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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The objective of the Functional Review of the Environment, Water and Forestry sector (FR-EWF) is to help the Government of Romania (GoR) develop an action plan for implementation over the short- and medium-term to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the sector administration, and provide input to the Government National Reform Program (NRP 2011- 2013) and beyond, especially in relation to those functions that support Romania's implementation of key EU directives, help speed up convergence with the environmental Acquis, remove constraints to EU structural funds absorption, and manage the country's natural assets sustainably. The report is presented in two volumes, with the first volume providing an integrated view of the sector as currently configured around environmental management, water, and forestry, and the second volume dedicated to a detailed review of the forestry sector. Volume 1 is organized as follows: Part I provides an overall introduction, objectives and context of the review; Part II summarizes the key challenges facing the sector, focusing on the three main sub-sectors, environmental management, water, and forestry; Part III reviews the strategic framework of the sector, pointing out areas where improvements will be needed; Part IV reviews the configuration of the sector, its organization and performance; Part V assesses the salient cross-cutting issues; and Part VI presents the key recommendations. Volume 2, dedicated to the forestry sub-sector, is organized along the four assessment areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hassenrück, Christiane; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Ramette, Alban; Fabricius, Katharina Elisabeth;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    Bacterial biofilms provide cues for the settlement of marine invertebrates such as coral larvae, and are therefore important for the resilience and recovery of coral reefs. This study aimed to better understand how ocean acidification may affect the community composition and diversity of bacterial biofilms on surfaces under naturally reduced pH conditions. Settlement tiles were deployed at coral reefs in Papua New Guinea along pH gradients created by two CO2 seeps, and upper and lower tiles surfaces were sampled 5 and 13 months after deployment. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis were used to characterize more than 200 separate bacterial communities, complemented by amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene of 16 samples. The bacterial biofilm consisted predominantly of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Cytophaga, whereas putative settlement-inducing taxa only accounted for a small fraction of the community. Bacterial biofilm composition was heterogeneous with approximately 25% shared operational taxonomic units between samples. Among the observed environmental parameters, pH only had a weak effect on community composition (R² ~ 1%) and did not affect community richness and evenness. In contrast, there were strong differences between upper and lower surfaces (contrasting in light exposure and grazing intensity). There also appeared to be a strong interaction between bacterial biofilm composition and the macroscopic components of the tile community. Our results suggest that on mature settlement surfaces in situ, pH does not have a strong impact on the composition of bacterial biofilms. Other abiotic and biotic factors such as light exposure and interactions with other organisms may be more important in shaping bacterial biofilms than changes in seawater pH.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.;
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia–Alcyoniina and Anthomastus–Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  • Authors: 
    Kisakürek B; Eisenhauer Anton; Böhm Florian; Hathorne Ed C; Erez Jonathan;
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    de Kluijver Anna; Soetaert Karline; Schulz Kai Georg; Riebesell Ulf; Bellerby Richard G J; Middelburg Jack J;
    Project: EC | MEECE (212085), EC | EPOCA (211384)

    The potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on carbon transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria was investigated during the 2005 PeECE III mesocosm study in Bergen, Norway. Sets of mesocosms, in which a phytoplankton bloom was induced by nutrient addition, were incubated under 1× (~350 μatm), 2× (~700 μatm), and 3× present day CO2 (~1050 μatm) initial seawater and sustained atmospheric CO2 levels for 3 weeks. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added to all mesocosms to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into phytoplankton and subsequently heterotrophic bacteria, and settling particles. Isotope ratios of polar-lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) were used to infer the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Phytoplankton PLFA were enriched within one day after label addition, whilst it took another 3 days before bacteria showed substantial enrichment. Group-specific primary production measurements revealed that coccolithophores showed higher primary production than green algae and diatoms. Elevated CO2 had a significant positive effect on post-bloom biomass of green algae, diatoms, and bacteria. A simple model based on measured isotope ratios of phytoplankton and bacteria revealed that CO2 had no significant effect on the carbon transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to bacteria during the bloom. There