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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vučinić Marijana; Radisavljević Katarina;
    Publisher: Veterinarski glasnik
    Country: Serbia

    Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rašković Božidar S.; Stanković Marko B.; Marković Zoran Z.; Poleksić Vesna D.;
    Publisher: Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Belgrade
    Country: Serbia

    This manuscript describes the importance of using histological methods to assess the effects of feed on the liver and intestine of fish. Due to the constantly increasing world production of fish and other aquatic organisms, it is necessary to replace fishmeal and fish oil in diets with less expensive raw materials of plant origin. Due to the increased fiber content, increased presence of carbohydrates, antinutritional factors, and inappropriate content of amino acids and new compounds can have negative effects on the digestive system of fish and therefore on fitness, health and production characteristics of cultivated fish. The liver and intestines are the most important organs for the digestion and absorption of nutrients from feed. Therefore, monitoring histological structure of fish liver and intestine is the method of choice in assessing the effects of nutrient mixtures that use raw materials of plant origin. For both of these vital organs the normal histological structure and the most important results obtained by research are discussed. This paper presents a critical review of the histological methods used in research on feed effects. Results related to the negative effects of raw soy-based feed on the occurrence of enteritis in carnivorous fish species are discussed. The results point out that use of modern approach in fish pathology such as improved histochemical, stereological, scoring, and other analytical methods could be a beneficial approach in an accurate assessment of new feed effects on fish.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Radulović Snežana; Boon P.J.; Laketić Dušanka; Simonović P.; Puzović S.; Živković Milica; Jurca Tamara; Ovuka M.; Malaguti S.; Teodorović Ivana;
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation). SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istrazivanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema) III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, odrzivo koriscenje i zastita) 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Šantić Mate; Pallaoro Armin; Markov Martina; Jardas Ivan;
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    The relationship between classical morphometric measurements (12) and meristic traits (8) was examined in 435 specimens of megrim (214 males, 221 females) caught in the eastern central Adriatic Sea. Total length of all specimens ranged from 9.0 to 34.6 cm. Morphological differences between males and females was not marked. Biometric analysis of the morphometric and meristic traits indicated a homogenous morphology stock of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis in the eastern central Adriatic Sea. Changes in some morphometric traits obtained in conjunction with an increase in body length showed that smaller specimens have longer standard length, head, pectoral fins and preanal distance than adult specimens. The positive correlation recorded for the maximum body height indicated that the body slightly shortened with megrim growth. The morphometric and meristic traits of megrim from different Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic areas are mostly in accordance with previously published articles.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Georgieva Еlenka; Yancheva Vesela; Velcheva Iliana; Becheva Maria; Stoyanova Stela;
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    Topolnitsa Reservoir is located in a region of Bulgaria rich in copper mines where intensive mining has been ongoing for several decades. General data on the ecological status of the reservoir and the effects of metal on fish is relatively scarce. The first aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of six metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in water samples and in the gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). The second objective was to examine gill structure and determine the severity of histological alteration as a result of metal exposure. Surface water and fish gill samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn in 2012 and metal and histological analyses were performed. Metal concentrations in the water samples varied, but only Cu concentrations were determined in all three seasons and they were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The gill metal concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the water. Examination of gill structure revealed the presence of proliferative and degenerative changes, as well as changes in the blood vessels. Histological lesions were similar in their severity in all three seasons. This study provides the first information about metal effects on the morphology of European perch gills from Topolnitsa Reservoir. It can be concluded that the metal contamination of the Topolnitsa Reservoir and fish is chronic and that it can negatively affect the structure and function of fish gills. As metals display a tendency to accumulate in fish gills, their effects are expected to become more severe with time, as they affect gill functions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Višnjić-Jeftić Željka; Lenhardt Mirjana; Navodaru I.; Hegediš A.; Gačić Z.; Nikčević M.;
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    Specimens of Pontic shad (Alosa pontica Eichwald, 1838) were collected during April and May of 2006 in the Danube River (rkm 863) just downstream of the Iron Gate (Djerdap) II dam. Twenty-eight scales and 30 vertebrae were prepared and given to five interpreters with fish aging experience of from 3 to 30 years and with shad aging experience of from 0 to 12 years. Interpreters with experience in shad age determination showed lower values for the index of average percent error (IAPE) and an index of coefficient of variation (ICV). In regard to within-interpreter reproducibility, no significant differences were found between scale and vertebrae as structure for age determination. The most experienced reader showed the lowest value for IAPE, while the least experienced reader showed the highest value for IAPE. The results of this work indicate that experience in age determination by particular structure had more impact on age determination precision than specificity of structure, scale or vertebra. More work is needed on adopting standard protocols that must include some sort of common interaction between responsible age readers.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ruban Dmitry A.;
    Publisher: Geoloski anali Balkanskoga poluostrva
    Country: Serbia

