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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Montagna, Paolo; Siani, Giuseppe; Douville, Eric; +9 Authors

    We present the neodymium isotopic composition (epsilon-Nd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as epsilon-Nd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (d18O) and carbon (d13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral epsilon-Nd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ~13 kyr, with mean values of -8.94 ± 0.26 (1 Sigma; n = 24) and -8.91 ± 0.18 (1 Sigma; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal epsilon-Nd values are slightly lower (-9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic epsilon-Nd values. The slight epsilon-Nd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal d13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ~16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic epsilon-Nd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of epsilon-Nd values, from -8.66 ± 0.30 to 5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (-7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the epsilon-Nd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (-8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ~8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin. We propose that western Mediterranean intermediate waters replaced the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), and thus there was a strong reduction of the LIW during the mid-sapropel (~8.7 ka BP). This observation supports a notable change of Mediterranean circulation pattern centered on sapropel S1 that needs further investigation to be confirmed.

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    Authors: Michaud, H.; Marsaleix, P.; Leredde, Y.; Estournel, C.; +4 Authors

    We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a) following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c). These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010) and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999). The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009)and Uchiyama et al. (2010). A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002) of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data. Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea) for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the inner shelf are less visible since wind and regional circulation seem to be the predominant forcings. Besides, a discrepancy between model and observations is noted at that scale, possibly linked to an underestimation of the wind stress. This three-dimensional method allows a good representation of vertical current profiles and permits the calculation of the shear stress associated with waves and currents. Future work will focus on the combination with a sediment transport model.

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    Authors: Léger-Daigle, Romy; Noisette, Fanny; Bélanger, Simon; Cusson, Mathieu; +1 Authors

    The dataset compiles pigment content, absorptance data, photosynthetic parameters and primary production data as proxies for summertime photoacclimation of the temperate intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina after a 25-day exposure to a natural light intensity gradient (6, 36, 74, 133, 355, 503 and 860 µmol photons/m²/s) under laboratory conditions at the Pointe-au-Père research station, East Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. The data bundle contains: 1) photosynthetic and total absorptance data at the end of the experiment, which respectively represent the fraction of incident visible light absorbed by the photosynthetic tissues corrected and not corrected for non-photosynthetic absorption; 2) pigment content at the end of the experiment, which includes chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoids contents; 3) photosynthetic parameters obtained by Rapid Light Curves (RLC) on days 5 and 25, including photosynthetic apparatus efficiency (alpha), capacity (ETRmax) and saturation (Ek); 4) whole shoot primary production at the end of the experiment, which was calculated from oxygen fluxes under light and dark conditions, and normalized by leaf surface.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: O'Neill, Alicia;

    This study is one of the first to examine non-targeted effects of radiation in fish cell lines, with the aim of identifying a reliable reporter system for evaluating radiation damage in fish. The ability of the fish cell lines to clone was determined as the clonogenic assay was a major end point used to measure survival. A direct survival curve was completed for all cell lines that were deemed clonogenic using a cobalt-60 γ-radiation source. Non-targeted effects of radiation were evaluated by conducting bystander experiments on all fish cell lines. Delayed Cell Death (DCD) experiments were completed on the fish cell line that showed evidence of a cell death associated bystander effect as these phenomena may be linked. Four of the eight cell lines were found to be clonogenic. The cell line, RTG-2, was found to be the most radiosensitive at lower doses. All of the clonogenic cell lines, with the exception ofRTG-2 cells, generally showed increased Plating Efficiency (P.E.) when Irradiated Cell Conditioned Media (ICCM) was tested on unirradiated autologous cells. ICCM from the clonogenic and non-clonogenic cells was also tested on the mammalian cell line. This resulted in increased cell survival, with the exception of the RTS-pBk+ (p Thesis Master of Science (MSc)

