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20 Research products, page 1 of 2

  • European Marine Science
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  • European Commission
  • HYPOX

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Capet, A.; Beckers, J.-M.; Grégoire, M.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    The Black Sea northwestern shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which the seasonal stratification of the water column isolates the bottom waters from the atmosphere. This prevents ventilation from counterbalancing the large consumption of oxygen due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments, and sets the stage for the development of seasonal hypoxia. A three-dimensional (3-D) coupled physical–biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS, first at seasonal and then at interannual scales (1981–2009), and to differentiate its driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication). Model skills are evaluated by a quantitative comparison of the model results to 14 123 in situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean and the Black Sea Commission databases, using different error metrics. This validation exercise shows that the model is able to represent the seasonal and interannual variability of the oxygen concentration and of the occurrence of hypoxia, as well as the spatial distribution of oxygen-depleted waters. During the period 1981–2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS – which receives large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniester and Dnieper rivers – and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian bay of Constanta. An index H which merges the aspects of the spatial and temporal extension of the hypoxic event is proposed to quantify, for each year, the intensity of hypoxia as an environmental stressor. In order to explain the interannual variability of H and to disentangle its drivers, we analyze the long time series of model results by means of a stepwise multiple linear regression. This statistical model gives a general relationship that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate-related variables. A total of 82% of the interannual variability of H is explained by the combination of four predictors: the annual riverine nitrate load (N), the sea surface temperature in the month preceding stratification (Ts), the amount of semi-labile organic matter accumulated in the sediments (C) and the sea surface temperature during late summer (Tf). Partial regression indicates that the climatic impact on hypoxia is almost as important as that of eutrophication. Accumulation of organic matter in the sediments introduces an important inertia in the recovery process after eutrophication, with a typical timescale of 9.3 yr. Seasonal fluctuations and the heterogeneous spatial distribution complicate the monitoring of bottom hypoxia, leading to contradictory conclusions when the interpretation is done from different sets of data. In particular, it appears that the recovery reported in the literature after 1995 was overestimated due to the use of observations concentrated in areas and months not typically affected by hypoxia. This stresses the urgent need for a dedicated monitoring effort in the Black Sea NWS focused on the areas and months concerned by recurrent hypoxic events.

