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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Léger-Daigle, Romy; Noisette, Fanny; Bélanger, Simon; Cusson, Mathieu; +1 Authors

    The dataset compiles pigment content, absorptance data, photosynthetic parameters and primary production data as proxies for summertime photoacclimation of the temperate intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina after a 25-day exposure to a natural light intensity gradient (6, 36, 74, 133, 355, 503 and 860 µmol photons/m²/s) under laboratory conditions at the Pointe-au-Père research station, East Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. The data bundle contains: 1) photosynthetic and total absorptance data at the end of the experiment, which respectively represent the fraction of incident visible light absorbed by the photosynthetic tissues corrected and not corrected for non-photosynthetic absorption; 2) pigment content at the end of the experiment, which includes chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoids contents; 3) photosynthetic parameters obtained by Rapid Light Curves (RLC) on days 5 and 25, including photosynthetic apparatus efficiency (alpha), capacity (ETRmax) and saturation (Ek); 4) whole shoot primary production at the end of the experiment, which was calculated from oxygen fluxes under light and dark conditions, and normalized by leaf surface.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: O'Neill, Alicia;

    This study is one of the first to examine non-targeted effects of radiation in fish cell lines, with the aim of identifying a reliable reporter system for evaluating radiation damage in fish. The ability of the fish cell lines to clone was determined as the clonogenic assay was a major end point used to measure survival. A direct survival curve was completed for all cell lines that were deemed clonogenic using a cobalt-60 γ-radiation source. Non-targeted effects of radiation were evaluated by conducting bystander experiments on all fish cell lines. Delayed Cell Death (DCD) experiments were completed on the fish cell line that showed evidence of a cell death associated bystander effect as these phenomena may be linked. Four of the eight cell lines were found to be clonogenic. The cell line, RTG-2, was found to be the most radiosensitive at lower doses. All of the clonogenic cell lines, with the exception ofRTG-2 cells, generally showed increased Plating Efficiency (P.E.) when Irradiated Cell Conditioned Media (ICCM) was tested on unirradiated autologous cells. ICCM from the clonogenic and non-clonogenic cells was also tested on the mammalian cell line. This resulted in increased cell survival, with the exception of the RTS-pBk+ (p Thesis Master of Science (MSc)

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MacSpherearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MacSphere
    2006
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Canada Research
    Other ORP type . 2006
    Data sources: Canada Research
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MacSpherearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MacSphere
      2006
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Canada Research
      Other ORP type . 2006
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Geerlings, Nicole M. J.; Zetsche, Eva-Maria; Hidalgo-Martinez, Silvia; Middelburg, Jack J.; +1 Authors

    Cable bacteria are multicellular, filamentous microorganisms that are capable of transporting electrons over centimeter-scale distances. Although recently discovered, these bacteria appear to be widely present in the seafloor, and when active they exert a strong imprint on the local geochemistry. In particular, their electrogenic metabolism induces unusually strong pH excursions in aquatic sediments, which induces considerable mineral dissolution, and subsequent mineral reprecipitation. However, at present, it is unknown whether and how cable bacteria play an active or direct role in the mineral reprecipitation process. To this end we present an explorative study of the formation of sedimentary minerals in and near filamentous cable bacteria using a combined approach of electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. Our observations reveal the formation of polyphosphate granules within the cells and two different types of biomineral formation directly associated with multicellular filaments of these cable bacteria: (i) the attachment and incorporation of clay particles in a coating surrounding the bacteria and (ii) encrustation of the cell envelope by iron minerals. These findings suggest a complex interaction between cable bacteria and the surrounding sediment matrix, and a substantial imprint of the electrogenic metabolism on mineral diagenesis and sedimentary biogeochemical cycling. In particular, the encrustation process leaves many open questions for further research. For example, we hypothesize that the complete encrustation of filaments might create a diffusion barrier and negatively impact the metabolism of the cable bacteria.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Link, Heike; Archambault, Philippe; Tamelander, Tobias; Renaud, Paul E; +1 Authors

