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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Léger-Daigle, Romy; Noisette, Fanny; Bélanger, Simon; Cusson, Mathieu; +1 Authors

    The dataset compiles pigment content, absorptance data, photosynthetic parameters and primary production data as proxies for summertime photoacclimation of the temperate intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina after a 25-day exposure to a natural light intensity gradient (6, 36, 74, 133, 355, 503 and 860 µmol photons/m²/s) under laboratory conditions at the Pointe-au-Père research station, East Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. The data bundle contains: 1) photosynthetic and total absorptance data at the end of the experiment, which respectively represent the fraction of incident visible light absorbed by the photosynthetic tissues corrected and not corrected for non-photosynthetic absorption; 2) pigment content at the end of the experiment, which includes chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoids contents; 3) photosynthetic parameters obtained by Rapid Light Curves (RLC) on days 5 and 25, including photosynthetic apparatus efficiency (alpha), capacity (ETRmax) and saturation (Ek); 4) whole shoot primary production at the end of the experiment, which was calculated from oxygen fluxes under light and dark conditions, and normalized by leaf surface.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: O'Neill, Alicia;

    This study is one of the first to examine non-targeted effects of radiation in fish cell lines, with the aim of identifying a reliable reporter system for evaluating radiation damage in fish. The ability of the fish cell lines to clone was determined as the clonogenic assay was a major end point used to measure survival. A direct survival curve was completed for all cell lines that were deemed clonogenic using a cobalt-60 γ-radiation source. Non-targeted effects of radiation were evaluated by conducting bystander experiments on all fish cell lines. Delayed Cell Death (DCD) experiments were completed on the fish cell line that showed evidence of a cell death associated bystander effect as these phenomena may be linked. Four of the eight cell lines were found to be clonogenic. The cell line, RTG-2, was found to be the most radiosensitive at lower doses. All of the clonogenic cell lines, with the exception ofRTG-2 cells, generally showed increased Plating Efficiency (P.E.) when Irradiated Cell Conditioned Media (ICCM) was tested on unirradiated autologous cells. ICCM from the clonogenic and non-clonogenic cells was also tested on the mammalian cell line. This resulted in increased cell survival, with the exception of the RTS-pBk+ (p Thesis Master of Science (MSc)

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MacSpherearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MacSphere
    2006
    Data sources: MacSphere
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Canada Research
    Other ORP type . 2006
    Data sources: Canada Research
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MacSpherearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MacSphere
      2006
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Canada Research
      Other ORP type . 2006
      Data sources: Canada Research
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Link, Heike; Archambault, Philippe; Tamelander, Tobias; Renaud, Paul E; +1 Authors

    Seasonal dynamics in the activity of Arctic shelf benthos have been the subject of few local studies, and the pronounced among-site variability characterizing their results makes it difficult to upscale and generalize their conclusions. In a regional study encompassing five sites at 100-595 m water depth in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, we found that total pigment concentrations in surficial sediments, used as proxies of general food supply to the benthos, rose significantly after the transition from ice-covered conditions in spring (March-June 2008) to open-water conditions in summer (June-August 2008), whereas sediment Chl a concentrations, typical markers of fresh food input, did not. Macrobenthic biomass (including agglutinated foraminifera >500 µm) varied significantly among sites (1.2-6.4 g C/m**2 in spring, 1.1-12.6 g C/m**2 in summer), whereas a general spring-to-summer increase was not detected. Benthic carbon remineralisation also ranged significantly among sites (11.9-33.2 mg C/m**2/day in spring, 11.6-44.4 mg C/m**2/day in summer) and did in addition exhibit a general significant increase from spring-to-summer. Multiple regression analysis suggests that in both spring and summer, sediment Chl a concentration is the prime determinant of benthic carbon remineralisation, but other factors have a significant secondary influence, such as foraminiferan biomass (negative in both seasons), water depth (in spring) and infaunal biomass (in summer). Our findings indicate the importance of the combined and dynamic effects of food supply and benthic community patterns on the carbon remineralisation of the polar shelf benthos in seasonally ice-covered seas.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tonin, Joseph;

