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    Authors: Crozier, Walter; Whelan, Ken; Buoro, Mathieu; Chaput, Gérald; +10 Authors

    Based on a workshop organised by the Atlantic Salmon Trust, held in Edinburgh Tuesday, 6th November – Thursday, 8th November 2017.; International audience

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    Authors: Hingamp P.; Iudicone D.; Brum J. R.; Zingone A.; +49 Authors

    Agulhas rings provide the principal route for ocean waters to circulate from the Indo-Pacific to the Atlantic basin. Their influence on global ocean circulation is well known, but their role in plankton transport is largely unexplored. We show that, although the coarse taxonomic structure of plankton communities is continuous across the Agulhas choke point, South Atlantic plankton diversity is altered compared with Indian Ocean source populations. Modeling and in situ sampling of a young Agulhas ring indicate that strong vertical mixing drives complex nitrogen cycling, shaping community metabolism and biogeochemical signatures as the ring and associated plankton transit westward. The peculiar local environment inside Agulhas rings may provide a selective mechanism contributing to the limited dispersal of Indian Ocean plankton populations into the Atlantic.

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    Authors: Eldrogi, Nawal; Luthon, Franck; Larroque, Benoît; Alqaddafi, Sultan; +1 Authors

    Motion analysis of living animals might help to understand the dangers that threaten the species, but it is sometimes technically challenging. This is particularly true for biologists who study migrating fishes of the basin of Adour. Here, we investigate the use of computer vision for automatic tracking and acquisition of knowledge about the migratory behavior of glass eels. For that purpose, some glass eels are color-marked, then introduced into an experimental medium reproducing tidal conditions. Observations are collected in video sequences. To get information about fish behavior, one can track their motion by optical flow methods. Preliminary results show that one can estimate the velocity but also the swimming behavior, hence eventually leading to energetic information about the animals.

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    Authors: LACROIX, Denis; DAVID, Bernard; LAMBLIN, Véronique; DE MENTHIERE, Nicolas; +7 Authors

    The perception of ocean areas by policy-makers or by people, living or not on the coast, has significantly varied over centuries. Due to its vastness and complexity, the sea has been studied within distinct academic disciplines. However, the current issues related to the sea, such as climate change, marine pollution or coastal tourism, require an integrated vision of the assets and drawbacks in order to meet the challenges arising from human activities both at sea and onshore. In this study, a group of foresight officers from the French network of public research institutes decided to cross-check and compare several science approaches (biology, sociology, economics, etc) about oceans. Thus, 11 sectors of maritime activity (transportation, fisheries, energy, etc.) were cross-tabulated with 9 basic social functions (providing food, housing, learning, etc.). In this matrix, the main challenges and issues projected for 2030 were sought, in the frame of a baseline scenario. Results were clustered through 4 criteria, leading to 9 major challenges, each of them broken down into two important issues for research. The outcomes were used to create a survey, allowing the ranking of the research priorities. Most of the 9 challenges tally with the research and development objectives of great maritime states, except for governance and monitoring, which remain underscored. As a result, maritime powers still show more interest on securing national resources rather than on promoting international cooperation for secure trade and sustainable exploitation of marine resources. But foresight in this field could help changing the mentalities notably because oceans show clearly now to be a vital common good for mankind.

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    Authors: Conflon, Deborah;

