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830 Research products, page 1 of 83

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This issue, which serves as the annual review on the environment, looks at the Bank's work from July 2002 through June 2003, dedicated this year to Water and the Environment, on the occasion of the Fifth World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa. Following the overview, which reviews progress in the implementation of the Environment strategy, the report presents viewpoints on ways to move forward in delivering water as committed in South Africa, but also reflecting on the need for a more integrated approach to water resources management. Various other articles feature the Bank's new water resources strategy, and environmental flows, that is, from linking catchments to coasts in water resources management, to protected areas as tools for water conservation, and management. Regional articles describe progress in implementing the environment strategy, and supporting client's efforts in promoting appropriate environmental policies, and programs. Highlights from the International Finance Corporation (IFC) scan efforts to promote private sector investment in water supply and sanitation, and environmental improvements, while efforts by the World Bank Institute (WBI) inform on training and learning activities that sponsor policy, and knowledge-sharing as it relates to the environment.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hargreaves, G. W.;
    Publisher: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom

    The overflow of cold dense water from the Denmark Strait is one of the key elements of the north Atlantic thermohaline circulation and has important consequences for global climate change. It is important to measure the transport of this water and to understand its variability on seasonal and at longer time scales. The European funded project "Variability of Exchanges in Northern Seas" (VEINS MAS3CT960070) is an attempt to measure variations in the Arctic circulation using modern oceanographic instrumentation. Two combined Inverted Echo Sounder and Bottom Pressure Recorders were successfully recovered and re-deployed in the Denmark Strait to measure the thickness of this cold dense water and thus determine transport.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This basic Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) documents and analyzes information on the volume and structure of Liberia's past public expenditure on the agriculture sector and draws conclusions that can provide an orientation for future policies in view of the effectiveness of spending. The AgPER's focus is on the sectors of agriculture, including crops, fisheries, and forestry, in line with the New Partnership for African Development's (NEPAD) definition of the sectors of focus. This is in accordance with the Maputo Declaration and its target that governments devote ten percent of public expenditure for agricultural development with an aim towards realizing food security and poverty reduction.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Strand, Jon;
    Country: United States

    When a groundwater basin is exploited by a large number of farmers, acting independently, each farmer has little incentive to practice conservation that would primarily benefit other farmers. This can lead to excessive groundwater extraction. When farmers pay less than the full cost of electricity used for groundwater pumping, this problem can be worsened; while the problem can be somewhat relieved by rationing the electricity supply. The research in this paper constructs an analytical framework for describing the characteristics of economically efficient groundwater management plans, identifying how individual water use decisions by farmers collectively depart from efficient resource use, and examining how policies related to both water and electricity can improve on the efficiency of the status quo. It is shown that an optimal scheme for pricing electricity used for pumping groundwater includes two main elements: 1) the full (marginal) economic cost of electricity must be covered; and 2) there must be an extra charge, reflected in the electricity price, corresponding to the externality cost of groundwater pumping. The analysis includes a methodology for calculating the latter externality cost, based on just a few parameters, and a discussion of how electricity pricing could be modified to improve efficiency in both power and water use.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ramsden, Christopher;
    Publisher: University of Plymouth
    Country: United Kingdom

    Over the last decade the development and use of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) has increased at a great rate. As a result there is an ever increasing risk of exposing humans and wildlife to these potentially harmful materials. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are two of the most widely used NMs at present. Their potentially harmful effects on organisms and physicochemical properties have been investigated in a growing number of scientific studies. However understanding the level of risk they may pose is far from satisfactory. The present body of work has addressed various aspects of this field. In order to better quantify the fate of TiO2 NPs in the environment the methodology of measuring Ti from TiO2 NPs was improved using ICP-OES and single particle ICP-MS was demonstrated to provide the first steps towards characterising the nature of TiO2 NPs in liquid-phase media. The potential harm of TiO2 NPs and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to zebrafish was investigated in two separate studies. Little evidence of physiological toxicity was found and the only nano-scale effect of note was an increase in total glutathione of zebrafish exposed to TiO2 NPs. More subtle effects in reproductive studies were further investigated using the three-spined stickleback in a longer term investigation. Similarly to the zebrafish there was little evidence of any physiological disturbances and the well documented reproductive behaviour of the stickleback was not significantly altered as a result of TiO2 NP exposure. This body of work has added to the understanding of the potential toxic effects caused by exposure to both TiO2 NPs and SWCNTs. Improved methods for the detection and characterisation of TiO2 NPs have been demonstrated and the most sensitive tools for ecotoxicological assessments of NP toxicity have been elucidated. NERC and the States of Jersey

