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1,337 Research products, page 1 of 134

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michaud, Alexander B; Laufer, Katja; Findlay, Alyssa; Pellerin, Andre; Antler, Gilad; Turchyn, Alexandra V; Røy, Hans; Wehrmann, Laura Mariana; Jørgensen, Bo Barker;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | MICROENERGY (294200)

    In the summer of 2016, we collected sediment cores from three fjords (Smeerenburgfjorden, stn. J; Kongsfjorden, stn. P; and Van Keulenfjorden, stn. AC). These cores were both long cores (~80 cm) and short (~25 cm) where we conducted porewater geochemistry and incubation experiments to quantify the rate of sulfide oxidation and changes to the reactive Fe(III)-oxide pool over time. All coordinates of sampling sites are in the data file. The methods are included in the manuscript doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.12.033.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stumpp, Meike; Wren, J; Melzner, Frank; Thorndyke, Mike; Dupont, Sam;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions are acidifying the world's oceans. A growing body of evidence is showing that ocean acidification impacts growth and developmental rates of marine invertebrates. Here we test the impact of elevated seawater pCO2 (129 Pa, 1271 µatm) on early development, larval metabolic and feeding rates in a marine model organism, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Growth and development was assessed by measuring total body length, body rod length, postoral rod length and posterolateral rod length. Comparing these parameters between treatments suggests that larvae suffer from a developmental delay (by ca. 8%) rather than from the previously postulated reductions in size at comparable developmental stages. Further, we found maximum increases in respiration rates of + 100 % under elevated pCO2, while body length corrected feeding rates did not differ between larvae from both treatments. Calculating scope for growth illustrates that larvae raised under high pCO2 spent an average of 39 to 45% of the available energy for somatic growth, while control larvae could allocate between 78 and 80% of the available energy into growth processes. Our results highlight the importance of defining a standard frame of reference when comparing a given parameter between treatments, as observed differences can be easily due to comparison of different larval ages with their specific set of biological characters.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Broullón, Daniel; Pérez, Fiz F.; Velo, A.; Suzuki, Toru;
    Project: EC | AtlantOS (633211)

    1 poster presented at the 10th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Interlaken, Switzerland, 21 August 2017 - 25 August 2017.-- Daniel Broullón ... et al. For decades, the anthropogenic modification of the carbon cycle has been widely studied. More recently, ocean acidification studies have increased significantly. Establishing robust climatologies of seawater CO2 chemistry variables and building models are a key point for a better understanding of the associated processes. The availability and quality of data is crucial for the evaluation of climate models and, consequently, to improve their predictions. Version 2 of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAPv2) is an internally consistent data product composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the entire global ocean. Among others, it contains seawater CO2 chemistry variables such as total alkalinity (AT), total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2) and pH. This sparse dataset has been subjected to extensive quality control and different interpolation techniques have been applied to extend the data coverage on a homogeneous grid (Lauvset et al. 2016). We propose a novel neural network approach to generate annual and monthly climatologies of AT, TCO2, pH and both calcite and aragonite saturation state from the GLODAPv2 dataset for the preindustrial and current periods. These climatologies are fitted to the World Ocean Atlas 2013 version 2 (WOA13v2) grid. WOA13v2 is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of different oceanographic variables (but not CO2 system) at standard depth levels for annual, seasonal, and monthly compositing periods for the World Ocean. A feed-forward neural network was chosen in a multi-layer architecture, which allows linear and nonlinear variability to be assimilated by the network. The proposed configuration is able to approximate most functions arbitrarily well (Hagan et al., 2014). We have tested different neural network designs and sizes to obtain the minimum error. For that, the number of neurons in the network was varied and different training techniques were used. The input variables introduced in the network, which must be related to AT and TCO2 variability, were latitude, longitude, depth, potential temperature, phosphate, nitrate, silicate, year, month and atmospheric pCO2. First, the network was trained with GLODAPv2 data and then AT and TCO2 fields were derived from WOA13v2 data. Saturation states and pH were computed from these two variables. The monthly pre-industrial climatology will be generated by eliminating anthropogenic carbon from the ocean. This research was supported by Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte (FPU grant FPU15/06026), Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad through the A. RIOS (CTM2016-76146-C3-1-R) project co-funded by the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional 2014-2020 (FEDER) and EU Horizon2020 through the AtlantOS project (grant agreement 633211). Peer reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gao, K.;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384)
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Burgemeister, Sonja; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Schulz, Alexander;
    Publisher: CNR-DTA
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | SIOS-PP (261747)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Robertson, Elizabeth K.; Conley, Daniel J.; Hermans, Martijn; Humborg, Christoph; Kubeneck, L. Joëlle; Lenstra, Wytze K.; Slomp, Caroline P.;
    Project: EC | PHOXY (278364)