    Les virus du genre Begomovirus (famille Geminiviridae) sont fréquemment détectés en association avec des ADN satellites appelées alphasatellite et betasatellite qui font la moitié de la taille du génome viral. L’alphasatellite est autonome pour sa réplication et dépend du virus pour son mouvement et son encapsidation tandis que le betasatellite est dépendant de ces fonctions virales. L’alphasatellite a rarement été montré comme ayant un impact sur le virus assistant, contrairement au betasatellite qui augmente la virulence de son virus assistant. En dehors des bégomovirus tels que le Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) qui ont besoin d’un betasatellite pour initier une infection symptomatique dans leur hôte naturel, la plupart des bégomovirus peuvent causer des symptômes, même sans les satellites avec lesquels ils sont parfois détectés. Le Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), un des virus les plus dommageables dans le monde a rarement été détecté associé à des ADN satellites. Les souches méditerranéennes qui sont aussi les plus invasives, n’ont jamais été détectées avec des ADN satellites, bien qu’elles soient capables en conditions artificielles de les assister avec pour conséquence une considérable augmentation de la virulence en cas de co-inoculation avec un betasatellite. Le risque potentiel d’association de satellites avec le TYLCV-Mld a été évalué en testant divers facteurs potentiellement impliqués dans le maintien de l’association TYLCV-satellite: (i) l'accumulation relative intra-plante du TYLCV et des satellites, (ii) la fréquence de co-infection au niveau cellulaire du TYLCV et des satellites, et (iii) l'efficacité de transmission des satellites par le vecteur Bemisia tabaci. Trois satellites précédemment isolés sur coton au Burkina Faso ont été montrés comme pouvant être assistés par le TYLCV dans des plantes de tomate: Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB), Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) et Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). La quantification par PCR quantitative des ADN du TYLCV et des trois satellites entre 11 et 150 jours après inoculation (dpi) révèle qu’en général, les satellites ont une accumulation supérieure à celle du virus, et que, contrairement aux alphasatellites qui n’ont aucun impact, le betasatellite affecte l’accumulation du TYLCV-Mld. Bien que le rapport des quantités de virus/satellites varie au cours du temps, les satellites sont maintenus avec le TYLCV-Mld au temps tardif de 150 dpi et sont transmis par B. tabaci à 32 et 150 dpi. Le TYLCV-IL interagit différemment avec le CLCuGB car son accumulation n’est pas affectée dans les plantes coinfectées.L’estimation par la technique FISH à 18 et 32 dpi de la fréquence d’association des molécules au niveau cellulaire montre que plus de la moitié des cellules infectées sont coinfectées par le TYLCV et un satellite. Ce résultat est cohérent avec la fréquence observée d’ADN satellite dans les plantes. Cependant, on observe de manière inattendue un nombre important de cellules ne semblant contenir que le betasatellite, ce qui pose des questions sur le fonctionnement des associations virus/satellites. Comme la multiplicité d'infection (MOI) des bégomovirus et des satellites est attendue pour être un facteur déterminant de l’efficacité de la co-infection cellulaire, deux variants équi-competitifs de TYLCV ont été préparés afin de déterminer ce paramètre. Enfin, des amorces PCR permettant la détection générique de betasatellites ont été dessinées pour être utilisées dans le diagnostic par l'Agence française pour l'alimentation, l'environnement et la santé et sécurité au travail (ANSES). Outre les conséquences agronomiques d’un maintien possible des satellites avec le TYLCV, les résultats de cette étude donnent un aperçu novateur sur les interactions entre les bégomovirus et les satellites, au niveau de la plante, au niveau cellulaire et moléculaire. Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are frequently detected with half genome sized defective virus DNAs, and for some of them with satellite DNAs of similar size, i.e. alphasatellite and betasatellite. Both molecules rely on the virus for maintenance in plant. The alphasatellite was rarely proved to have an impact on the helper virus but the betasatellite was often shown to increase its virulence. Except some begomoviruses, like Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) which rely on a betasatellite for a full symptomatic infection in its natural host plant, most of the begomoviruses which were frequently detected with satellites do not rely on them for infectivity. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most damaging begomovirus worldwide. The Mediterranean IL and Mld strains, the most invasive ones, were never detected in association with satellites, although they were experimentally proved to readily assist them for replication and movement in plant. This was particularly true for betasatellites and resulted in a dramatic increase in the virulence of TYLCV.The potential of a TYLCV-satellite association was assessed by testing various factors involved in the maintenance of both molecules in tomato plants: (i) the relative intra-plant accumulation of TYLCV and satellites, (ii) the frequency of host cells co-infected with TYLCV and satellites, and (iii) the transmission efficiency of satellites by the natural whitefly vector of TYLCV, Bemisia tabaci. Three satellites previously isolated from okra in Burkina Faso, were shown here to be assisted by TYLCV in tomato plants: Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB), Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) and Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). The dynamic of TYLCV and satellite DNAs monitored between 11 and 150 days post-inoculation (dpi) by quantitative PCR revealed that satellites accumulated at a higher level than the virus, and that, in contrast with alphasatellites which have no impact, betasatellites affected TYLCV-Mld accumulation. Although the ratio of virus/satellite amounts varies over time, satellites were maintained in all test plants up to 150 dpi and were readily transmitted at 32 and 150 dpi. TYLCV-IL interacts differentially with CLCuGB as its accumulation was not affected in the coinfected plants.At 32 dpi, the TYLCV/satellite infection status of plant cells was determined by FISH and more than 50% of the monitored infected cells were co-infected with TYLCV and a satellite. The infection status was consistent with the frequency of satellite DNA in plants. Unexpectedly a substantial number of cells were positive only for betasatellite, suggesting that the coinfection with the virus could be dispensable for replication. This observation raises question on the functioning of virus/satellite association or multipartite viruses. As the multiplicity of infection (MOI) of begomoviruses and satellites is expected to be a determinant of the efficiency of virus/satellite cell coinfection, two equi-competitive TYLCV variants were prepared to determine this parameter for TYLCV. Finally, PCR primers designed for the generic detection of betasatellites were designed to be used as a diagnostic tool by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES).Besides the agronomic concern of the possible maintenance of DNA satellites with TYLCV, the results of our study are expected to provide a new insight on the interactions between begomovirus and satellites, at the plant, cellular and molecular levels.