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xie, Jian;
    Publisher: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This report reviews China's water scarcity situation, assesses the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommends key areas for strengthening and reform. It is a synthesis of the main findings and recommendations from analytical work and case studies prepared under the World Bank Analytical and Advisory Assistance (AAA) program entitled 'Addressing China's Water Scarcity: from Analysis to Action.' These studies focus on several strategically important thematic areas for China where additional research was needed, as identified by the research team and advisory group based on a review of pressing issues. These areas are governance, water rights, pricing, ecological compensation, pollution control, and emergency response. The approach has been to evaluate Chinese and international experience to identify policy and institutional factors that have proven effective in promoting the adoption of water conservation and pollution reduction technologies. The research was based on literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative policy analyses, household surveys, field trips, and case studies to develop feasible recommendations for a plan of action based on realities on the ground.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This publication serves as a starting point for young readers who want to learn more about the World Bank. A general, accessible introduction to the World Bank, this guide provides an overview of the Bank's history, organization, mission, and purpose. It is a good reference tool for young people interested in understanding what the Bank does and how it operates. The guide features graphics and sidebar Q & As on a wide range on topics such as HIV/AIDS, education, and conflict prevention. It addresses such questions as: Why was the Bank founded? Where does it get its money? What are Millennium Development Goals? And what's the difference between the Bank and the International Monetary Fund?

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The technical workshop on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects was held in Washington, D.C., on June 26, 2008. It was hosted by the Social Development Department (SDV) and Water Anchor (ETWWA) of the World Bank. The workshop aimed to provide a platform for a discussion of past and current practices, as well as how to construct development benefits mechanisms within the specific context of hydropower projects. It also provided a forum for sharing knowledge as to how development benefits mechanisms may be applied to Bank-financed projects. The workshop had five sessions and brought together more than 60 experts from different sectors in different regions of the World Bank. Sixteen speakers gave presentations. The workshop had discussions on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects and also covered issues pertaining to the broader range of benefit-sharing, including World Bank engagement in hydropower projects, legacy of hydropower, notion evolution, approaches and mechanisms, and good practices in benefit-sharing of hydropower projects. A range of mechanisms are available to enhance and share benefits. Benefit-sharing consists of a combination of monetary and non-monetary mechanisms adapted to specific project contexts. Monetary development benefits are linked largely to economic rent, fair distribution, full compensation, entitlements, national priorities, and optimization of opportunities, and include basically taxation, royalties, preferential rates, revenue sharing, development funds, and joint ownership. The non-monetary development benefits include, for example, allocation of fishing rights in reservoirs; priority hiring of local community members during construction; start-up support for local companies; capacity building; multipurpose infrastructure; rural electrification; and access to improved infrastructure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mayer, Kathryn J;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of the Earth’s climate system. In order to develop better predictive models and understand how the climate will respond to future changes in atmospheric composition, we must determine the sources and nature of aerosols which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thus influencing the properties of clouds. Oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface and represent a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is formed by the action of breaking waves, whereas secondary marine aerosols (SMA) are formed from the oxidation products of gases emitted from the oceans. Biological activity in seawater (i.e. the life, death, and interactions of marine phytoplankton, bacteria, and viruses) can significantly affect the chemical composition of SSA through processing of dissolved organic matter and SMA through the emission of volatile gases. This dissertation investigates the cloud-relevant properties of SSA and SMA generated using ocean-atmosphere simulators in the laboratory, with a specific emphasis on the influence of biological activity in seawater on the properties of these aerosols. For the first time, SMA was produced from the oxidation of the headspace gases of a phytoplankton bloom grown in natural seawater, enabling measurements of its chemical composition and CCN activity. Overall, these studies show that the formation and properties of SMA are much more sensitive to biological activity in seawater than SSA. In addition, the chemical composition of SMA is highly dependent on the extent of photochemical oxidation, with a distinct shift from organic-rich to sulfate-rich composition in response to increased atmospheric aging. This change in SMA composition leads to a significant change in its hygroscopicity. These results suggest that the properties of SMA evolve temporally in the atmosphere, which has implications for CCN concentrations and cloud properties over the oceans.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
830 Research products, page 1 of 83
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This issue, which serves as the annual review on the environment, looks at the Bank's work from July 2002 through June 2003, dedicated this year to Water and the Environment, on the occasion of the Fifth World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa. Following the overview, which reviews progress in the implementation of the Environment strategy, the report presents viewpoints on ways to move forward in delivering water as committed in South Africa, but also reflecting on the need for a more integrated approach to water resources management. Various other articles feature the Bank's new water resources strategy, and environmental flows, that is, from linking catchments to coasts in water resources management, to protected areas as tools for water conservation, and management. Regional articles describe progress in implementing the environment strategy, and supporting client's efforts in promoting appropriate environmental policies, and programs. Highlights from the International Finance Corporation (IFC) scan efforts to promote private sector investment in water supply and sanitation, and environmental improvements, while efforts by the World Bank Institute (WBI) inform on training and learning activities that sponsor policy, and knowledge-sharing as it relates to the environment.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hargreaves, G. W.;
    Publisher: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom