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MacSpherearrow_drop_down
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    MacSphere
    2006
    Data sources: MacSphere
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Canada Research
    Other ORP type . 2006
    Data sources: Canada Research
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MacSpherearrow_drop_down
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      MacSphere
      2006
      Data sources: MacSphere
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Canada Research
      Other ORP type . 2006
      Data sources: Canada Research
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Waelbroeck, Claire; Pichat, Sylvain; Böhm, Evelyn; Lougheed, Bryan C.; +10 Authors

    Thanks to its optimal location on the northern Brazilian margin, core MD09-3257 records both ocean circulation and atmospheric changes. The latter occur locally in the form of increased rainfall on the adjacent continent during the cold intervals recorded in Greenland ice and northern North Atlantic sediment cores (i.e., Greenland stadials). These rainfall events are recorded in MD09-3257 as peaks in ln(Ti ∕ Ca). New sedimentary Pa ∕ Th data indicate that mid-depth western equatorial water mass transport decreased during all of the Greenland stadials of the last 40 kyr. Using cross-wavelet transforms and spectrogram analysis, we assess the relative phase between the MD09-3257 sedimentary Pa ∕ Th and ln(Ti ∕ Ca) signals. We show that decreased water mass transport between a depth of ∼1300 and 2300 m in the western equatorial Atlantic preceded increased rainfall over the adjacent continent by 120 to 400 yr at Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) frequencies, and by 280 to 980 yr at Heinrich-like frequencies. We suggest that the large lead of ocean circulation changes with respect to changes in tropical South American precipitation at Heinrich-like frequencies is related to the effect of a positive feedback involving iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic. In contrast, the absence of widespread ice rafted detrital layers in North Atlantic cores during D–O stadials supports the hypothesis that a feedback such as this was not triggered in the case of D–O stadials, with circulation slowdowns and subsequent changes remaining more limited during D–O stadials than Heinrich stadials.

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    Authors: Link, Heike; Archambault, Philippe; Tamelander, Tobias; Renaud, Paul E; +1 Authors

    Seasonal dynamics in the activity of Arctic shelf benthos have been the subject of few local studies, and the pronounced among-site variability characterizing their results makes it difficult to upscale and generalize their conclusions. In a regional study encompassing five sites at 100-595 m water depth in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, we found that total pigment concentrations in surficial sediments, used as proxies of general food supply to the benthos, rose significantly after the transition from ice-covered conditions in spring (March-June 2008) to open-water conditions in summer (June-August 2008), whereas sediment Chl a concentrations, typical markers of fresh food input, did not. Macrobenthic biomass (including agglutinated foraminifera >500 µm) varied significantly among sites (1.2-6.4 g C/m**2 in spring, 1.1-12.6 g C/m**2 in summer), whereas a general spring-to-summer increase was not detected. Benthic carbon remineralisation also ranged significantly among sites (11.9-33.2 mg C/m**2/day in spring, 11.6-44.4 mg C/m**2/day in summer) and did in addition exhibit a general significant increase from spring-to-summer. Multiple regression analysis suggests that in both spring and summer, sediment Chl a concentration is the prime determinant of benthic carbon remineralisation, but other factors have a significant secondary influence, such as foraminiferan biomass (negative in both seasons), water depth (in spring) and infaunal biomass (in summer). Our findings indicate the importance of the combined and dynamic effects of food supply and benthic community patterns on the carbon remineralisation of the polar shelf benthos in seasonally ice-covered seas.