    Coastal systems can act as filters for anthropogenic nutrient input into marine environments. Here, we assess the processes controlling the removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) for four sites in the eutrophic Stockholm Archipelago. Bottom water concentrations of oxygen and P are inversely correlated. This is attributed to the seasonal release of P from iron (Fe)-oxide-bound P in surface sediments and from degrading organic matter. The abundant presence of sulfide in the pore water, linked to prior deposition of organic-rich sediments in a low oxygen setting (legacy of hypoxia), hinders the formation of a larger Fe-oxide-bound P pool in winter. Burial rates of P are high at all sites (0.03–0.3 mol m−2 y−1), a combined result of high sedimentation rates (0.5 to 3.5 cm yr−1) and high sedimentary P at depth (~ 30 to 50 μmol g−1). Organic P accounts for 30–50 % of reactive P burial. Apart from one site in the inner archipelago, where a vivianite-type Fe(II)-P mineral is likely present at depth, there is little evidence for sink-switching of organic or Fe-oxide bound P to authigenic P minerals. Denitrification is the major benthic nitrate-reducing process at all sites (0.09 to 1.7 mmol m−2 d−1), efficiently removing N as N2. Denitrification rates decrease seaward following the decline in bottom water nitrate and sediment organic carbon. Our results explain how sediments in this eutrophic coastal system can efficiently remove land-derived P and N, regardless of whether the bottom waters are oxic or frequently hypoxic. Hence, management strategies involving artificial reoxygenation are not expected to be successful in removing P and N, emphasizing a need for a focus on nutrient load reductions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christensen, A.; Butenschön, M.; Gürkan, Z.; Allen, I. J.;
    Project: EC | MEECE (212085)

    First results of a coupled modelling and forecasting system for fisheries on habitat-bound stocks are being presented. The system consists currently of three mathematically, fundamentally different model subsystems coupled offline: POLCOMS providing the physical environment implemented in the domain of the north-west European shelf, the SPAM model which describes sandeel stocks in the North Sea, and the third component, the SLAM model, which connects POLCOMS and SPAM by computing the physical–biological interaction. Our major experience by the coupling model subsystems is that well-defined and generic model interfaces are very important for a successful and extendable coupled model framework. The integrated approach, simulating ecosystem dynamics from physics to fish, allows for analysis of the pathways in the ecosystem to investigate the propagation of changes in the ocean climate and to quantify the impacts on the higher trophic level, in this case the sandeel population, demonstrated here on the basis of hindcast data. The coupled forecasting system is tested for some typical scientific questions appearing in spatial fish stock management and marine spatial planning, including determination of local and basin-scale maximum sustainable yield, stock connectivity and source/sink structure. Our presented simulations indicate that sandeel stocks are currently exploited close to the maximum sustainable yield, even though periodic overfishing seems to have occurred, but large uncertainty is associated with determining stock maximum sustainable yield due to stock inherent dynamics and climatic variability. Our statistical ensemble simulations indicates that the predictive horizon set by climate interannual variability is 2–6 yr, after which only an asymptotic probability distribution of stock properties, like biomass, are predictable.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Strauss, Jens; Grosse, Guido; Overduin, Pier Paul; Kholodov, Alexander L; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PETA-CARB (338335)

    We here present lithological, geochronological, and geochemical data from a core drilled in 1999 in the Ivashkina Lagoon on the Bykovsky Peninsula, Northeast Siberia.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Oliver S. Ashford; Andrew J. Kenny; Christopher R. S. Barrio Froján; Michael B. Bonsall; Tammy Horton; Angelika Brandt; Graham J. Bird; Sarah Gerken; Alex D. Rogers;
    Publisher: Figshare
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    An understanding of the balance of interspecific competition and the physical environment in structuring organismal communities is crucial because those communities structured primarily by their physical environment typically exhibit greater sensitivity to environmental change than those structured predominantly by competitive interactions. Here, using detailed phylogenetic and functional information, we investigate this question in macrofaunal assemblages from Northwest Atlantic Ocean continental slopes, a high seas region projected to experience substantial environmental change through the current century. We demonstrate assemblages to be both phylogenetically and functionally under-dispersed and thus conclude that the physical environment, not competition, may dominate in structuring deep-ocean communities. Further, we find temperature and bottom trawling intensity to be amongst the environmental factors significantly related to assemblage diversity. These results hint that deep-ocean communities are highly sensitive to their physical environment and vulnerable to environmental perturbation, including by direct disturbance through fishing, and indirectly through the changes brought about by climate change.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pérez-Mayol, Silvia; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Álvarez-Ellacuria, Itziar; Riera-Batle, Inmaculada; Grau, Amàlia; Pastor, Elena; Massutí, Enric;
    Project: EC | MINOUW (634495)

    Póster presentado en el 6th International Otolith Symposium (IOS 2018), celebrado en Keelung (Taiwan) del 15 al 20 abril de 2018. Aphia minuta and Crystallogobius linearis are small-sized neotenic and progenetic species, short lived (<1 year) and are target of a small-scale fishery on the W and central Mediterranean. The fishery operates from December to March in concomitance with their coastal migration and shoaling in winter. The biology of A. minuta was studied on the 90’s[1] whilst nothing is known for C. linearis. Depending of the year the relative abundance of both species in the catches may differ notably with a clear repercussion on the price because C. linearis is less appreciated than A. minuta. The causes of such fluctuations are unknown. No