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    Authors: Lacroix, Sébastien;

    Le foisonnement filamenteux est un problème récurant dans de nombreuses stations d'épuration à boues activées. L'objectif de ces travaux est d'améliorer la compréhension des mécanismes physiologiques et moléculaires impliqués dans la filamentation des microorganismes, afin de pouvoir orienter de futures stratégies de lutte contre le phénomène de bulking. Sphaerotilus natans, qui peut croître réversiblement sous forme monocellulaire ou filamenteuse, a été utilisée comme bactérie modèle pour cette étude. Différents types de cultures, ainsi que des suivis par cytométrie en flux et marquage au cFDA/SE, ont montré que les diverses souches de S. natans adoptent des morphologies différentes et que les filaments croissent par divisions cellulaires successives et non par un chaînage des bactéries. Une analyse par RT-QPCR a mis en évidence que l'expression du gène sthA augmente fortement après induction de la filamentation et reste ensuite à un niveau élevé. Une comparaison de l'expression protéique des formes monocellulaire et filamenteuse, par LC-MS-MS, a permis d'identifier des protéines impliquées dans la filamentation, et notamment dans la synthèse de la gaine. La concentration intracellulaire en ARNr, mesurée par RT-QPCR, varie durant la croissance de S. natans et d'autres microorganismes, entraînant une diminution importante de l'intensité du marquage FISH, mesurée par cytométrie en flux. L'utilisation de la technique FISH pour quantifier des microorganismes est donc remise en question, d'autant plus dans des matrices aussi complexes que les boues activées. Ces observations mettent également en doute l'hypothèse, émise en utilisant ce mode de quantification, d'une déstructuration des filaments consécutive à un retour à des conditions de culture plus favorables. Filamentous bulking is a widespread problem in many activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of physiological and molecular mechanisms of filamentation, in order to define strategies for future treatments against bulking. Sphaerotilus natans, which is able to grow reversibly as single-cell or filament, has been used as a model within this work. Different types of culture experiments, as well as cFDA/SE staining and flow cytometry analysis have showed that different strains of S. natans have various behaviours and that filaments grow by a chain of cell divisions instead of a reassembly of single cells. RT-QPCR analysis shows that sthA gene expression increases strongly after induction of filamentation and then stays at high level. LC-MS-MS analysis of protein expression from filamentous and single-cell forms of S. natans allows the identification of enzymes involved in filamentation and especially in sheath synthesis. Intracellular rRNA concentration, measured by RT-QPCR, varies strongly during S. natans and other microorganism growth, leading to an important decrease in the FISH signal intensity, measured by flow cytometry. The efficiency of bacterial quantification using FISH, especially in complex matrix such as activated sludge is therefore questioned. The hypothesis of filament lysis when growth conditions return to normal, deduced from FISH quantification, is also weakened.

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    Authors: AULANIER, Florian; NICOLAS, Barbara; ROUX, Philippe; MARS, Jerome;

    Broadband acoustic signals around 1 kHz propagate through shallow water oceanic waveguides of ~100 m in depth and ~2 km in range as multiple ray-like wavefronts. These acoustic arrivals can be characterized by the following observables: travel-time (TT), direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD). By applying double-beamforming on the point-to-point signals recorded between two source-receiver arrays, the acoustic contribution of each arrival can be separated from the multi-reverberated data and the TT, DOA and DOD observable variations are accurately measured. This study deals with the use of time-angle sensitivity kernels (TASK) to estimate the observable variations induced by sound speed perturbations in the waveguide. This approach is based on the first order Born approximation and takes into account the finite-frequency effects associated with wave propagation. The robustness the TASK approach is analyzed and compared to numerical parabolic equation simulations involving different sound speed perturbations. For example, parameters such as the perturbation location, the value and shape of the perturbation in the waveguide are modified. The combination of several perturbations and the influence of the source-receiver array apertures on the TT, DOA and DOD estimates are also studied.