    Over the past few decades, terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been recognized as a fundamental driver of food web productivity in nutrient poor lakes. The mechanisms that underlie these effects remain poorly understood, particularly for higher trophic levels including zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. In a survey of eight lakes in northwestern Ontario, I determined consumer biomass and used stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to investigate relationships between DOC and pathways of energy flow, resource and habitat availability, and consumer biomass. Using Bayesian stable isotope mixing models, I found that hypolimnetic phytoplankton were an important resource for zooplankton in low-DOC lakes. With increased DOC concentrations, light attenuation increased and chlorophyll a concentrations below the thermocline were reduced relative to epilimnetic concentrations. At higher DOC concentrations, zooplankton acquired proportionately more energy from low quality terrestrial sources. Zooplankton biomass also declined with increasing utilization of terrestrial sources (allochthony), suggesting that terrestrial organic matter suppresses zooplankton productivity through simultaneous limitations on habitat and resource availability and quality. Based on biomass, the dominant fish species across my study lakes was White Sucker (Catostomus commersonnii). Bayesian mixing models indicated that allochthony by White Suckers increased with DOC and that greater allochthony was related to lower White Sucker biomass measured as catch-per-unit-effort (bCPUE). Both White Sucker bCPUE and chironomid biomass were positively related to mean light irradiance, with the highest biomasses of fish and chironomids occurring in lakes with a higher proportion of their volume in the photic zone. White Sucker bCPUE was strongly and positively correlated with chironomid biomass, suggesting that DOC-mediated resource limitation may influence fish productivity via reduced prey availability.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stortini, Christine;

    This thesis explores the application of a traditionally terrestrial-based ecological theory, the Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB), to a large marine ecosystem. Decades of testing of this theory have led to various extensions acknowledging that the slope of the Species-Area Relationship (SAR) reflects species traits related to dispersal capacity, and species’ competitive and predatory interactions. Until recently, it was largely believed that marine ecosystems were too large and interconnected for this body of theory to apply. My research indicates that this is not true. I tested the applicability of TIB and its derivatives to the structure and dynamics of fish and macroinvertebrate communities inhabiting ten highly productive offshore banks (ranging 500 to 10’500 km2) located on the Scotian Shelf, NW Atlantic Ocean. In Chapter 2, I found support for the TIB: there was a positive SAR for the fish species of the offshore banks. I also found support for predictions of the Trophic TIB concerning the role of predators in controlling the SAR of lower trophic levels: prey and mesopredator SAR slopes increased following the collapse of largebodied predatory groundfish populations due to overfishing. In Chapter 3, I tested for a positive SAR across the macroinvertebrate assemblages of the banks. I found a significant SAR slope only for the least dispersive taxon, supporting early predictions of a negative relation between dispersal capacity and SAR slope. I also found that oceanographic processes play an important role in connecting these assemblages, most-so for highly dispersive taxa. In Chapter 4, across the fish assemblages of the banks, I found support for the original predictions of TIB that, on average over the long-term, bank-specific colonization and extinction events are at equilibrium. However, I also found a dramatic increase in interannual turnover of prey fish species following predator collapse, particularly on the coldest, largest banks, suggesting an extension of the Trophic TIB linking increased SAR slopes to reduced temporal stability may be warranted. My research supports the continued application of TIB and its modern derivatives in large marine ecosystems to elucidate variation of insularity and temporal stability among species assemblages under different disturbance regimes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ QSpacearrow_drop_down
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    QSpace
    Other ORP type
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: QSpace
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ QSpacearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martin, J. W.; Gamal El-Din, M.; Perez-Estrada, L. A.; Wiseman, S. B.; +3 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Education and Resear...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Education and Resear...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Luostarinen, Tiia; Weckström, Kaarina; Ehn, Jens K; Kamula, Michelle; +6 Authors