    The Caucasian Sea, fringing the northern margin of the Jurassic Neotethys Ocean, largely covered the Caucasus. Continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine palaeoenvironments delineate palaeogeographic outlines for three significant time slices: the Late Toarcian, the Early Bajocian and the Middle Oxfordian. These new palaeogeographic outlines of the Caucasus and adjacent territories match the Neotethys Ocean reconstructions. In the Late Toarcian the Caucasian Sea embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin and the Black Sea Caspian Sea Basin, which were divided by the Northern Transcaucasian Arc; it opened to the Neotethys Ocean which covered the Exterior Caucasian Basin. In the Early Bajocian, the Caucasian Sea only embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin; it opened the epicontinental seas of the Russian Platform, connecting them with the Neotethys Ocean by straits between islands of the Transcaucasian Arc. In the Middle Oxfordian, the Caucasian Sea which further embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin had its outer shelf fringed by carbonate build-ups. The connection between the Russian Platform shallow sea and the Neotethys Ocean was maintained. In the course of the Jurassic, a seaway developed along the northern margin of the Neotethys, of which the Caucasian Sea became a significant part.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mihailović Mirjana; Arambašić Jelena; Bogojević Desanka; Dinić Svetlana; Grdović Nevena; Grigorov Ilijana; Ivanović-Matić Svetlana; Labus-Blagojević Svetlana; Martinović Vesna; Petrović M.; +3 more
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    The expression of CYP1A, a biomarker for the presence of xenobiotic compounds, was examined in three fish species from the wider vicinity of Bar harbor in winter and spring. Induction of CYP1A was observed in winter and increased further in spring. Several PCBs were found in seawater in winter. They decreased below the limit of detection in spring, when the PAH fluorene was detected. It is concluded that the constant presence of CYP1A expression is probably due to pollutants in the environment, whereas increased expression of CYP1A in spring results from exposure of the fish to fluorene. .

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cakić Predrag; Paunović M.; Stojanović Bojana; Đikanović Vesna; Kulišić Z.;
    Publisher: Acta veterinaria
    Country: Serbia

    During the study of fish parasites in the Serbian section of the Danube River in 2003, a new Trematoda species for ichthyofauna of Serbia has been detected. It is, at the same time, the first finding of larvae of Metagonimus yokogawai in Serbia, as adult forms have been observed from mallard Anas platyrhynchus (L.), previously. Metacercariae of M. yokogawai have been identified on the scales of chub Leuciscus cephalus (L.), barbel Barbus barbus (L.), bleak Alburnus alburnus (L.), pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.) and rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.) in the Serbian part of Danube River. The particular risk, beside the possible negative influence of spreading on fish and other host populations (some aquatic snails, fish-eating birds and some mammals), is the potential spreading of the parasitic disease in humans - Metagonimosis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hose Dirk; Seckinger Anja; Jauch Anna; Reme Thierry; Moreaux Jerome; Bertsch Uta; Neben Kai; Klein Bernard; Goldschmidt Hartmut;
    Publisher: Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
    Country: Serbia