was no indication of CO2 effects on enhanced settling based on isotope mixing models during the phytoplankton bloom, but this could not be determined in the post-bloom phase. Our results suggest that CO2 effects are most pronounced in the post-bloom phase, under nutrient limitation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mayer, Kathryn J;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of the Earth’s climate system. In order to develop better predictive models and understand how the climate will respond to future changes in atmospheric composition, we must determine the sources and nature of aerosols which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thus influencing the properties of clouds. Oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface and represent a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is formed by the action of breaking waves, whereas secondary marine aerosols (SMA) are formed from the oxidation products of gases emitted from the oceans. Biological activity in seawater (i.e. the life, death, and interactions of marine phytoplankton, bacteria, and viruses) can significantly affect the chemical composition of SSA through processing of dissolved organic matter and SMA through the emission of volatile gases. This dissertation investigates the cloud-relevant properties of SSA and SMA generated using ocean-atmosphere simulators in the laboratory, with a specific emphasis on the influence of biological activity in seawater on the properties of these aerosols. For the first time, SMA was produced from the oxidation of the headspace gases of a phytoplankton bloom grown in natural seawater, enabling measurements of its chemical composition and CCN activity. Overall, these studies show that the formation and properties of SMA are much more sensitive to biological activity in seawater than SSA. In addition, the chemical composition of SMA is highly dependent on the extent of photochemical oxidation, with a distinct shift from organic-rich to sulfate-rich composition in response to increased atmospheric aging. This change in SMA composition leads to a significant change in its hygroscopicity. These results suggest that the properties of SMA evolve temporally in the atmosphere, which has implications for CCN concentrations and cloud properties over the oceans.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huse, Geir;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    Acoustic estimates of herring and blue whiting abundance were obtained during the surveys using the Simrad ER60 scientific echosounder. The allocation of NASC-values to herring, blue whiting and other acoustic targets were based on the composition of the trawl catches and the appearance of echo recordings. To estimate the abundance, the allocated NASC -values were averaged for ICES-squares (0.5° latitude by 1° longitude). For each statistical square, the unit area density of fish (rA) in number per square nautical mile (N*nm-2) was calculated using standard equations (Foote et al., 1987; Toresen et al., 1998). To estimate the total abundance of fish, the unit area abundance for each statistical square was multiplied by the number of square nautical miles in each statistical square and then summed for all the statistical squares within defined subareas and over the total area. Biomass estimation was calculated by multiplying abundance in numbers by the average weight of the fish in each statistical square then summing all squares within defined subareas and over the total area. The Norwegian BEAM soft-ware (Totland and Godø 2001) was used to make estimates of total biomass.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This report shows that after a decade of moderate growth but little or no long term change in rural poverty in Pakistan, agricultural output, rural incomes, rural poverty and social welfare indicators all showed marked improvements between 2001-02 and 2004-05. However, longer term trends suggest there is little reason for complacency. The agricultural GDP per capita growth rate (1999- 2000 to 2004-05) was only 0.3 percent per year; rural poverty rates in 2004-05 are still at levels that approximate those of the 1990s; and social welfare indicators in Pakistan remain significantly below those of other countries in south Asia. Moreover, problems related to timing and availability of water for irrigation, inadequate rural infrastructure, a skewed distribution of assets, and low levels of health and education continue to slow the progress of economic growth and poverty reduction. Nonetheless, Pakistan has made important strides in the last several years to promote rural growth and poverty reduction. The study concludes that a comprehensive rural growth and poverty reduction strategy is needed, predicated on four main pillars: 1) Promoting efficient and sustainable agricultural growth to raise incomes of small farmers and to generate growth linkages in the rural non-farm economy; 2) Creating an enabling environment for the rural non-farm sector to enhance employment and incomes, and improving rural public-service delivery in infrastructure, health, education and population to serve as a foundation for growth and to increase household welfare; 3) Improving the effectiveness and governance of rural institutions through the decentralization and strengthening of local demand for enhanced accountability as well as through more proactive use of public-private partnerships; 4) Empowering the poor and protecting the most vulnerable through social mobilization, safety nets and facilitating access to productive assets for income generating activities.