  • Authors: 
    Jessen Gerdhard L; Lichtschlag Anna; Struck Ulrich; Boetius Antje;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)
  • Authors: 
    Jessen Gerdhard L; Lichtschlag Anna; Ramette Alban; Pantoja Silvio; Rossel Pamela E; Schubert Carsten J; Struck Ulrich; Boetius Antje;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)
  • Authors: 
    Naeher Sebastian; Smittenberg Rienk H; Gilli Adrian; Kirilova Emiliya P; Lotter André F; Schubert Carsten J;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Friedrich, J.; Janssen, F.; Aleynik, D.; Bange, H. W.; Boltacheva, N.; Çagatay, M. N.; Dale, A. W.; Etiope, G.; Erdem, Z.; Geraga, M.; +29 more
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    In this paper we provide an overview of new knowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomena in aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlocked water bodies", http://www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems, are discussed. Geologically driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of water-column oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved. Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales that cannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlaps with anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbially mediated redox cycling of elements. Observations and modeling studies of the sediments demonstrate the effect of seasonally changing oxygen conditions on benthic mineralization pathways and fluxes. Data quality and access are crucial in hypoxia research. Technical issues are therefore also addressed, including the availability of suitable sensor technology to resolve the gradual changes in bottom-water oxygen in marine systems that can be expected as a result of climate change. Using cabled observatories as examples, we show how the benefit of continuous oxygen monitoring can be maximized by adopting proper quality control. Finally, we discuss strategies for state-of-the-art data archiving and dissemination in compliance with global standards, and how ocean observations can contribute to global earth observation attempts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shapiro, G. I.; Aleynik, D. L.; Mee, L. D.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    There is growing understanding that recent deterioration of the Black Sea ecosystem was partly due to changes in the marine physical environment. This study uses high resolution 0.25° climatology to analyze sea surface temperature variability over the 20th century in two contrasting regions of the sea. Results show that the deep Black Sea was cooling during the first three quarters of the century and was warming in the last 15–20 years; on aggregate there was a statistically significant cooling trend. The SST variability over the Western shelf was more volatile and it does not show statistically significant trends. The cooling of the deep Black Sea is at variance with the general trend in the North Atlantic and may be related to the decrease of westerly winds over the Black Sea, and a greater influence of the Siberian anticyclone. The timing of the changeover from cooling to warming coincides with the regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meire, L.; Soetaert, K. E. R.; Meysman, F. J. R.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    Climate change and changing nutrient loadings are the two main aspects of global change that are linked to the increase in the prevalence of coastal hypoxia – the depletion of oxygen in the bottom waters of coastal areas. However, it remains uncertain how strongly these two drivers will each increase the risk of hypoxia over the next decades. Through model simulations we have investigated the relative influence of climate change and nutrient run-off on the bottom water oxygen dynamics in the Oyster Grounds, an area in the central North Sea experiencing summer stratification. Simulations were performed with a one-dimensional ecosystem model that couples hydrodynamics, pelagic biogeochemistry and sediment diagenesis. Climatological conditions for the North Sea over the next 100 yr were derived from a global-scale climate model. Our results indicate that changing climatological conditions will increase the risk of hypoxia. The bottom water oxygen concentration in late summer is predicted to decrease by 24 μM or 11.5% in the year 2100. More intense stratification is the dominant factor responsible for this decrease (58%), followed by the reduced solubility of oxygen at higher water temperature (27%), while the remaining part could be attributed to enhanced metabolic rates in warmer bottom waters (15%). Relative to these climate change effects, changes in nutrient runoff are also important and may even have a stronger impact on the bottom water oxygenation. Decreased nutrient loadings strongly decrease the probability of hypoxic events. This stresses the importance of continued eutrophication management in coastal areas, which could function as a mitigation tool to counteract the effects of rising temperatures.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Naeher, Sebastian; Smittenberg, Rienk H; Schaeffer, P; Adam, P; Schubert, Carsten J;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dale, A. W.; Bertics, V. J.; Treude, T.; Sommer, S.; Wallmann, K.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    This study presents benthic data from 12 samplings from February to December 2010 in a 28 m deep channel in the southwest Baltic Sea. In winter, the distribution of solutes in the porewater was strongly modulated by bioirrigation which efficiently flushed the upper 10 cm of sediment, leading to concentrations which varied little from bottom water values. Solute pumping by bioirrigation fell sharply in the summer as the bottom waters became severely hypoxic (2). At this point the giant sulfide-oxidizing bacteria Beggiatoa was visible on surface sediments. Despite an increase in O2 following mixing of the water column in November, macrofauna remained absent until the end of the sampling. Contrary to expectations, metabolites such as dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium and hydrogen sulfide did not accumulate in the upper 10 cm during the hypoxic period when bioirrigation was absent, but instead tended toward bottom water values. This was taken as evidence for episodic bubbling of methane gas out of the sediment acting as an abiogenic irrigation process. Porewater–seawater mixing by escaping bubbles provides a pathway for enhanced nutrient release to the bottom water and may exacerbate the feedback with hypoxia. Subsurface dissolved phosphate (TPO4) peaks in excess of 400 μM developed in autumn, resulting in a very large diffusive TPO4 flux to the water column of 0.7 ± 0.2 mmol m−2 d−1. The model was not able to simulate this TPO4 source as release of iron-bound P (Fe–P) or organic P. As an alternative hypothesis, the TPO4 peak was reproduced using new kinetic expressions that allow Beggiatoa to take up porewater TPO4 and accumulate an intracellular P pool during periods with oxic bottom waters. TPO4 is then released during hypoxia, as previous published results with sulfide-oxidizing bacteria indicate. The TPO4 added to the porewater over the year by organic P and Fe–P is recycled through Beggiatoa, meaning that no additional source of TPO4 is needed to explain the TPO4 peak. Further experimental studies are needed to strengthen this conclusion and rule out Fe–P and organic P as candidate sources of ephemeral TPO4 release. A measured C/P ratio of 4 in a short space of time and dramatically increasing the internal loading of TPO4 to the overlying water.