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    Authors: Tonin, Joseph;

    Over the past few decades, terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been recognized as a fundamental driver of food web productivity in nutrient poor lakes. The mechanisms that underlie these effects remain poorly understood, particularly for higher trophic levels including zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. In a survey of eight lakes in northwestern Ontario, I determined consumer biomass and used stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to investigate relationships between DOC and pathways of energy flow, resource and habitat availability, and consumer biomass. Using Bayesian stable isotope mixing models, I found that hypolimnetic phytoplankton were an important resource for zooplankton in low-DOC lakes. With increased DOC concentrations, light attenuation increased and chlorophyll a concentrations below the thermocline were reduced relative to epilimnetic concentrations. At higher DOC concentrations, zooplankton acquired proportionately more energy from low quality terrestrial sources. Zooplankton biomass also declined with increasing utilization of terrestrial sources (allochthony), suggesting that terrestrial organic matter suppresses zooplankton productivity through simultaneous limitations on habitat and resource availability and quality. Based on biomass, the dominant fish species across my study lakes was White Sucker (Catostomus commersonnii). Bayesian mixing models indicated that allochthony by White Suckers increased with DOC and that greater allochthony was related to lower White Sucker biomass measured as catch-per-unit-effort (bCPUE). Both White Sucker bCPUE and chironomid biomass were positively related to mean light irradiance, with the highest biomasses of fish and chironomids occurring in lakes with a higher proportion of their volume in the photic zone. White Sucker bCPUE was strongly and positively correlated with chironomid biomass, suggesting that DOC-mediated resource limitation may influence fish productivity via reduced prey availability.

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    Authors: LACROIX, Denis; DAVID, Bernard; LAMBLIN, Véronique; DE MENTHIERE, Nicolas; +7 Authors

    The perception of ocean areas by policy-makers or by people, living or not on the coast, has significantly varied over centuries. Due to its vastness and complexity, the sea has been studied within distinct academic disciplines. However, the current issues related to the sea, such as climate change, marine pollution or coastal tourism, require an integrated vision of the assets and drawbacks in order to meet the challenges arising from human activities both at sea and onshore. In this study, a group of foresight officers from the French network of public research institutes decided to cross-check and compare several science approaches (biology, sociology, economics, etc) about oceans. Thus, 11 sectors of maritime activity (transportation, fisheries, energy, etc.) were cross-tabulated with 9 basic social functions (providing food, housing, learning, etc.). In this matrix, the main challenges and issues projected for 2030 were sought, in the frame of a baseline scenario. Results were clustered through 4 criteria, leading to 9 major challenges, each of them broken down into two important issues for research. The outcomes were used to create a survey, allowing the ranking of the research priorities. Most of the 9 challenges tally with the research and development objectives of great maritime states, except for governance and monitoring, which remain underscored. As a result, maritime powers still show more interest on securing national resources rather than on promoting international cooperation for secure trade and sustainable exploitation of marine resources. But foresight in this field could help changing the mentalities notably because oceans show clearly now to be a vital common good for mankind.

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    Authors: AULANIER, Florian; NICOLAS, Barbara; ROUX, Philippe; MARS, Jerome;

    Broadband acoustic signals around 1 kHz propagate through shallow water oceanic waveguides of ~100 m in depth and ~2 km in range as multiple ray-like wavefronts. These acoustic arrivals can be characterized by the following observables: travel-time (TT), direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD). By applying double-beamforming on the point-to-point signals recorded between two source-receiver arrays, the acoustic contribution of each arrival can be separated from the multi-reverberated data and the TT, DOA and DOD observable variations are accurately measured. This study deals with the use of time-angle sensitivity kernels (TASK) to estimate the observable variations induced by sound speed perturbations in the waveguide. This approach is based on the first order Born approximation and takes into account the finite-frequency effects associated with wave propagation. The robustness the TASK approach is analyzed and compared to numerical parabolic equation simulations involving different sound speed perturbations. For example, parameters such as the perturbation location, the value and shape of the perturbation in the waveguide are modified. The combination of several perturbations and the influence of the source-receiver array apertures on the TT, DOA and DOD estimates are also studied.