    Datasets collected during a field campaign in the Belcher Islands Archipelago, Hudson Bay, Canada, during spring and summer 2019 including sea ice, water column, sediment trap and surface sediment samples that were analysed for diatoms, dinoflagellate cysts, highly branched isoprenoid lipids, pigments and geochemistry. The sea ice samples were collected using a Kovacs Mark II core barrel with an internal diameter of 9 cm, and the bottom 5 cm of the sea-ice cores were used for analysis on each sampling day. The water sampling was conducted using a plankton net (Ø 18 cm, 10 µm, 30-m net haul; diatoms) and a 2,5 L Kemmerer water sampler (pooled sample from 2.5-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25- and 30-metre depths; highly branched isoprenoid lipids). For sediment trap samples, an automated Gurney Instruments Baker-style, cylindrical sediment trap (aperture 0.032 m2) was deployed at 40-m depth, 30-m above the seafloor and the rotation for the trap was set to 8-day intervals. The surface sediment sample was collected using a Kajak-Brinkhurst gravity corer. The under-ice salinities and temperatures were measured by using with RBR Concerto® and CastAway-CTD® sensors.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Fletcher, Tamara L.; Warden, Lisa; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Brown, Kendrick J.; +3 Authors

    The mid-Pliocene is a valuable time interval for investigating equilibrium climate at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations because atmospheric CO2 concentrations are thought to have been comparable to the current day and yet the climate and distribution of ecosystems were quite different. One intriguing, but not fully understood, feature of the early to mid-Pliocene climate is the amplified Arctic temperature response and its impact on Arctic ecosystems. Only the most recent models appear to correctly estimate the degree of warming in the Pliocene Arctic and validation of the currently proposed feedbacks is limited by scarce terrestrial records of climate and environment. Here we reconstruct the summer temperature and fire regime from a subfossil fen-peat deposit on west–central Ellesmere Island, Canada, that has been chronologically constrained using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating to 3.9+1.5/-0.5 Ma. The estimate for average mean summer temperature is 15.4±0.8 ∘C using specific bacterial membrane lipids, i.e., branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. This is above the proposed threshold that predicts a substantial increase in wildfire in the modern high latitudes. Macro-charcoal was present in all samples from this Pliocene section with notably higher charcoal concentration in the upper part of the sequence. This change in charcoal was synchronous with a change in vegetation that included an increase in abundance of fire-promoting Pinus and Picea. Paleo-vegetation reconstructions are consistent with warm summer temperatures, relatively low summer precipitation and an incidence of fire comparable to fire-adapted boreal forests of North America and central Siberia. To our knowledge, this site provides the northernmost evidence of fire during the Pliocene. It suggests that ecosystem productivity was greater than in the present day, providing fuel for wildfires, and that the climate was conducive to the ignition of fire during this period. The results reveal that interactions between paleo-vegetation and paleoclimate were mediated by fire in the High Arctic during the Pliocene, even though CO2 concentrations were similar to modern values.

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    Authors: Guscelli, Ella; Spicer, John I; Calosi, Piero;

    Inter‐individual variation in phenotypic traits has long been considered as "noise" rather than meaningful phenotypic variation, with biological studies almost exclusively generating and reporting average responses for populations and species' aver‐ age responses. Here, we compare the use of an individual approach in the investigation of extracellular acid-base regulation by the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus challenged with elevated pCO2 and temperature conditions, with a more traditional approach which generates and formally compares mean values. We detected a high level of inter‐individual variation in acid-base regulation parameters both within and between treatments. Comparing individual and mean values for the first (apparent) dissociation constant of the coelomic fluid for individual sea urchins resulted in substantially different (calculated) acid-base parameters, and models with stronger statistical support. While the approach using means showed that coelomic pCO2 was influenced by seawater pCO2 and temperature combined, the individual approach indicated that it was in fact seawater temperature in isolation that had a significant effect on coelomic pCO2. On the other hand, coelomic [HCO3−] appeared to be primarily affected by seawater pCO2, and less by seawater temperature, irrespective of the approach adopted. As a consequence, we suggest that individual variation in physiological traits needs to be considered, and where appropriate taken into ac‐ count, in global change biology studies. It could be argued that an approach reliant on mean values is a "procedural error." It produces an artefact, that is, a population's mean phenotype. While this may allow us to conduct relatively simple statistical analyses, it will not in all cases reflect, or take into account, the degree of (physiological) diversity present in natural populations.