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    Authors: Michaud, H.; Marsaleix, P.; Leredde, Y.; Estournel, C.; +4 Authors

    We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a) following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c). These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010) and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999). The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009)and Uchiyama et al. (2010). A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002) of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data. Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea) for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the inner shelf are less visible since wind and regional circulation seem to be the predominant forcings. Besides, a discrepancy between model and observations is noted at that scale, possibly linked to an underestimation of the wind stress. This three-dimensional method allows a good representation of vertical current profiles and permits the calculation of the shear stress associated with waves and currents. Future work will focus on the combination with a sediment transport model.

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    Copernicus Publications
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Marillet, Simon; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Boudinot, Pierre; Cazals, Frédéric;

    Antibody–antigen complexes challenge our understanding, as analyses to date failed to unveil the key determinants of binding affinity and interaction specificity. We partially fill this gap based on novel quantitative analyses using two standardized databases, the IMGT/3Dstructure-DB and the structure affinity benchmark. First, we introduce a statistical analysis of interfaces which enables the classification of ligand types (protein, peptide, and chemical; cross-validated classification error of 9.6%) and yield binding affinity predictions of unprecedented accuracy (median absolute error of 0.878 kcal/mol). Second, we exploit the contributions made by CDRs in terms of position at the interface and atomic packing properties to show that in general, VH CDR3 and VL CDR3 make dominant contributions to the binding affinity, a fact also shown to be consistent with the enthalpy–entropy compensation associated with preconfiguration of CDR3. Our work suggests that the affinity prediction problem could be partially solved from databases of high resolution crystal structures of complexes with known affinity.

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    Frontiers in Immunology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Immunology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Gao, K.;
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    Authors: Crozier, Walter; Whelan, Ken; Buoro, Mathieu; Chaput, Gérald; +10 Authors

    Based on a workshop organised by the Atlantic Salmon Trust, held in Edinburgh Tuesday, 6th November – Thursday, 8th November 2017.; International audience

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    Authors: Hingamp P.; Iudicone D.; Brum J. R.; Zingone A.; +49 Authors

    Agulhas rings provide the principal route for ocean waters to circulate from the Indo-Pacific to the Atlantic basin. Their influence on global ocean circulation is well known, but their role in plankton transport is largely unexplored. We show that, although the coarse taxonomic structure of plankton communities is continuous across the Agulhas choke point, South Atlantic plankton diversity is altered compared with Indian Ocean source populations. Modeling and in situ sampling of a young Agulhas ring indicate that strong vertical mixing drives complex nitrogen cycling, shaping community metabolism and biogeochemical signatures as the ring and associated plankton transit westward. The peculiar local environment inside Agulhas rings may provide a selective mechanism contributing to the limited dispersal of Indian Ocean plankton populations into the Atlantic.

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    OpenAIRE
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    Authors: Eldrogi, Nawal; Luthon, Franck; Larroque, Benoît; Alqaddafi, Sultan; +1 Authors

    Motion analysis of living animals might help to understand the dangers that threaten the species, but it is sometimes technically challenging. This is particularly true for biologists who study migrating fishes of the basin of Adour. Here, we investigate the use of computer vision for automatic tracking and acquisition of knowledge about the migratory behavior of glass eels. For that purpose, some glass eels are color-marked, then introduced into an experimental medium reproducing tidal conditions. Observations are collected in video sequences. To get information about fish behavior, one can track their motion by optical flow methods. Preliminary results show that one can estimate the velocity but also the swimming behavior, hence eventually leading to energetic information about the animals.