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    Authors: Stortini, Christine;

    This thesis explores the application of a traditionally terrestrial-based ecological theory, the Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB), to a large marine ecosystem. Decades of testing of this theory have led to various extensions acknowledging that the slope of the Species-Area Relationship (SAR) reflects species traits related to dispersal capacity, and species’ competitive and predatory interactions. Until recently, it was largely believed that marine ecosystems were too large and interconnected for this body of theory to apply. My research indicates that this is not true. I tested the applicability of TIB and its derivatives to the structure and dynamics of fish and macroinvertebrate communities inhabiting ten highly productive offshore banks (ranging 500 to 10’500 km2) located on the Scotian Shelf, NW Atlantic Ocean. In Chapter 2, I found support for the TIB: there was a positive SAR for the fish species of the offshore banks. I also found support for predictions of the Trophic TIB concerning the role of predators in controlling the SAR of lower trophic levels: prey and mesopredator SAR slopes increased following the collapse of largebodied predatory groundfish populations due to overfishing. In Chapter 3, I tested for a positive SAR across the macroinvertebrate assemblages of the banks. I found a significant SAR slope only for the least dispersive taxon, supporting early predictions of a negative relation between dispersal capacity and SAR slope. I also found that oceanographic processes play an important role in connecting these assemblages, most-so for highly dispersive taxa. In Chapter 4, across the fish assemblages of the banks, I found support for the original predictions of TIB that, on average over the long-term, bank-specific colonization and extinction events are at equilibrium. However, I also found a dramatic increase in interannual turnover of prey fish species following predator collapse, particularly on the coldest, largest banks, suggesting an extension of the Trophic TIB linking increased SAR slopes to reduced temporal stability may be warranted. My research supports the continued application of TIB and its modern derivatives in large marine ecosystems to elucidate variation of insularity and temporal stability among species assemblages under different disturbance regimes.

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212 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Montagna, Paolo; Siani, Giuseppe; Douville, Eric; +9 Authors

    We present the neodymium isotopic composition (epsilon-Nd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as epsilon-Nd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (d18O) and carbon (d13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral epsilon-Nd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ~13 kyr, with mean values of -8.94 ± 0.26 (1 Sigma; n = 24) and -8.91 ± 0.18 (1 Sigma; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal epsilon-Nd values are slightly lower (-9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic epsilon-Nd values. The slight epsilon-Nd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal d13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ~16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic epsilon-Nd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of epsilon-Nd values, from -8.66 ± 0.30 to 5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (-7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the epsilon-Nd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (-8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ~8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin. We propose that western Mediterranean intermediate waters replaced the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), and thus there was a strong reduction of the LIW during the mid-sapropel (~8.7 ka BP). This observation supports a notable change of Mediterranean circulation pattern centered on sapropel S1 that needs further investigation to be confirmed.

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    Authors: Michaud, H.; Marsaleix, P.; Leredde, Y.; Estournel, C.; +4 Authors

    We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a) following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c). These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010) and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999). The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009)and Uchiyama et al. (2010). A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002) of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data. Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea) for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the inner shelf are less visible since wind and regional circulation seem to be the predominant forcings. Besides, a discrepancy between model and observations is noted at that scale, possibly linked to an underestimation of the wind stress. This three-dimensional method allows a good representation of vertical current profiles and permits the calculation of the shear stress associated with waves and currents. Future work will focus on the combination with a sediment transport model.

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    Authors: Léger-Daigle, Romy; Noisette, Fanny; Bélanger, Simon; Cusson, Mathieu; +1 Authors

    The dataset compiles pigment content, absorptance data, photosynthetic parameters and primary production data as proxies for summertime photoacclimation of the temperate intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina after a 25-day exposure to a natural light intensity gradient (6, 36, 74, 133, 355, 503 and 860 µmol photons/m²/s) under laboratory conditions at the Pointe-au-Père research station, East Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. The data bundle contains: 1) photosynthetic and total absorptance data at the end of the experiment, which respectively represent the fraction of incident visible light absorbed by the photosynthetic tissues corrected and not corrected for non-photosynthetic absorption; 2) pigment content at the end of the experiment, which includes chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoids contents; 3) photosynthetic parameters obtained by Rapid Light Curves (RLC) on days 5 and 25, including photosynthetic apparatus efficiency (alpha), capacity (ETRmax) and saturation (Ek); 4) whole shoot primary production at the end of the experiment, which was calculated from oxygen fluxes under light and dark conditions, and normalized by leaf surface.