    The overflow of cold dense water from the Denmark Strait is one of the key elements of the north Atlantic thermohaline circulation and has important consequences for global climate change. It is important to measure the transport of this water and to understand its variability on seasonal and at longer time scales. The European funded project "Variability of Exchanges in Northern Seas" (VEINS MAS3CT960070) is an attempt to measure variations in the Arctic circulation using modern oceanographic instrumentation. Two combined Inverted Echo Sounder and Bottom Pressure Recorders were successfully recovered and re-deployed in the Denmark Strait to measure the thickness of this cold dense water and thus determine transport.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This basic Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) documents and analyzes information on the volume and structure of Liberia's past public expenditure on the agriculture sector and draws conclusions that can provide an orientation for future policies in view of the effectiveness of spending. The AgPER's focus is on the sectors of agriculture, including crops, fisheries, and forestry, in line with the New Partnership for African Development's (NEPAD) definition of the sectors of focus. This is in accordance with the Maputo Declaration and its target that governments devote ten percent of public expenditure for agricultural development with an aim towards realizing food security and poverty reduction.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Strand, Jon;
    Country: United States

    When a groundwater basin is exploited by a large number of farmers, acting independently, each farmer has little incentive to practice conservation that would primarily benefit other farmers. This can lead to excessive groundwater extraction. When farmers pay less than the full cost of electricity used for groundwater pumping, this problem can be worsened; while the problem can be somewhat relieved by rationing the electricity supply. The research in this paper constructs an analytical framework for describing the characteristics of economically efficient groundwater management plans, identifying how individual water use decisions by farmers collectively depart from efficient resource use, and examining how policies related to both water and electricity can improve on the efficiency of the status quo. It is shown that an optimal scheme for pricing electricity used for pumping groundwater includes two main elements: 1) the full (marginal) economic cost of electricity must be covered; and 2) there must be an extra charge, reflected in the electricity price, corresponding to the externality cost of groundwater pumping. The analysis includes a methodology for calculating the latter externality cost, based on just a few parameters, and a discussion of how electricity pricing could be modified to improve efficiency in both power and water use.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ramsden, Christopher;
    Publisher: University of Plymouth
    Country: United Kingdom

    Over the last decade the development and use of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) has increased at a great rate. As a result there is an ever increasing risk of exposing humans and wildlife to these potentially harmful materials. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are two of the most widely used NMs at present. Their potentially harmful effects on organisms and physicochemical properties have been investigated in a growing number of scientific studies. However understanding the level of risk they may pose is far from satisfactory. The present body of work has addressed various aspects of this field. In order to better quantify the fate of TiO2 NPs in the environment the methodology of measuring Ti from TiO2 NPs was improved using ICP-OES and single particle ICP-MS was demonstrated to provide the first steps towards characterising the nature of TiO2 NPs in liquid-phase media. The potential harm of TiO2 NPs and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to zebrafish was investigated in two separate studies. Little evidence of physiological toxicity was found and the only nano-scale effect of note was an increase in total glutathione of zebrafish exposed to TiO2 NPs. More subtle effects in reproductive studies were further investigated using the three-spined stickleback in a longer term investigation. Similarly to the zebrafish there was little evidence of any physiological disturbances and the well documented reproductive behaviour of the stickleback was not significantly altered as a result of TiO2 NP exposure. This body of work has added to the understanding of the potential toxic effects caused by exposure to both TiO2 NPs and SWCNTs. Improved methods for the detection and characterisation of TiO2 NPs have been demonstrated and the most sensitive tools for ecotoxicological assessments of NP toxicity have been elucidated. NERC and the States of Jersey