    Seasonal dynamics in the activity of Arctic shelf benthos have been the subject of few local studies, and the pronounced among-site variability characterizing their results makes it difficult to upscale and generalize their conclusions. In a regional study encompassing five sites at 100-595 m water depth in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, we found that total pigment concentrations in surficial sediments, used as proxies of general food supply to the benthos, rose significantly after the transition from ice-covered conditions in spring (March-June 2008) to open-water conditions in summer (June-August 2008), whereas sediment Chl a concentrations, typical markers of fresh food input, did not. Macrobenthic biomass (including agglutinated foraminifera >500 µm) varied significantly among sites (1.2-6.4 g C/m**2 in spring, 1.1-12.6 g C/m**2 in summer), whereas a general spring-to-summer increase was not detected. Benthic carbon remineralisation also ranged significantly among sites (11.9-33.2 mg C/m**2/day in spring, 11.6-44.4 mg C/m**2/day in summer) and did in addition exhibit a general significant increase from spring-to-summer. Multiple regression analysis suggests that in both spring and summer, sediment Chl a concentration is the prime determinant of benthic carbon remineralisation, but other factors have a significant secondary influence, such as foraminiferan biomass (negative in both seasons), water depth (in spring) and infaunal biomass (in summer). Our findings indicate the importance of the combined and dynamic effects of food supply and benthic community patterns on the carbon remineralisation of the polar shelf benthos in seasonally ice-covered seas.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tonin, Joseph;

    Over the past few decades, terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been recognized as a fundamental driver of food web productivity in nutrient poor lakes. The mechanisms that underlie these effects remain poorly understood, particularly for higher trophic levels including zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. In a survey of eight lakes in northwestern Ontario, I determined consumer biomass and used stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to investigate relationships between DOC and pathways of energy flow, resource and habitat availability, and consumer biomass. Using Bayesian stable isotope mixing models, I found that hypolimnetic phytoplankton were an important resource for zooplankton in low-DOC lakes. With increased DOC concentrations, light attenuation increased and chlorophyll a concentrations below the thermocline were reduced relative to epilimnetic concentrations. At higher DOC concentrations, zooplankton acquired proportionately more energy from low quality terrestrial sources. Zooplankton biomass also declined with increasing utilization of terrestrial sources (allochthony), suggesting that terrestrial organic matter suppresses zooplankton productivity through simultaneous limitations on habitat and resource availability and quality. Based on biomass, the dominant fish species across my study lakes was White Sucker (Catostomus commersonnii). Bayesian mixing models indicated that allochthony by White Suckers increased with DOC and that greater allochthony was related to lower White Sucker biomass measured as catch-per-unit-effort (bCPUE). Both White Sucker bCPUE and chironomid biomass were positively related to mean light irradiance, with the highest biomasses of fish and chironomids occurring in lakes with a higher proportion of their volume in the photic zone. White Sucker bCPUE was strongly and positively correlated with chironomid biomass, suggesting that DOC-mediated resource limitation may influence fish productivity via reduced prey availability.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stortini, Christine;

    This thesis explores the application of a traditionally terrestrial-based ecological theory, the Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB), to a large marine ecosystem. Decades of testing of this theory have led to various extensions acknowledging that the slope of the Species-Area Relationship (SAR) reflects species traits related to dispersal capacity, and species’ competitive and predatory interactions. Until recently, it was largely believed that marine ecosystems were too large and interconnected for this body of theory to apply. My research indicates that this is not true. I tested the applicability of TIB and its derivatives to the structure and dynamics of fish and macroinvertebrate communities inhabiting ten highly productive offshore banks (ranging 500 to 10’500 km2) located on the Scotian Shelf, NW Atlantic Ocean. In Chapter 2, I found support for the TIB: there was a positive SAR for the fish species of the offshore banks. I also found support for predictions of the Trophic TIB concerning the role of predators in controlling the SAR of lower trophic levels: prey and mesopredator SAR slopes increased following the collapse of largebodied predatory groundfish populations due to overfishing. In Chapter 3, I tested for a positive SAR across the macroinvertebrate assemblages of the banks. I found a significant SAR slope only for the least dispersive taxon, supporting early predictions of a negative relation between dispersal capacity and SAR slope. I also found that oceanographic processes play an important role in connecting these assemblages, most-so for highly dispersive taxa. In Chapter 4, across the fish assemblages of the banks, I found support for the original predictions of TIB that, on average over the long-term, bank-specific colonization and extinction events are at equilibrium. However, I also found a dramatic increase in interannual turnover of prey fish species following predator collapse, particularly on the coldest, largest banks, suggesting an extension of the Trophic TIB linking increased SAR slopes to reduced temporal stability may be warranted. My research supports the continued application of TIB and its modern derivatives in large marine ecosystems to elucidate variation of insularity and temporal stability among species assemblages under different disturbance regimes.

