associated with bleaching resistance. These data show the vital importance of reef environment, coral heterotrophy, and planktonic subsidies in structuring bleaching response of corals in a warming ocean and ultimately show that the reef crest may serve as a potent zone for reseeding coral populations after marine heat waves.

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    Authors: Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Frölicher, T. L.; Bopp, L.; +8 Authors

    Changes in marine net primary productivity (PP) and export of particulate organic carbon (EP) are projected over the 21st century with four global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All four models show a decrease in global mean PP and EP between 2 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in PP and EP. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in PP and EP as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where three models project an increase in PP while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observation-based estimates compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer net primary production from satellite observations.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: World Bank Group;

    Watershed management has come to be recognized as a critical issue in the Nile Basin. Upstream land use can cause degradation and soil erosion, resulting in lower agricultural yields locally and causing sedimentation downstream. The increased sediment load causes economic problems by reducing water quality, and irrigation and hydropower potential, as well as increasing flooding. This note shows how, through Basin-wide cooperation, the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) has led efforts to address these problems, developing successful projects to deliver real results to restore the Nile.

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    Authors: Operations Evaluation Department;

    This OED report finds that the Bank has made progress on the environment, and notes that its commitments were not accompanied by precise goals and performance monitoring. It advances explanations of why things have turned out this way. It offers recommendations which focus on how to restore the environment to its proper role in the Bank's holistic, long-term development agenda.

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    Authors: Lochte, Karin;
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    Authors: World Bank;

    This book is about development and measuring development progress. While precise definitions may vary, development is, at heart, a process of building wealth, the produced, natural, human, and institutional capital which is the source of income and wellbeing. A key finding is that it is intangible wealth, human and institutional capital, which dominates the wealth of all countries, rising as a share of the total as countries climb the development ladder. The book is divided into two parts. The first part provides the big picture of changes in wealth by income group and geographic region, with a focus on natural capital because it is especially important for low-income developing countries. The second part presents case studies that illustrate particular aspects of wealth accounting, including accounting for climate change, the role of intangible capital in growth and development, measuring human capital, and the use of wealth accounting to improve transparency and governance in resource-rich economies. The final chapter reports on the implementation of wealth accounting by countries. The appendixes provide the full wealth accounts for individual countries and for aggregations by income group and geographic region.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    The technical workshop on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects was held in Washington, D.C., on June 26, 2008. It was hosted by the Social Development Department (SDV) and Water Anchor (ETWWA) of the World Bank. The workshop aimed to provide a platform for a discussion of past and current practices, as well as how to construct development benefits mechanisms within the specific context of hydropower projects. It also provided a forum for sharing knowledge as to how development benefits mechanisms may be applied to Bank-financed projects. The workshop had five sessions and brought together more than 60 experts from different sectors in different regions of the World Bank. Sixteen speakers gave presentations. The workshop had discussions on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects and also covered issues pertaining to the broader range of benefit-sharing, including World Bank engagement in hydropower projects, legacy of hydropower, notion evolution, approaches and mechanisms, and good practices in benefit-sharing of hydropower projects. A range of mechanisms are available to enhance and share benefits. Benefit-sharing consists of a combination of monetary and non-monetary mechanisms adapted to specific project contexts. Monetary development benefits are linked largely to economic rent, fair distribution, full compensation, entitlements, national priorities, and optimization of opportunities, and include basically taxation, royalties, preferential rates, revenue sharing, development funds, and joint ownership. The non-monetary development benefits include, for example, allocation of fishing rights in reservoirs; priority hiring of local community members during construction; start-up support for local companies; capacity building; multipurpose infrastructure; rural electrification; and access to improved infrastructure.

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    Authors: Salman, Salman M. A.; Bradlow, Daniel;

    Water is a scarce and finite resource with no substitute, and upon which the very existence of life on earth depends. The challenges facing water resources are daunting. The Millennium Development Goals aim, inter alia, at reducing by half, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Although progress thus far is not encouraging, it is hoped that necessary actions will be taken to achieve this goal during the remaining period. Such actions include financial, institutional, and legal measures. Indeed, without the appropriate legal framework, the ability of the state to regulate, control, and allocate its water resources is hampered; its role in ensuring their efficient and proper use is hindered; and its right to protect those resources is challenged. This study of the regulatory frameworks for water resources management examines water legislation in sixteen jurisdictions, and highlights, in a comparative manner, the key elements needed for an effective regulatory framework. Chapter 1 traces the relevance and importance assigned to water legislation by the different international conferences and forums, including the Mar del Plata, Dublin, and Rio, and the guidance provided by those conferences for preparing such legislation. Chapter 2 surveys the regulatory frameworks for water resources management in sixteen jurisdictions, based on certain key elements. Those jurisdictions were selected based on the availability and accessibility of a water law, as well as on the need to represent different regions and legal systems of the world. Chapter 3 presents a comparative analysis of these regulatory frameworks based on the same elements. The analysis examines the main similarities and differences in the approaches adopted by the jurisdictions selected. Chapter 4 highlights essential elements that need to be addressed in any regulatory framework for water resources management, and identifies emerging trends in water legislation. Finally, Chapter 5 underscores the relevance and importance of the regulatory framework, and specifies conditions supporting its utility and efficacy.

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