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    Authors: Bailey, Neal;

    Mercury is a potent toxicant whose concentration in the environment has increased markedly due to human activity. However, uncertainties exist on sources and sinks of mercury, including those associated with mineral dust, with the Sahara Desert being the largest aeolian dust source worldwide. To characterize mercury associated with Saharan dust export to the Atlantic Ocean, aeolian dust (>2.2 µm in size) and soil samples were collected from the Canary Islands and Cabo Verde, ~400 and 800 km off the west coast of Africa. The sources of the dust samples were determined by back-trajectory analysis, and mercury content was characterized via direct mercury analysis. Mercury concentrations differed significantly (p 70%) over the Atlantic Ocean, had a mean mercury concentration of 29.8±31.3 ng/g (w/w), or 1.40±1.34 pg/m3 (w/v); this result is in the lower end of the data reported for remote coastal locations on a w/v basis, but lower than any on a w/w basis. Saharan-origin dust, defined as dust with a back trajectory predominantly (>70%) over the Sahara Desert, had a higher mean mercury concentration of 72.8±7.43 ng/g, or 4.64±2.15 pg/m3. Concentrations of mercury in dust samples were found to increase as back trajectories passed over a larger extent of the western African land surface relative to the Atlantic Ocean water surface. Finally, particulate-bound mercury (PBM) concentrations measured at Cabo Verde were used to estimate the flux of particulate mercury to major dust-impacted regions of the Atlantic Ocean, an area comprising 21.3 million km2. The PBM flux to this region is estimated at 6.5±2.2 t/y if all dust originates from the Sahara, or 3.6±1.6 t/y if the dust is of mixed Saharan and Atlantic origins. These numbers represent only ~1% to 3% of the total mercury deposition to the region estimated by current global mercury models. Surface soil mercury concentrations measured in the Canary Islands further support minimal mercury inputs from Saharan dust. Our study thus suggests the current models may have considerably overestimated Saharan dust contribution to mercury deposition.

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116 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Léger-Daigle, Romy; Noisette, Fanny; Bélanger, Simon; Cusson, Mathieu; +1 Authors

    The dataset compiles pigment content, absorptance data, photosynthetic parameters and primary production data as proxies for summertime photoacclimation of the temperate intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina after a 25-day exposure to a natural light intensity gradient (6, 36, 74, 133, 355, 503 and 860 µmol photons/m²/s) under laboratory conditions at the Pointe-au-Père research station, East Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. The data bundle contains: 1) photosynthetic and total absorptance data at the end of the experiment, which respectively represent the fraction of incident visible light absorbed by the photosynthetic tissues corrected and not corrected for non-photosynthetic absorption; 2) pigment content at the end of the experiment, which includes chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoids contents; 3) photosynthetic parameters obtained by Rapid Light Curves (RLC) on days 5 and 25, including photosynthetic apparatus efficiency (alpha), capacity (ETRmax) and saturation (Ek); 4) whole shoot primary production at the end of the experiment, which was calculated from oxygen fluxes under light and dark conditions, and normalized by leaf surface.

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    Authors: O'Neill, Alicia;

    This study is one of the first to examine non-targeted effects of radiation in fish cell lines, with the aim of identifying a reliable reporter system for evaluating radiation damage in fish. The ability of the fish cell lines to clone was determined as the clonogenic assay was a major end point used to measure survival. A direct survival curve was completed for all cell lines that were deemed clonogenic using a cobalt-60 γ-radiation source. Non-targeted effects of radiation were evaluated by conducting bystander experiments on all fish cell lines. Delayed Cell Death (DCD) experiments were completed on the fish cell line that showed evidence of a cell death associated bystander effect as these phenomena may be linked. Four of the eight cell lines were found to be clonogenic. The cell line, RTG-2, was found to be the most radiosensitive at lower doses. All of the clonogenic cell lines, with the exception ofRTG-2 cells, generally showed increased Plating Efficiency (P.E.) when Irradiated Cell Conditioned Media (ICCM) was tested on unirradiated autologous cells. ICCM from the clonogenic and non-clonogenic cells was also tested on the mammalian cell line. This resulted in increased cell survival, with the exception of the RTS-pBk+ (p Thesis Master of Science (MSc)