    Multiple myeloma patients’ survival under treatment varies from a few months to more than 15 years. Clinical prognostic factors, especially beta2-microglobulin (B2M) and the international staging system (ISS), allow risk assessment to a certain extent, but do not identify patients at very high risk. As malignant plasma cells are characterized by a variety of chromosomal aberrations and changes in gene expression, a molecular characterization of CD138-purified myeloma cells by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) and gene expression profiling (GEP) can be used for improved risk assessment. iFISH allows a risk stratification with presence of a translocation t(4;14) and/or deletion of 17p13 being the best documented adverse prognostic factors. A deletion of 13q14 is no longer considered to define adverse risk. Patients harbouring a t(4;14) seems to benefit from a bortezomib- or lenalidomide containing regimen, whereas patients with deletion 17p13 seem only to benefit from a high dose therapy approach using long term bortezomib (in induction and maintenance) and autologous tandem-transplantation as used in the GMMG-HD4 trial, or the total therapy 3 concept. Gene expression profiling allows the assessment of high risk scores (IFM, UAMS), remaining prognostic despite treatment with novel agents, and prognostic surrogates of biological factors (e.g. proliferation) and (prognostic) target gene expression (e.g. Aurora-kinase A). Thus, assessment of B2M and ISS-stage, iFISH, and GEP is considered extended routine diagnostics in therapy requiring multiple myeloma patients for risk assessment and, even now, to a certain extent selection of treatment.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
25 Research products, page 1 of 3
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vučinić Marijana; Radisavljević Katarina;
    Publisher: Veterinarski glasnik
    Country: Serbia

    Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rašković Božidar S.; Stanković Marko B.; Marković Zoran Z.; Poleksić Vesna D.;
    Publisher: Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Belgrade
    Country: Serbia