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    Authors: Martin, J. W.; Gamal El-Din, M.; Perez-Estrada, L. A.; Wiseman, S. B.; +3 Authors
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    Authors: Haas, Christian;
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    Authors: Luostarinen, Tiia; Weckström, Kaarina; Ehn, Jens K; Kamula, Michelle; +6 Authors

    Datasets collected during a field campaign in the Belcher Islands Archipelago, Hudson Bay, Canada, during spring and summer 2019 including sea ice, water column, sediment trap and surface sediment samples that were analysed for diatoms, dinoflagellate cysts, highly branched isoprenoid lipids, pigments and geochemistry. The sea ice samples were collected using a Kovacs Mark II core barrel with an internal diameter of 9 cm, and the bottom 5 cm of the sea-ice cores were used for analysis on each sampling day. The water sampling was conducted using a plankton net (Ø 18 cm, 10 µm, 30-m net haul; diatoms) and a 2,5 L Kemmerer water sampler (pooled sample from 2.5-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25- and 30-metre depths; highly branched isoprenoid lipids). For sediment trap samples, an automated Gurney Instruments Baker-style, cylindrical sediment trap (aperture 0.032 m2) was deployed at 40-m depth, 30-m above the seafloor and the rotation for the trap was set to 8-day intervals. The surface sediment sample was collected using a Kajak-Brinkhurst gravity corer. The under-ice salinities and temperatures were measured by using with RBR Concerto® and CastAway-CTD® sensors.

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    Authors: Friedland, René; Macias, Diego; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Daewel, Ute; +24 Authors

    A novel pan-European marine model ensemble was established, covering nearly all seas under the regulation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), with the aim of providing a consistent assessment of the potential impacts of riverine nutrient reduction scenarios on marine eutrophication indicators. For each sea region, up to five coupled biogeochemical models from institutes all over Europe were brought together for the first time. All model systems followed a harmonised scenario approach and ran two simulations, which varied only in the riverine nutrient inputs. The load reductions were evaluated with the catchment model GREEN and represented the impacts due to improved management of agriculture and wastewater treatment in all European river systems. The model ensemble, comprising 15 members, was used to assess changes to the core eutrophication indicators as defined within MSFD Descriptor 5. In nearly all marine regions, riverine load reductions led to reduced nutrient concentrations in the marine environment. However, regionally the nutrient input reductions led to an increase in the non-limiting nutrient in the water, especially in the case of phosphate concentrations in the Black Sea. Further core eutrophication indicators, such as chlorophyll-a, bottom oxygen and the Trophic Index TRIX, improved nearly everywhere, but the changes were less pronounced than for the inorganic nutrients. The model ensemble displayed strong consistency and robustness, as most if not all models indicated improvements in the same areas. There were substantial differences between the individual seas in the speed of response to the reduced nutrient loads. In the North Sea ensemble, a stable plateau was reached after only three years, while the simulation period of eight years was too short to obtain steady model results in the Baltic Sea. The ensemble exercise confirmed the importance of improved management of agriculture and wastewater treatments in the river catchments to r JRC.D.2 - Water and Marine Resources

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179 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Léger-Daigle, Romy; Noisette, Fanny; Bélanger, Simon; Cusson, Mathieu; +1 Authors

    The dataset compiles pigment content, absorptance data, photosynthetic parameters and primary production data as proxies for summertime photoacclimation of the temperate intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina after a 25-day exposure to a natural light intensity gradient (6, 36, 74, 133, 355, 503 and 860 µmol photons/m²/s) under laboratory conditions at the Pointe-au-Père research station, East Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. The data bundle contains: 1) photosynthetic and total absorptance data at the end of the experiment, which respectively represent the fraction of incident visible light absorbed by the photosynthetic tissues corrected and not corrected for non-photosynthetic absorption; 2) pigment content at the end of the experiment, which includes chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoids contents; 3) photosynthetic parameters obtained by Rapid Light Curves (RLC) on days 5 and 25, including photosynthetic apparatus efficiency (alpha), capacity (ETRmax) and saturation (Ek); 4) whole shoot primary production at the end of the experiment, which was calculated from oxygen fluxes under light and dark conditions, and normalized by leaf surface.