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    MacSphere
    2006
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Canada Research
    Other ORP type . 2006
    Data sources: Canada Research
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      MacSphere
      2006
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Canada Research
      Other ORP type . 2006
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Link, Heike; Archambault, Philippe; Tamelander, Tobias; Renaud, Paul E; +1 Authors

    Seasonal dynamics in the activity of Arctic shelf benthos have been the subject of few local studies, and the pronounced among-site variability characterizing their results makes it difficult to upscale and generalize their conclusions. In a regional study encompassing five sites at 100-595 m water depth in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, we found that total pigment concentrations in surficial sediments, used as proxies of general food supply to the benthos, rose significantly after the transition from ice-covered conditions in spring (March-June 2008) to open-water conditions in summer (June-August 2008), whereas sediment Chl a concentrations, typical markers of fresh food input, did not. Macrobenthic biomass (including agglutinated foraminifera >500 µm) varied significantly among sites (1.2-6.4 g C/m**2 in spring, 1.1-12.6 g C/m**2 in summer), whereas a general spring-to-summer increase was not detected. Benthic carbon remineralisation also ranged significantly among sites (11.9-33.2 mg C/m**2/day in spring, 11.6-44.4 mg C/m**2/day in summer) and did in addition exhibit a general significant increase from spring-to-summer. Multiple regression analysis suggests that in both spring and summer, sediment Chl a concentration is the prime determinant of benthic carbon remineralisation, but other factors have a significant secondary influence, such as foraminiferan biomass (negative in both seasons), water depth (in spring) and infaunal biomass (in summer). Our findings indicate the importance of the combined and dynamic effects of food supply and benthic community patterns on the carbon remineralisation of the polar shelf benthos in seasonally ice-covered seas.

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    Authors: Tonin, Joseph;

    Over the past few decades, terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been recognized as a fundamental driver of food web productivity in nutrient poor lakes. The mechanisms that underlie these effects remain poorly understood, particularly for higher trophic levels including zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. In a survey of eight lakes in northwestern Ontario, I determined consumer biomass and used stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to investigate relationships between DOC and pathways of energy flow, resource and habitat availability, and consumer biomass. Using Bayesian stable isotope mixing models, I found that hypolimnetic phytoplankton were an important resource for zooplankton in low-DOC lakes. With increased DOC concentrations, light attenuation increased and chlorophyll a concentrations below the thermocline were reduced relative to epilimnetic concentrations. At higher DOC concentrations, zooplankton acquired proportionately more energy from low quality terrestrial sources. Zooplankton biomass also declined with increasing utilization of terrestrial sources (allochthony), suggesting that terrestrial organic matter suppresses zooplankton productivity through simultaneous limitations on habitat and resource availability and quality. Based on biomass, the dominant fish species across my study lakes was White Sucker (Catostomus commersonnii). Bayesian mixing models indicated that allochthony by White Suckers increased with DOC and that greater allochthony was related to lower White Sucker biomass measured as catch-per-unit-effort (bCPUE). Both White Sucker bCPUE and chironomid biomass were positively related to mean light irradiance, with the highest biomasses of fish and chironomids occurring in lakes with a higher proportion of their volume in the photic zone. White Sucker bCPUE was strongly and positively correlated with chironomid biomass, suggesting that DOC-mediated resource limitation may influence fish productivity via reduced prey availability.

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    Authors: Stortini, Christine;