  • Authors: 
    Hoppe Clara Jule Marie; Langer Gerald; Rost Björn;
    Project: EC | MEDSEA (265103)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Watkins, Ryan; West Meiers, Maurya; Visser, Yusra Laila;
    Publisher: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This book will benefit people and teams involved in planning and decision making. On the basis of their pragmatic value in guiding decisions, needs assessments are used in various professions and settings from emergency rooms to corporate boardrooms to guide decision making. Nonetheless, although needs assessments have many different applications, in this book on needs assessments as they are applied in organizations to accomplish results, as opposed to their use in personal decisions or medical triage. This book, in turn, is guide to assessing needs and then making essential decisions about what to do next. This book filled with practical strategies, tools, and guides covers both large-scale, formal needs assessments and less-formal assessments that guide daily decisions. Included in the book is a blend of rigorous methods and realistic tools that can help make informed and reasoned decisions. Together, these methods and tools offer a comprehensive, yet realistic, approach to identifying needs and selecting among alternative ways as go forward. Sections one and two offer quick, yet full, answers to many frequently asked questions regarding how to make justifiable decisions. Next, section three examines a variety of tools and techniques that can be used for both collecting information and making decisions. Appendix A then offers a number of checklists and guides for managing the systematic assessment processes that lead to quality decisions. Finally, the reference list at the end of the book is a valuable resource to research, tools, and discussions of needs assessment.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,922 Research products, page 1 of 193
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The objective of the Functional Review of the Environment, Water and Forestry sector (FR-EWF) is to help the Government of Romania (GoR) develop an action plan for implementation over the short- and medium-term to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the sector administration, and provide input to the Government National Reform Program (NRP 2011- 2013) and beyond, especially in relation to those functions that support Romania's implementation of key EU directives, help speed up convergence with the environmental Acquis, remove constraints to EU structural funds absorption, and manage the country's natural assets sustainably. The report is presented in two volumes, with the first volume providing an integrated view of the sector as currently configured around environmental management, water, and forestry, and the second volume dedicated to a detailed review of the forestry sector. Volume 1 is organized as follows: Part I provides an overall introduction, objectives and context of the review; Part II summarizes the key challenges facing the sector, focusing on the three main sub-sectors, environmental management, water, and forestry; Part III reviews the strategic framework of the sector, pointing out areas where improvements will be needed; Part IV reviews the configuration of the sector, its organization and performance; Part V assesses the salient cross-cutting issues; and Part VI presents the key recommendations. Volume 2, dedicated to the forestry sub-sector, is organized along the four assessment areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hassenrück, Christiane; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Ramette, Alban; Fabricius, Katharina Elisabeth;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    Bacterial biofilms provide cues for the settlement of marine invertebrates such as coral larvae, and are therefore important for the resilience and recovery of coral reefs. This study aimed to better understand how ocean acidification may affect the community composition and diversity of bacterial biofilms on surfaces under naturally reduced pH conditions. Settlement tiles were deployed at coral reefs in Papua New Guinea along pH gradients created by two CO2 seeps, and upper and lower tiles surfaces were sampled 5 and 13 months after deployment. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis were used to characterize more than 200 separate bacterial communities, complemented by amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene of 16 samples. The bacterial biofilm consisted predominantly of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Cytophaga, whereas putative settlement-inducing taxa only accounted for a small fraction of the community. Bacterial biofilm composition was heterogeneous with approximately 25% shared operational taxonomic units between samples. Among the observed environmental parameters, pH only had a weak effect on community composition (R² ~ 1%) and did not affect community richness and evenness. In contrast, there were strong differences between upper and lower surfaces (contrasting in light exposure and grazing intensity). There also appeared to be a strong interaction between bacterial biofilm composition and the macroscopic components of the tile community. Our results suggest that on mature settlement surfaces in situ, pH does not have a strong impact on the composition of bacterial biofilms. Other abiotic and biotic factors such as light exposure and interactions with other organisms may be more important in shaping bacterial biofilms than changes in seawater pH.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.;
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia–Alcyoniina and Anthomastus–Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia–Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  • Authors: 
    Kisakürek B; Eisenhauer Anton; Böhm Florian; Hathorne Ed C; Erez Jonathan;
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    de Kluijver Anna; Soetaert Karline; Schulz Kai Georg; Riebesell Ulf; Bellerby Richard G J; Middelburg Jack J;
    Project: EC | MEECE (212085), EC | EPOCA (211384)

    The potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on carbon transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria was investigated during the 2005 PeECE III mesocosm study in Bergen, Norway. Sets of mesocosms, in which a phytoplankton bloom was induced by nutrient addition, were incubated under 1× (~350 μatm), 2× (~700 μatm), and 3× present day CO2 (~1050 μatm) initial seawater and sustained atmospheric CO2 levels for 3 weeks. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added to all mesocosms to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into phytoplankton and subsequently heterotrophic bacteria, and settling particles. Isotope ratios of polar-lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) were used to infer the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Phytoplankton PLFA were enriched within one day after label addition, whilst it took another 3 days before bacteria showed substantial enrichment. Group-specific primary production measurements revealed that coccolithophores showed higher primary production than green algae and diatoms. Elevated CO2 had a significant positive effect on post-bloom biomass of green algae, diatoms, and bacteria. A simple model based on measured isotope ratios of phytoplankton and bacteria revealed that CO2 had no significant effect on the carbon transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to bacteria during the bloom. There was no indication of CO2 effects on enhanced settling based on isotope mixing models during the phytoplankton bloom, but this could not be determined in the post-bloom phase. Our results suggest that CO2 effects are most pronounced in the post-bloom phase, under nutrient limitation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mayer, Kathryn J;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of the Earth’s climate system. In order to develop better predictive models and understand how the climate will respond to future changes in atmospheric composition, we must determine the sources and nature of aerosols which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thus influencing the properties of clouds. Oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface and represent a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is formed by the action of breaking waves, whereas secondary marine aerosols (SMA) are formed from the oxidation products of gases emitted from the oceans. Biological activity in seawater (i.e. the life, death, and interactions of marine phytoplankton, bacteria, and viruses) can significantly affect the chemical composition of SSA through processing of dissolved organic matter and SMA through the emission of volatile gases. This dissertation investigates the cloud-relevant properties of SSA and SMA generated using ocean-atmosphere simulators in the laboratory, with a specific emphasis on the influence of biological activity in seawater on the properties of these aerosols. For the first time, SMA was produced from the oxidation of the headspace gases of a phytoplankton bloom grown in natural seawater, enabling measurements of its chemical composition and CCN activity. Overall, these studies show that the formation and properties of SMA are much more sensitive to biological activity in seawater than SSA. In addition, the chemical composition of SMA is highly dependent on the extent of photochemical oxidation, with a distinct shift from organic-rich to sulfate-rich composition in response to increased atmospheric aging. This change in SMA composition leads to a significant change in its hygroscopicity. These results suggest that the properties of SMA evolve temporally in the atmosphere, which has implications for CCN concentrations and cloud properties over the oceans.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huse, Geir;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    Acoustic estimates of herring and blue whiting abundance were obtained during the surveys using the Simrad ER60 scientific echosounder. The allocation of NASC-values to herring, blue whiting and other acoustic targets were based on the composition of the trawl catches and the appearance of echo recordings. To estimate the abundance, the allocated NASC -values were averaged for ICES-squares (0.5° latitude by 1° longitude). For each statistical square, the unit area density of fish (rA) in number per square nautical mile (N*nm-2) was calculated using standard equations (Foote et al., 1987; Toresen et al., 1998). To estimate the total abundance of fish, the unit area abundance for each statistical square was multiplied by the number of square nautical miles in each statistical square and then summed for all the statistical squares within defined subareas and over the total area. Biomass estimation was calculated by multiplying abundance in numbers by the average weight of the fish in each statistical square then summing all squares within defined subareas and over the total area. The Norwegian BEAM soft-ware (Totland and Godø 2001) was used to make estimates of total biomass.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This report shows that after a decade of moderate growth but little or no long term change in rural poverty in Pakistan, agricultural output, rural incomes, rural poverty and social welfare indicators all showed marked improvements between 2001-02 and 2004-05. However, longer term trends suggest there is little reason for complacency. The agricultural GDP per capita growth rate (1999- 2000 to 2004-05) was only 0.3 percent per year; rural poverty rates in 2004-05 are still at levels that approximate those of the 1990s; and social welfare indicators in Pakistan remain significantly below those of other countries in south Asia. Moreover, problems related to timing and availability of water for irrigation, inadequate rural infrastructure, a skewed distribution of assets, and low levels of health and education continue to slow the progress of economic growth and poverty reduction. Nonetheless, Pakistan has made important strides in the last several years to promote rural growth and poverty reduction. The study concludes that a comprehensive rural growth and poverty reduction strategy is needed, predicated on four main pillars: 1) Promoting efficient and sustainable agricultural growth to raise incomes of small farmers and to generate growth linkages in the rural non-farm economy; 2) Creating an enabling environment for the rural non-farm sector to enhance employment and incomes, and improving rural public-service delivery in infrastructure, health, education and population to serve as a foundation for growth and to increase household welfare; 3) Improving the effectiveness and governance of rural institutions through the decentralization and strengthening of local demand for enhanced accountability as well as through more proactive use of public-private partnerships; 4) Empowering the poor and protecting the most vulnerable through social mobilization, safety nets and facilitating access to productive assets for income generating activities.

  • Authors: 
    Hoppe Clara Jule Marie; Langer Gerald; Rost Björn;
    Project: EC | MEDSEA (265103)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Watkins, Ryan; West Meiers, Maurya; Visser, Yusra Laila;
    Publisher: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This book will benefit people and teams involved in planning and decision making. On the basis of their pragmatic value in guiding decisions, needs assessments are used in various professions and settings from emergency rooms to corporate boardrooms to guide decision making. Nonetheless, although needs assessments have many different applications, in this book on needs assessments as they are applied in organizations to accomplish results, as opposed to their use in personal decisions or medical triage. This book, in turn, is guide to assessing needs and then making essential decisions about what to do next. This book filled with practical strategies, tools, and guides covers both large-scale, formal needs assessments and less-formal assessments that guide daily decisions. Included in the book is a blend of rigorous methods and realistic tools that can help make informed and reasoned decisions. Together, these methods and tools offer a comprehensive, yet realistic, approach to identifying needs and selecting among alternative ways as go forward. Sections one and two offer quick, yet full, answers to many frequently asked questions regarding how to make justifiable decisions. Next, section three examines a variety of tools and techniques that can be used for both collecting information and making decisions. Appendix A then offers a number of checklists and guides for managing the systematic assessment processes that lead to quality decisions. Finally, the reference list at the end of the book is a valuable resource to research, tools, and discussions of needs assessment.