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xie, Jian;
    Publisher: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This report reviews China's water scarcity situation, assesses the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommends key areas for strengthening and reform. It is a synthesis of the main findings and recommendations from analytical work and case studies prepared under the World Bank Analytical and Advisory Assistance (AAA) program entitled 'Addressing China's Water Scarcity: from Analysis to Action.' These studies focus on several strategically important thematic areas for China where additional research was needed, as identified by the research team and advisory group based on a review of pressing issues. These areas are governance, water rights, pricing, ecological compensation, pollution control, and emergency response. The approach has been to evaluate Chinese and international experience to identify policy and institutional factors that have proven effective in promoting the adoption of water conservation and pollution reduction technologies. The research was based on literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative policy analyses, household surveys, field trips, and case studies to develop feasible recommendations for a plan of action based on realities on the ground.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This publication serves as a starting point for young readers who want to learn more about the World Bank. A general, accessible introduction to the World Bank, this guide provides an overview of the Bank's history, organization, mission, and purpose. It is a good reference tool for young people interested in understanding what the Bank does and how it operates. The guide features graphics and sidebar Q & As on a wide range on topics such as HIV/AIDS, education, and conflict prevention. It addresses such questions as: Why was the Bank founded? Where does it get its money? What are Millennium Development Goals? And what's the difference between the Bank and the International Monetary Fund?

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The technical workshop on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects was held in Washington, D.C., on June 26, 2008. It was hosted by the Social Development Department (SDV) and Water Anchor (ETWWA) of the World Bank. The workshop aimed to provide a platform for a discussion of past and current practices, as well as how to construct development benefits mechanisms within the specific context of hydropower projects. It also provided a forum for sharing knowledge as to how development benefits mechanisms may be applied to Bank-financed projects. The workshop had five sessions and brought together more than 60 experts from different sectors in different regions of the World Bank. Sixteen speakers gave presentations. The workshop had discussions on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects and also covered issues pertaining to the broader range of benefit-sharing, including World Bank engagement in hydropower projects, legacy of hydropower, notion evolution, approaches and mechanisms, and good practices in benefit-sharing of hydropower projects. A range of mechanisms are available to enhance and share benefits. Benefit-sharing consists of a combination of monetary and non-monetary mechanisms adapted to specific project contexts. Monetary development benefits are linked largely to economic rent, fair distribution, full compensation, entitlements, national priorities, and optimization of opportunities, and include basically taxation, royalties, preferential rates, revenue sharing, development funds, and joint ownership. The non-monetary development benefits include, for example, allocation of fishing rights in reservoirs; priority hiring of local community members during construction; start-up support for local companies; capacity building; multipurpose infrastructure; rural electrification; and access to improved infrastructure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mayer, Kathryn J;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of the Earth’s climate system. In order to develop better predictive models and understand how the climate will respond to future changes in atmospheric composition, we must determine the sources and nature of aerosols which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thus influencing the properties of clouds. Oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface and represent a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is formed by the action of breaking waves, whereas secondary marine aerosols (SMA) are formed from the oxidation products of gases emitted from the oceans. Biological activity in seawater (i.e. the life, death, and interactions of marine phytoplankton, bacteria, and viruses) can significantly affect the chemical composition of SSA through processing of dissolved organic matter and SMA through the emission of volatile gases. This dissertation investigates the cloud-relevant properties of SSA and SMA generated using ocean-atmosphere simulators in the laboratory, with a specific emphasis on the influence of biological activity in seawater on the properties of these aerosols. For the first time, SMA was produced from the oxidation of the headspace gases of a phytoplankton bloom grown in natural seawater, enabling measurements of its chemical composition and CCN activity. Overall, these studies show that the formation and properties of SMA are much more sensitive to biological activity in seawater than SSA. In addition, the chemical composition of SMA is highly dependent on the extent of photochemical oxidation, with a distinct shift from organic-rich to sulfate-rich composition in response to increased atmospheric aging. This change in SMA composition leads to a significant change in its hygroscopicity. These results suggest that the properties of SMA evolve temporally in the atmosphere, which has implications for CCN concentrations and cloud properties over the oceans.