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    Authors: O'Neill, Alicia;

    This study is one of the first to examine non-targeted effects of radiation in fish cell lines, with the aim of identifying a reliable reporter system for evaluating radiation damage in fish. The ability of the fish cell lines to clone was determined as the clonogenic assay was a major end point used to measure survival. A direct survival curve was completed for all cell lines that were deemed clonogenic using a cobalt-60 γ-radiation source. Non-targeted effects of radiation were evaluated by conducting bystander experiments on all fish cell lines. Delayed Cell Death (DCD) experiments were completed on the fish cell line that showed evidence of a cell death associated bystander effect as these phenomena may be linked. Four of the eight cell lines were found to be clonogenic. The cell line, RTG-2, was found to be the most radiosensitive at lower doses. All of the clonogenic cell lines, with the exception ofRTG-2 cells, generally showed increased Plating Efficiency (P.E.) when Irradiated Cell Conditioned Media (ICCM) was tested on unirradiated autologous cells. ICCM from the clonogenic and non-clonogenic cells was also tested on the mammalian cell line. This resulted in increased cell survival, with the exception of the RTS-pBk+ (p Thesis Master of Science (MSc)

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    MacSphere
    2006
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    Canada Research
    Other ORP type . 2006
    Data sources: Canada Research
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      2006
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      Canada Research
      Other ORP type . 2006
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    Authors: Geerlings, Nicole M. J.; Zetsche, Eva-Maria; Hidalgo-Martinez, Silvia; Middelburg, Jack J.; +1 Authors

    Cable bacteria are multicellular, filamentous microorganisms that are capable of transporting electrons over centimeter-scale distances. Although recently discovered, these bacteria appear to be widely present in the seafloor, and when active they exert a strong imprint on the local geochemistry. In particular, their electrogenic metabolism induces unusually strong pH excursions in aquatic sediments, which induces considerable mineral dissolution, and subsequent mineral reprecipitation. However, at present, it is unknown whether and how cable bacteria play an active or direct role in the mineral reprecipitation process. To this end we present an explorative study of the formation of sedimentary minerals in and near filamentous cable bacteria using a combined approach of electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. Our observations reveal the formation of polyphosphate granules within the cells and two different types of biomineral formation directly associated with multicellular filaments of these cable bacteria: (i) the attachment and incorporation of clay particles in a coating surrounding the bacteria and (ii) encrustation of the cell envelope by iron minerals. These findings suggest a complex interaction between cable bacteria and the surrounding sediment matrix, and a substantial imprint of the electrogenic metabolism on mineral diagenesis and sedimentary biogeochemical cycling. In particular, the encrustation process leaves many open questions for further research. For example, we hypothesize that the complete encrustation of filaments might create a diffusion barrier and negatively impact the metabolism of the cable bacteria.

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    Authors: Link, Heike; Archambault, Philippe; Tamelander, Tobias; Renaud, Paul E; +1 Authors

    Seasonal dynamics in the activity of Arctic shelf benthos have been the subject of few local studies, and the pronounced among-site variability characterizing their results makes it difficult to upscale and generalize their conclusions. In a regional study encompassing five sites at 100-595 m water depth in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, we found that total pigment concentrations in surficial sediments, used as proxies of general food supply to the benthos, rose significantly after the transition from ice-covered conditions in spring (March-June 2008) to open-water conditions in summer (June-August 2008), whereas sediment Chl a concentrations, typical markers of fresh food input, did not. Macrobenthic biomass (including agglutinated foraminifera >500 µm) varied significantly among sites (1.2-6.4 g C/m**2 in spring, 1.1-12.6 g C/m**2 in summer), whereas a general spring-to-summer increase was not detected. Benthic carbon remineralisation also ranged significantly among sites (11.9-33.2 mg C/m**2/day in spring, 11.6-44.4 mg C/m**2/day in summer) and did in addition exhibit a general significant increase from spring-to-summer. Multiple regression analysis suggests that in both spring and summer, sediment Chl a concentration is the prime determinant of benthic carbon remineralisation, but other factors have a significant secondary influence, such as foraminiferan biomass (negative in both seasons), water depth (in spring) and infaunal biomass (in summer). Our findings indicate the importance of the combined and dynamic effects of food supply and benthic community patterns on the carbon remineralisation of the polar shelf benthos in seasonally ice-covered seas.