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    Authors: LACROIX, Denis; DAVID, Bernard; LAMBLIN, Véronique; DE MENTHIERE, Nicolas; +7 Authors

    The perception of ocean areas by policy-makers or by people, living or not on the coast, has significantly varied over centuries. Due to its vastness and complexity, the sea has been studied within distinct academic disciplines. However, the current issues related to the sea, such as climate change, marine pollution or coastal tourism, require an integrated vision of the assets and drawbacks in order to meet the challenges arising from human activities both at sea and onshore. In this study, a group of foresight officers from the French network of public research institutes decided to cross-check and compare several science approaches (biology, sociology, economics, etc) about oceans. Thus, 11 sectors of maritime activity (transportation, fisheries, energy, etc.) were cross-tabulated with 9 basic social functions (providing food, housing, learning, etc.). In this matrix, the main challenges and issues projected for 2030 were sought, in the frame of a baseline scenario. Results were clustered through 4 criteria, leading to 9 major challenges, each of them broken down into two important issues for research. The outcomes were used to create a survey, allowing the ranking of the research priorities. Most of the 9 challenges tally with the research and development objectives of great maritime states, except for governance and monitoring, which remain underscored. As a result, maritime powers still show more interest on securing national resources rather than on promoting international cooperation for secure trade and sustainable exploitation of marine resources. But foresight in this field could help changing the mentalities notably because oceans show clearly now to be a vital common good for mankind.

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    Authors: Conflon, Deborah;

    Les virus du genre Begomovirus (famille Geminiviridae) sont fréquemment détectés en association avec des ADN satellites appelées alphasatellite et betasatellite qui font la moitié de la taille du génome viral. L’alphasatellite est autonome pour sa réplication et dépend du virus pour son mouvement et son encapsidation tandis que le betasatellite est dépendant de ces fonctions virales. L’alphasatellite a rarement été montré comme ayant un impact sur le virus assistant, contrairement au betasatellite qui augmente la virulence de son virus assistant. En dehors des bégomovirus tels que le Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) qui ont besoin d’un betasatellite pour initier une infection symptomatique dans leur hôte naturel, la plupart des bégomovirus peuvent causer des symptômes, même sans les satellites avec lesquels ils sont parfois détectés. Le Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), un des virus les plus dommageables dans le monde a rarement été détecté associé à des ADN satellites. Les souches méditerranéennes qui sont aussi les plus invasives, n’ont jamais été détectées avec des ADN satellites, bien qu’elles soient capables en conditions artificielles de les assister avec pour conséquence une considérable augmentation de la virulence en cas de co-inoculation avec un betasatellite. Le risque potentiel d’association de satellites avec le TYLCV-Mld a été évalué en testant divers facteurs potentiellement impliqués dans le maintien de l’association TYLCV-satellite: (i) l'accumulation relative intra-plante du TYLCV et des satellites, (ii) la fréquence de co-infection au niveau cellulaire du TYLCV et des satellites, et (iii) l'efficacité de transmission des satellites par le vecteur Bemisia tabaci. Trois satellites précédemment isolés sur coton au Burkina Faso ont été montrés comme pouvant être assistés par le TYLCV dans des plantes de tomate: Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB), Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) et Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). La quantification par PCR quantitative des ADN du TYLCV et des trois satellites entre 11 et 150 jours après inoculation (dpi) révèle qu’en général, les satellites ont une accumulation supérieure à celle du virus, et que, contrairement aux alphasatellites qui n’ont aucun impact, le betasatellite affecte l’accumulation du TYLCV-Mld. Bien que le rapport des quantités de virus/satellites varie au cours du temps, les satellites sont maintenus avec le TYLCV-Mld au temps tardif de 150 dpi et sont transmis par B. tabaci à 32 et 150 dpi. Le TYLCV-IL interagit différemment avec le CLCuGB car son accumulation n’est pas affectée dans les plantes coinfectées.L’estimation par la technique FISH à 18 et 32 dpi de la fréquence d’association des