  • Authors: 
    Lichtschlag Anna; Donis Daphne; Janssen Felix; Jessen Gerdhard L; Holtappels Moritz; Wenzhöfer Frank; Mazulmyan Sonia; Sergeeva Nelly G; Waldmann Christoph; Boetius Antje;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)
Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
20 Research products, page 1 of 2
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Capet, A.; Beckers, J.-M.; Grégoire, M.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    The Black Sea northwestern shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which the seasonal stratification of the water column isolates the bottom waters from the atmosphere. This prevents ventilation from counterbalancing the large consumption of oxygen due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments, and sets the stage for the development of seasonal hypoxia. A three-dimensional (3-D) coupled physical–biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS, first at seasonal and then at interannual scales (1981–2009), and to differentiate its driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication). Model skills are evaluated by a quantitative comparison of the model results to 14 123 in situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean and the Black Sea Commission databases, using different error metrics. This validation exercise shows that the model is able to represent the seasonal and interannual variability of the oxygen concentration and of the occurrence of hypoxia, as well as the spatial distribution of oxygen-depleted waters. During the period 1981–2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS – which receives large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniester and Dnieper rivers – and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian bay of Constanta. An index H which merges the aspects of the spatial and temporal extension of the hypoxic event is proposed to quantify, for each year, the intensity of hypoxia as an environmental stressor. In order to explain the interannual variability of H and to disentangle its drivers, we analyze the long time series of model results by means of a stepwise multiple linear regression. This statistical model gives a general relationship that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate-related variables. A total of 82% of the interannual variability of H is explained by the combination of four predictors: the annual riverine nitrate load (N), the sea surface temperature in the month preceding stratification (Ts), the amount of semi-labile organic matter accumulated in the sediments (C) and the sea surface temperature during late summer (Tf). Partial regression indicates that the climatic impact on hypoxia is almost as important as that of eutrophication. Accumulation of organic matter in the sediments introduces an important inertia in the recovery process after eutrophication, with a typical timescale of 9.3 yr. Seasonal fluctuations and the heterogeneous spatial distribution complicate the monitoring of bottom hypoxia, leading to contradictory conclusions when the interpretation is done from different sets of data. In particular, it appears that the recovery reported in the literature after 1995 was overestimated due to the use of observations concentrated in areas and months not typically affected by hypoxia. This stresses the urgent need for a dedicated monitoring effort in the Black Sea NWS focused on the areas and months concerned by recurrent hypoxic events.

  • Authors: 
    Jessen Gerdhard L; Lichtschlag Anna; Struck Ulrich; Boetius Antje;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)
  • Authors: 
    Jessen Gerdhard L; Lichtschlag Anna; Ramette Alban; Pantoja Silvio; Rossel Pamela E; Schubert Carsten J; Struck Ulrich; Boetius Antje;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)
  • Authors: 
    Naeher Sebastian; Smittenberg Rienk H; Gilli Adrian; Kirilova Emiliya P; Lotter André F; Schubert Carsten J;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Friedrich, J.; Janssen, F.; Aleynik, D.; Bange, H. W.; Boltacheva, N.; Çagatay, M. N.; Dale, A. W.; Etiope, G.; Erdem, Z.; Geraga, M.; +29 more
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    In this paper we provide an overview of new knowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomena in aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlocked water bodies", http://www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems, are discussed. Geologically driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of water-column oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved. Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales that cannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlaps with anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbially mediated redox cycling of elements. Observations and modeling studies of the sediments demonstrate the effect of seasonally changing oxygen conditions on benthic mineralization pathways and fluxes. Data quality and access are crucial in hypoxia research. Technical issues are therefore also addressed, including the availability of suitable sensor technology to resolve the gradual changes in bottom-water oxygen in marine systems that can be expected as a result of climate change. Using cabled observatories as examples, we show how the benefit of continuous oxygen monitoring can be maximized by adopting proper quality control. Finally, we discuss strategies for state-of-the-art data archiving and dissemination in compliance with global standards, and how ocean observations can contribute to global earth observation attempts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shapiro, G. I.; Aleynik, D. L.; Mee, L. D.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    There is growing understanding that recent deterioration of the Black Sea ecosystem was partly due to changes in the marine physical environment. This study uses high resolution 0.25° climatology to analyze sea surface temperature variability over the 20th century in two contrasting regions of the sea. Results show that the deep Black Sea was cooling during the first three quarters of the century and was warming in the last 15–20 years; on aggregate there was a statistically significant cooling trend. The SST variability over the Western shelf was more volatile and it does not show statistically significant trends. The cooling of the deep Black Sea is at variance with the general trend in the North Atlantic and may be related to the decrease of westerly winds over the Black Sea, and a greater influence of the Siberian anticyclone. The timing of the changeover from cooling to warming coincides with the regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meire, L.; Soetaert, K. E. R.; Meysman, F. J. R.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    Climate change and changing nutrient loadings are the two main aspects of global change that are linked to the increase in the prevalence of coastal hypoxia – the depletion of oxygen in the bottom waters of coastal areas. However, it remains uncertain how strongly these two drivers will each increase the risk of hypoxia over the next decades. Through model simulations we have investigated the relative influence of climate change and nutrient run-off on the bottom water oxygen dynamics in the Oyster Grounds, an area in the central North Sea experiencing summer stratification. Simulations were performed with a one-dimensional ecosystem model that couples hydrodynamics, pelagic biogeochemistry and sediment diagenesis. Climatological conditions for the North Sea over the next 100 yr were derived from a global-scale climate model. Our results indicate that changing climatological conditions will increase the risk of hypoxia. The bottom water oxygen concentration in late summer is predicted to decrease by 24 μM or 11.5% in the year 2100. More intense stratification is the dominant factor responsible for this decrease (58%), followed by the reduced solubility of oxygen at higher water temperature (27%), while the remaining part could be attributed to enhanced metabolic rates in warmer bottom waters (15%). Relative to these climate change effects, changes in nutrient runoff are also important and may even have a stronger impact on the bottom water oxygenation. Decreased nutrient loadings strongly decrease the probability of hypoxic events. This stresses the importance of continued eutrophication management in coastal areas, which could function as a mitigation tool to counteract the effects of rising temperatures.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Naeher, Sebastian; Smittenberg, Rienk H; Schaeffer, P; Adam, P; Schubert, Carsten J;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dale, A. W.; Bertics, V. J.; Treude, T.; Sommer, S.; Wallmann, K.;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)