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    Authors: Tonin, Joseph;

    Over the past few decades, terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been recognized as a fundamental driver of food web productivity in nutrient poor lakes. The mechanisms that underlie these effects remain poorly understood, particularly for higher trophic levels including zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. In a survey of eight lakes in northwestern Ontario, I determined consumer biomass and used stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to investigate relationships between DOC and pathways of energy flow, resource and habitat availability, and consumer biomass. Using Bayesian stable isotope mixing models, I found that hypolimnetic phytoplankton were an important resource for zooplankton in low-DOC lakes. With increased DOC concentrations, light attenuation increased and chlorophyll a concentrations below the thermocline were reduced relative to epilimnetic concentrations. At higher DOC concentrations, zooplankton acquired proportionately more energy from low quality terrestrial sources. Zooplankton biomass also declined with increasing utilization of terrestrial sources (allochthony), suggesting that terrestrial organic matter suppresses zooplankton productivity through simultaneous limitations on habitat and resource availability and quality. Based on biomass, the dominant fish species across my study lakes was White Sucker (Catostomus commersonnii). Bayesian mixing models indicated that allochthony by White Suckers increased with DOC and that greater allochthony was related to lower White Sucker biomass measured as catch-per-unit-effort (bCPUE). Both White Sucker bCPUE and chironomid biomass were positively related to mean light irradiance, with the highest biomasses of fish and chironomids occurring in lakes with a higher proportion of their volume in the photic zone. White Sucker bCPUE was strongly and positively correlated with chironomid biomass, suggesting that DOC-mediated resource limitation may influence fish productivity via reduced prey availability.

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    Authors: Stortini, Christine;

    This thesis explores the application of a traditionally terrestrial-based ecological theory, the Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB), to a large marine ecosystem. Decades of testing of this theory have led to various extensions acknowledging that the slope of the Species-Area Relationship (SAR) reflects species traits related to dispersal capacity, and species’ competitive and predatory interactions. Until recently, it was largely believed that marine ecosystems were too large and interconnected for this body of theory to apply. My research indicates that this is not true. I tested the applicability of TIB and its derivatives to the structure and dynamics of fish and macroinvertebrate communities inhabiting ten highly productive offshore banks (ranging 500 to 10’500 km2) located on the Scotian Shelf, NW Atlantic Ocean. In Chapter 2, I found support for the TIB: there was a positive SAR for the fish species of the offshore banks. I also found support for predictions of the Trophic TIB concerning the role of predators in controlling the SAR of lower trophic levels: prey and mesopredator SAR slopes increased following the collapse of largebodied predatory groundfish populations due to overfishing. In Chapter 3, I tested for a positive SAR across the macroinvertebrate assemblages of the banks. I found a significant SAR slope only for the least dispersive taxon, supporting early predictions of a negative relation between dispersal capacity and SAR slope. I also found that oceanographic processes play an important role in connecting these assemblages, most-so for highly dispersive taxa. In Chapter 4, across the fish assemblages of the banks, I found support for the original predictions of TIB that, on average over the long-term, bank-specific colonization and extinction events are at equilibrium. However, I also found a dramatic increase in interannual turnover of prey fish species following predator collapse, particularly on the coldest, largest banks, suggesting an extension of the Trophic TIB linking increased SAR slopes to reduced temporal stability may be warranted. My research supports the continued application of TIB and its modern derivatives in large marine ecosystems to elucidate variation of insularity and temporal stability among species assemblages under different disturbance regimes.

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