molécules au niveau cellulaire montre que plus de la moitié des cellules infectées sont coinfectées par le TYLCV et un satellite. Ce résultat est cohérent avec la fréquence observée d’ADN satellite dans les plantes. Cependant, on observe de manière inattendue un nombre important de cellules ne semblant contenir que le betasatellite, ce qui pose des questions sur le fonctionnement des associations virus/satellites. Comme la multiplicité d'infection (MOI) des bégomovirus et des satellites est attendue pour être un facteur déterminant de l’efficacité de la co-infection cellulaire, deux variants équi-competitifs de TYLCV ont été préparés afin de déterminer ce paramètre. Enfin, des amorces PCR permettant la détection générique de betasatellites ont été dessinées pour être utilisées dans le diagnostic par l'Agence française pour l'alimentation, l'environnement et la santé et sécurité au travail (ANSES). Outre les conséquences agronomiques d’un maintien possible des satellites avec le TYLCV, les résultats de cette étude donnent un aperçu novateur sur les interactions entre les bégomovirus et les satellites, au niveau de la plante, au niveau cellulaire et moléculaire. Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are frequently detected with half genome sized defective virus DNAs, and for some of them with satellite DNAs of similar size, i.e. alphasatellite and betasatellite. Both molecules rely on the virus for maintenance in plant. The alphasatellite was rarely proved to have an impact on the helper virus but the betasatellite was often shown to increase its virulence. Except some begomoviruses, like Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) which rely on a betasatellite for a full symptomatic infection in its natural host plant, most of the begomoviruses which were frequently detected with satellites do not rely on them for infectivity. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most damaging begomovirus worldwide. The Mediterranean IL and Mld strains, the most invasive ones, were never detected in association with satellites, although they were experimentally proved to readily assist them for replication and movement in plant. This was particularly true for betasatellites and resulted in a dramatic increase in the virulence of TYLCV.The potential of a TYLCV-satellite association was assessed by testing various factors involved in the maintenance of both molecules in tomato plants: (i) the relative intra-plant accumulation of TYLCV and satellites, (ii) the frequency of host cells co-infected with TYLCV and satellites, and (iii) the transmission efficiency of satellites by the natural whitefly vector of TYLCV, Bemisia tabaci. Three satellites previously isolated from okra in Burkina Faso, were shown here to be assisted by TYLCV in tomato plants: Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB), Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) and Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). The dynamic of TYLCV and satellite DNAs monitored between 11 and 150 days post-inoculation (dpi) by quantitative PCR revealed that satellites accumulated at a higher level than the virus, and that, in contrast with alphasatellites which have no impact, betasatellites affected TYLCV-Mld accumulation. Although the ratio of virus/satellite amounts varies over time, satellites were maintained in all test plants up to 150 dpi and were readily transmitted at 32 and 150 dpi. TYLCV-IL interacts differentially with CLCuGB as its accumulation was not affected in the coinfected plants.At 32 dpi, the TYLCV/satellite infection status of plant cells was determined by FISH and more than 50% of the monitored infected cells were co-infected with TYLCV and a satellite. The infection status was consistent with the frequency of satellite DNA in plants. Unexpectedly a substantial number of cells were positive only for betasatellite, suggesting that the coinfection with the virus could be dispensable for replication. This observation raises question on the functioning of virus/satellite association or multipartite viruses. As the multiplicity of infection (MOI) of begomoviruses and satellites is expected to be a determinant of the efficiency of virus/satellite cell coinfection, two equi-competitive TYLCV variants were prepared to determine this parameter for TYLCV. Finally, PCR primers designed for the generic detection of betasatellites were designed to be used as a diagnostic tool by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES).Besides the agronomic concern of the possible maintenance of DNA satellites with TYLCV, the results of our study are expected to provide a new insight on the interactions between begomovirus and satellites, at the plant, cellular and molecular levels.