    This thesis explores the application of a traditionally terrestrial-based ecological theory, the Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB), to a large marine ecosystem. Decades of testing of this theory have led to various extensions acknowledging that the slope of the Species-Area Relationship (SAR) reflects species traits related to dispersal capacity, and species’ competitive and predatory interactions. Until recently, it was largely believed that marine ecosystems were too large and interconnected for this body of theory to apply. My research indicates that this is not true. I tested the applicability of TIB and its derivatives to the structure and dynamics of fish and macroinvertebrate communities inhabiting ten highly productive offshore banks (ranging 500 to 10’500 km2) located on the Scotian Shelf, NW Atlantic Ocean. In Chapter 2, I found support for the TIB: there was a positive SAR for the fish species of the offshore banks. I also found support for predictions of the Trophic TIB concerning the role of predators in controlling the SAR of lower trophic levels: prey and mesopredator SAR slopes increased following the collapse of largebodied predatory groundfish populations due to overfishing. In Chapter 3, I tested for a positive SAR across the macroinvertebrate assemblages of the banks. I found a significant SAR slope only for the least dispersive taxon, supporting early predictions of a negative relation between dispersal capacity and SAR slope. I also found that oceanographic processes play an important role in connecting these assemblages, most-so for highly dispersive taxa. In Chapter 4, across the fish assemblages of the banks, I found support for the original predictions of TIB that, on average over the long-term, bank-specific colonization and extinction events are at equilibrium. However, I also found a dramatic increase in interannual turnover of prey fish species following predator collapse, particularly on the coldest, largest banks, suggesting an extension of the Trophic TIB linking increased SAR slopes to reduced temporal stability may be warranted. My research supports the continued application of TIB and its modern derivatives in large marine ecosystems to elucidate variation of insularity and temporal stability among species assemblages under different disturbance regimes.

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    Authors: Martin, J. W.; Gamal El-Din, M.; Perez-Estrada, L. A.; Wiseman, S. B.; +3 Authors
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    Authors: Luostarinen, Tiia; Weckström, Kaarina; Ehn, Jens K; Kamula, Michelle; +6 Authors

    Datasets collected during a field campaign in the Belcher Islands Archipelago, Hudson Bay, Canada, during spring and summer 2019 including sea ice, water column, sediment trap and surface sediment samples that were analysed for diatoms, dinoflagellate cysts, highly branched isoprenoid lipids, pigments and geochemistry. The sea ice samples were collected using a Kovacs Mark II core barrel with an internal diameter of 9 cm, and the bottom 5 cm of the sea-ice cores were used for analysis on each sampling day. The water sampling was conducted using a plankton net (Ø 18 cm, 10 µm, 30-m net haul; diatoms) and a 2,5 L Kemmerer water sampler (pooled sample from 2.5-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25- and 30-metre depths; highly branched isoprenoid lipids). For sediment trap samples, an automated Gurney Instruments Baker-style, cylindrical sediment trap (aperture 0.032 m2) was deployed at 40-m depth, 30-m above the seafloor and the rotation for the trap was set to 8-day intervals. The surface sediment sample was collected using a Kajak-Brinkhurst gravity corer. The under-ice salinities and temperatures were measured by using with RBR Concerto® and CastAway-CTD® sensors.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Fletcher, Tamara L.; Warden, Lisa; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Brown, Kendrick J.; +3 Authors

    The mid-Pliocene is a valuable time interval for investigating equilibrium climate at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations because atmospheric CO2 concentrations are thought to have been comparable to the current day and yet the climate and distribution of ecosystems were quite different. One intriguing, but not fully understood, feature of the early to mid-Pliocene climate is the amplified Arctic temperature response and its impact on Arctic ecosystems. Only the most recent models appear to correctly estimate the degree of warming in the Pliocene Arctic and validation of the currently proposed feedbacks is limited by scarce terrestrial records of climate and environment. Here we reconstruct the summer temperature and fire regime from a subfossil fen-peat deposit on west–central Ellesmere Island, Canada, that has been chronologically constrained using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating to 3.9+1.5/-0.5 Ma. The estimate for average mean summer temperature is 15.4±0.8 ∘C using specific bacterial membrane lipids, i.e., branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. This is above the proposed threshold that predicts a substantial increase in wildfire in the modern high latitudes. Macro-charcoal was present in all samples from this Pliocene section with notably higher charcoal concentration in the upper part of the sequence. This change in charcoal was synchronous with a change in vegetation that included an increase in abundance of fire-promoting Pinus and Picea. Paleo-vegetation reconstructions are consistent with warm summer temperatures, relatively low summer precipitation and an incidence of fire comparable to fire-adapted boreal forests of North America and central Siberia. To our knowledge, this site provides the northernmost evidence of fire during the Pliocene. It suggests that ecosystem productivity was greater than in the present day, providing fuel for wildfires, and that the climate was conducive to the ignition of fire during this period. The results reveal that interactions between paleo-vegetation and paleoclimate were mediated by fire in the High Arctic during the Pliocene, even though CO2 concentrations were similar to modern values.

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