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    Authors: O'Neill, Alicia;

    This study is one of the first to examine non-targeted effects of radiation in fish cell lines, with the aim of identifying a reliable reporter system for evaluating radiation damage in fish. The ability of the fish cell lines to clone was determined as the clonogenic assay was a major end point used to measure survival. A direct survival curve was completed for all cell lines that were deemed clonogenic using a cobalt-60 γ-radiation source. Non-targeted effects of radiation were evaluated by conducting bystander experiments on all fish cell lines. Delayed Cell Death (DCD) experiments were completed on the fish cell line that showed evidence of a cell death associated bystander effect as these phenomena may be linked. Four of the eight cell lines were found to be clonogenic. The cell line, RTG-2, was found to be the most radiosensitive at lower doses. All of the clonogenic cell lines, with the exception ofRTG-2 cells, generally showed increased Plating Efficiency (P.E.) when Irradiated Cell Conditioned Media (ICCM) was tested on unirradiated autologous cells. ICCM from the clonogenic and non-clonogenic cells was also tested on the mammalian cell line. This resulted in increased cell survival, with the exception of the RTS-pBk+ (p Thesis Master of Science (MSc)

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      2006
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    Authors: Waelbroeck, Claire; Pichat, Sylvain; Böhm, Evelyn; Lougheed, Bryan C.; +10 Authors

    Thanks to its optimal location on the northern Brazilian margin, core MD09-3257 records both ocean circulation and atmospheric changes. The latter occur locally in the form of increased rainfall on the adjacent continent during the cold intervals recorded in Greenland ice and northern North Atlantic sediment cores (i.e., Greenland stadials). These rainfall events are recorded in MD09-3257 as peaks in ln(Ti ∕ Ca). New sedimentary Pa ∕ Th data indicate that mid-depth western equatorial water mass transport decreased during all of the Greenland stadials of the last 40 kyr. Using cross-wavelet transforms and spectrogram analysis, we assess the relative phase between the MD09-3257 sedimentary Pa ∕ Th and ln(Ti ∕ Ca) signals. We show that decreased water mass transport between a depth of ∼1300 and 2300 m in the western equatorial Atlantic preceded increased rainfall over the adjacent continent by 120 to 400 yr at Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) frequencies, and by 280 to 980 yr at Heinrich-like frequencies. We suggest that the large lead of ocean circulation changes with respect to changes in tropical South American precipitation at Heinrich-like frequencies is related to the effect of a positive feedback involving iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic. In contrast, the absence of widespread ice rafted detrital layers in North Atlantic cores during D–O stadials supports the hypothesis that a feedback such as this was not triggered in the case of D–O stadials, with circulation slowdowns and subsequent changes remaining more limited during D–O stadials than Heinrich stadials.

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    Authors: Link, Heike; Archambault, Philippe; Tamelander, Tobias; Renaud, Paul E; +1 Authors