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    Authors: Lacroix, Sébastien;

    Le foisonnement filamenteux est un problème récurant dans de nombreuses stations d'épuration à boues activées. L'objectif de ces travaux est d'améliorer la compréhension des mécanismes physiologiques et moléculaires impliqués dans la filamentation des microorganismes, afin de pouvoir orienter de futures stratégies de lutte contre le phénomène de bulking. Sphaerotilus natans, qui peut croître réversiblement sous forme monocellulaire ou filamenteuse, a été utilisée comme bactérie modèle pour cette étude. Différents types de cultures, ainsi que des suivis par cytométrie en flux et marquage au cFDA/SE, ont montré que les diverses souches de S. natans adoptent des morphologies différentes et que les filaments croissent par divisions cellulaires successives et non par un chaînage des bactéries. Une analyse par RT-QPCR a mis en évidence que l'expression du gène sthA augmente fortement après induction de la filamentation et reste ensuite à un niveau élevé. Une comparaison de l'expression protéique des formes monocellulaire et filamenteuse, par LC-MS-MS, a permis d'identifier des protéines impliquées dans la filamentation, et notamment dans la synthèse de la gaine. La concentration intracellulaire en ARNr, mesurée par RT-QPCR, varie durant la croissance de S. natans et d'autres microorganismes, entraînant une diminution importante de l'intensité du marquage FISH, mesurée par cytométrie en flux. L'utilisation de la technique FISH pour quantifier des microorganismes est donc remise en question, d'autant plus dans des matrices aussi complexes que les boues activées. Ces observations mettent également en doute l'hypothèse, émise en utilisant ce mode de quantification, d'une déstructuration des filaments consécutive à un retour à des conditions de culture plus favorables. Filamentous bulking is a widespread problem in many activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of physiological and molecular mechanisms of filamentation, in order to define strategies for future treatments against bulking. Sphaerotilus natans, which is able to grow reversibly as single-cell or filament, has been used as a model within this work. Different types of culture experiments, as well as cFDA/SE staining and flow cytometry analysis have showed that different strains of S. natans have various behaviours and that filaments grow by a chain of cell divisions instead of a reassembly of single cells. RT-QPCR analysis shows that sthA gene expression increases strongly after induction of filamentation and then stays at high level. LC-MS-MS analysis of protein expression from filamentous and single-cell forms of S. natans allows the identification of enzymes involved in filamentation and especially in sheath synthesis. Intracellular rRNA concentration, measured by RT-QPCR, varies strongly during S. natans and other microorganism growth, leading to an important decrease in the FISH signal intensity, measured by flow cytometry. The efficiency of bacterial quantification using FISH, especially in complex matrix such as activated sludge is therefore questioned. The hypothesis of filament lysis when growth conditions return to normal, deduced from FISH quantification, is also weakened.

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    Authors: AULANIER, Florian; NICOLAS, Barbara; ROUX, Philippe; MARS, Jerome;

    Broadband acoustic signals around 1 kHz propagate through shallow water oceanic waveguides of ~100 m in depth and ~2 km in range as multiple ray-like wavefronts. These acoustic arrivals can be characterized by the following observables: travel-time (TT), direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD). By applying double-beamforming on the point-to-point signals recorded between two source-receiver arrays, the acoustic contribution of each arrival can be separated from the multi-reverberated data and the TT, DOA and DOD observable variations are accurately measured. This study deals with the use of time-angle sensitivity kernels (TASK) to estimate the observable variations induced by sound speed perturbations in the waveguide. This approach is based on the first order Born approximation and takes into account the finite-frequency effects associated with wave propagation. The robustness the TASK approach is analyzed and compared to numerical parabolic equation simulations involving different sound speed perturbations. For example, parameters such as the perturbation location, the value and shape of the perturbation in the waveguide are modified. The combination of several perturbations and the influence of the source-receiver array apertures on the TT, DOA and DOD estimates are also studied.

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    Authors: Michaud, H.; Marsaleix, P.; Leredde, Y.; Estournel, C.; +4 Authors

    We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a) following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c). These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010) and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999). The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009)and Uchiyama et al. (2010). A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002) of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data. Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea) for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the inner shelf are less visible since wind and regional circulation seem to be the predominant forcings. Besides, a discrepancy between model and observations is noted at that scale, possibly linked to an underestimation of the wind stress. This three-dimensional method allows a good representation of vertical current profiles and permits the calculation of the shear stress associated with waves and currents. Future work will focus on the combination with a sediment transport model.

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    Copernicus Publications
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      Copernicus Publications
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    Authors: Marillet, Simon; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Boudinot, Pierre; Cazals, Frédéric;

    Antibody–antigen complexes challenge our understanding, as analyses to date failed to unveil the key determinants of binding affinity and interaction specificity. We partially fill this gap based on novel quantitative analyses using two standardized databases, the IMGT/3Dstructure-DB and the structure affinity benchmark. First, we introduce a statistical analysis of interfaces which enables the classification of ligand types (protein, peptide, and chemical; cross-validated classification error of 9.6%) and yield binding affinity predictions of unprecedented accuracy (median absolute error of 0.878 kcal/mol). Second, we exploit the contributions made by CDRs in terms of position at the interface and atomic packing properties to show that in general, VH CDR3 and VL CDR3 make dominant contributions to the binding affinity, a fact also shown to be consistent with the enthalpy–entropy compensation associated with preconfiguration of CDR3. Our work suggests that the affinity prediction problem could be partially solved from databases of high resolution crystal structures of complexes with known affinity.

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    Frontiers in Immunology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Immunology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Gao, K.;
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