    This study presents benthic data from 12 samplings from February to December 2010 in a 28 m deep channel in the southwest Baltic Sea. In winter, the distribution of solutes in the porewater was strongly modulated by bioirrigation which efficiently flushed the upper 10 cm of sediment, leading to concentrations which varied little from bottom water values. Solute pumping by bioirrigation fell sharply in the summer as the bottom waters became severely hypoxic (2). At this point the giant sulfide-oxidizing bacteria Beggiatoa was visible on surface sediments. Despite an increase in O2 following mixing of the water column in November, macrofauna remained absent until the end of the sampling. Contrary to expectations, metabolites such as dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium and hydrogen sulfide did not accumulate in the upper 10 cm during the hypoxic period when bioirrigation was absent, but instead tended toward bottom water values. This was taken as evidence for episodic bubbling of methane gas out of the sediment acting as an abiogenic irrigation process. Porewater–seawater mixing by escaping bubbles provides a pathway for enhanced nutrient release to the bottom water and may exacerbate the feedback with hypoxia. Subsurface dissolved phosphate (TPO4) peaks in excess of 400 μM developed in autumn, resulting in a very large diffusive TPO4 flux to the water column of 0.7 ± 0.2 mmol m−2 d−1. The model was not able to simulate this TPO4 source as release of iron-bound P (Fe–P) or organic P. As an alternative hypothesis, the TPO4 peak was reproduced using new kinetic expressions that allow Beggiatoa to take up porewater TPO4 and accumulate an intracellular P pool during periods with oxic bottom waters. TPO4 is then released during hypoxia, as previous published results with sulfide-oxidizing bacteria indicate. The TPO4 added to the porewater over the year by organic P and Fe–P is recycled through Beggiatoa, meaning that no additional source of TPO4 is needed to explain the TPO4 peak. Further experimental studies are needed to strengthen this conclusion and rule out Fe–P and organic P as candidate sources of ephemeral TPO4 release. A measured C/P ratio of 4 in a short space of time and dramatically increasing the internal loading of TPO4 to the overlying water.

  • Authors: 
    Lichtschlag Anna; Donis Daphne; Janssen Felix; Jessen Gerdhard L; Holtappels Moritz; Wenzhöfer Frank; Mazulmyan Sonia; Sergeeva Nelly G; Waldmann Christoph; Boetius Antje;
    Project: EC | HYPOX (226213)