    Seasonal dynamics in the activity of Arctic shelf benthos have been the subject of few local studies, and the pronounced among-site variability characterizing their results makes it difficult to upscale and generalize their conclusions. In a regional study encompassing five sites at 100-595 m water depth in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, we found that total pigment concentrations in surficial sediments, used as proxies of general food supply to the benthos, rose significantly after the transition from ice-covered conditions in spring (March-June 2008) to open-water conditions in summer (June-August 2008), whereas sediment Chl a concentrations, typical markers of fresh food input, did not. Macrobenthic biomass (including agglutinated foraminifera >500 µm) varied significantly among sites (1.2-6.4 g C/m**2 in spring, 1.1-12.6 g C/m**2 in summer), whereas a general spring-to-summer increase was not detected. Benthic carbon remineralisation also ranged significantly among sites (11.9-33.2 mg C/m**2/day in spring, 11.6-44.4 mg C/m**2/day in summer) and did in addition exhibit a general significant increase from spring-to-summer. Multiple regression analysis suggests that in both spring and summer, sediment Chl a concentration is the prime determinant of benthic carbon remineralisation, but other factors have a significant secondary influence, such as foraminiferan biomass (negative in both seasons), water depth (in spring) and infaunal biomass (in summer). Our findings indicate the importance of the combined and dynamic effects of food supply and benthic community patterns on the carbon remineralisation of the polar shelf benthos in seasonally ice-covered seas.

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    Authors: Tonin, Joseph;

    Over the past few decades, terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been recognized as a fundamental driver of food web productivity in nutrient poor lakes. The mechanisms that underlie these effects remain poorly understood, particularly for higher trophic levels including zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. In a survey of eight lakes in northwestern Ontario, I determined consumer biomass and used stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to investigate relationships between DOC and pathways of energy flow, resource and habitat availability, and consumer biomass. Using Bayesian stable isotope mixing models, I found that hypolimnetic phytoplankton were an important resource for zooplankton in low-DOC lakes. With increased DOC concentrations, light attenuation increased and chlorophyll a concentrations below the thermocline were reduced relative to epilimnetic concentrations. At higher DOC concentrations, zooplankton acquired proportionately more energy from low quality terrestrial sources. Zooplankton biomass also declined with increasing utilization of terrestrial sources (allochthony), suggesting that terrestrial organic matter suppresses zooplankton productivity through simultaneous limitations on habitat and resource availability and quality. Based on biomass, the dominant fish species across my study lakes was White Sucker (Catostomus commersonnii). Bayesian mixing models indicated that allochthony by White Suckers increased with DOC and that greater allochthony was related to lower White Sucker biomass measured as catch-per-unit-effort (bCPUE). Both White Sucker bCPUE and chironomid biomass were positively related to mean light irradiance, with the highest biomasses of fish and chironomids occurring in lakes with a higher proportion of their volume in the photic zone. White Sucker bCPUE was strongly and positively correlated with chironomid biomass, suggesting that DOC-mediated resource limitation may influence fish productivity via reduced prey availability.

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    Authors: LACROIX, Denis; DAVID, Bernard; LAMBLIN, Véronique; DE MENTHIERE, Nicolas; +7 Authors

    The perception of ocean areas by policy-makers or by people, living or not on the coast, has significantly varied over centuries. Due to its vastness and complexity, the sea has been studied within distinct academic disciplines. However, the current issues related to the sea, such as climate change, marine pollution or coastal tourism, require an integrated vision of the assets and drawbacks in order to meet the challenges arising from human activities both at sea and onshore. In this study, a group of foresight officers from the French network of public research institutes decided to cross-check and compare several science approaches (biology, sociology, economics, etc) about oceans. Thus, 11 sectors of maritime activity (transportation, fisheries, energy, etc.) were cross-tabulated with 9 basic social functions (providing food, housing, learning, etc.). In this matrix, the main challenges and issues projected for 2030 were sought, in the frame of a baseline scenario. Results were clustered through 4 criteria, leading to 9 major challenges, each of them broken down into two important issues for research. The outcomes were used to create a survey, allowing the ranking of the research priorities. Most of the 9 challenges tally with the research and development objectives of great maritime states, except for governance and monitoring, which remain underscored. As a result, maritime powers still show more interest on securing national resources rather than on promoting international cooperation for secure trade and sustainable exploitation of marine resources. But foresight in this field could help changing the mentalities notably because oceans show clearly now to be a vital common good for mankind.

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    Authors: AULANIER, Florian; NICOLAS, Barbara; ROUX, Philippe; MARS, Jerome;