    This manuscript describes the importance of using histological methods to assess the effects of feed on the liver and intestine of fish. Due to the constantly increasing world production of fish and other aquatic organisms, it is necessary to replace fishmeal and fish oil in diets with less expensive raw materials of plant origin. Due to the increased fiber content, increased presence of carbohydrates, antinutritional factors, and inappropriate content of amino acids and new compounds can have negative effects on the digestive system of fish and therefore on fitness, health and production characteristics of cultivated fish. The liver and intestines are the most important organs for the digestion and absorption of nutrients from feed. Therefore, monitoring histological structure of fish liver and intestine is the method of choice in assessing the effects of nutrient mixtures that use raw materials of plant origin. For both of these vital organs the normal histological structure and the most important results obtained by research are discussed. This paper presents a critical review of the histological methods used in research on feed effects. Results related to the negative effects of raw soy-based feed on the occurrence of enteritis in carnivorous fish species are discussed. The results point out that use of modern approach in fish pathology such as improved histochemical, stereological, scoring, and other analytical methods could be a beneficial approach in an accurate assessment of new feed effects on fish.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Radulović Snežana; Boon P.J.; Laketić Dušanka; Simonović P.; Puzović S.; Živković Milica; Jurca Tamara; Ovuka M.; Malaguti S.; Teodorović Ivana;
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation). SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istrazivanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema) III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, odrzivo koriscenje i zastita) 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Šantić Mate; Pallaoro Armin; Markov Martina; Jardas Ivan;
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    The relationship between classical morphometric measurements (12) and meristic traits (8) was examined in 435 specimens of megrim (214 males, 221 females) caught in the eastern central Adriatic Sea. Total length of all specimens ranged from 9.0 to 34.6 cm. Morphological differences between males and females was not marked. Biometric analysis of the morphometric and meristic traits indicated a homogenous morphology stock of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis in the eastern central Adriatic Sea. Changes in some morphometric traits obtained in conjunction with an increase in body length showed that smaller specimens have longer standard length, head, pectoral fins and preanal distance than adult specimens. The positive correlation recorded for the maximum body height indicated that the body slightly shortened with megrim growth. The morphometric and meristic traits of megrim from different Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic areas are mostly in accordance with previously published articles.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Georgieva Еlenka; Yancheva Vesela; Velcheva Iliana; Becheva Maria; Stoyanova Stela;
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    Topolnitsa Reservoir is located in a region of Bulgaria rich in copper mines where intensive mining has been ongoing for several decades. General data on the ecological status of the reservoir and the effects of metal on fish is relatively scarce. The first aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of six metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in water samples and in the gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). The second objective was to examine gill structure and determine the severity of histological alteration as a result of metal exposure. Surface water and fish gill samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn in 2012 and metal and histological analyses were performed. Metal concentrations in the water samples varied, but only Cu concentrations were determined in all three seasons and they were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The gill metal concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the water. Examination of gill structure revealed the presence of proliferative and degenerative changes, as well as changes in the blood vessels. Histological lesions were similar in their severity in all three seasons. This study provides the first information about metal effects on the morphology of European perch gills from Topolnitsa Reservoir. It can be concluded that the metal contamination of the Topolnitsa Reservoir and fish is chronic and that it can negatively affect the structure and function of fish gills. As metals display a tendency to accumulate in fish gills, their effects are expected to become more severe with time, as they affect gill functions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Višnjić-Jeftić Željka; Lenhardt Mirjana; Navodaru I.; Hegediš A.; Gačić Z.; Nikčević M.;
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    Specimens of Pontic shad (Alosa pontica Eichwald, 1838) were collected during April and May of 2006 in the Danube River (rkm 863) just downstream of the Iron Gate (Djerdap) II dam. Twenty-eight scales and 30 vertebrae were prepared and given to five interpreters with fish aging experience of from 3 to 30 years and with shad aging experience of from 0 to 12 years. Interpreters with experience in shad age determination showed lower values for the index of average percent error (IAPE) and an index of coefficient of variation (ICV). In regard to within-interpreter reproducibility, no significant differences were found between scale and vertebrae as structure for age determination. The most experienced reader showed the lowest value for IAPE, while the least experienced reader showed the highest value for IAPE. The results of this work indicate that experience in age determination by particular structure had more impact on age determination precision than specificity of structure, scale or vertebra. More work is needed on adopting standard protocols that must include some sort of common interaction between responsible age readers.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ruban Dmitry A.;
    Publisher: Geoloski anali Balkanskoga poluostrva
    Country: Serbia

    The Caucasian Sea, fringing the northern margin of the Jurassic Neotethys Ocean, largely covered the Caucasus. Continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine palaeoenvironments delineate palaeogeographic outlines for three significant time slices: the Late Toarcian, the Early Bajocian and the Middle Oxfordian. These new palaeogeographic outlines of the Caucasus and adjacent territories match the Neotethys Ocean reconstructions. In the Late Toarcian the Caucasian Sea embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin and the Black Sea Caspian Sea Basin, which were divided by the Northern Transcaucasian Arc; it opened to the Neotethys Ocean which covered the Exterior Caucasian Basin. In the Early Bajocian, the Caucasian Sea only embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin; it opened the epicontinental seas of the Russian Platform, connecting them with the Neotethys Ocean by straits between islands of the Transcaucasian Arc. In the Middle Oxfordian, the Caucasian Sea which further embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin had its outer shelf fringed by carbonate build-ups. The connection between the Russian Platform shallow sea and the Neotethys Ocean was maintained. In the course of the Jurassic, a seaway developed along the northern margin of the Neotethys, of which the Caucasian Sea became a significant part.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mihailović Mirjana; Arambašić Jelena; Bogojević Desanka; Dinić Svetlana; Grdović Nevena; Grigorov Ilijana; Ivanović-Matić Svetlana; Labus-Blagojević Svetlana; Martinović Vesna; Petrović M.; +3 more
    Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
    Country: Serbia

    The expression of CYP1A, a biomarker for the presence of xenobiotic compounds, was examined in three fish species from the wider vicinity of Bar harbor in winter and spring. Induction of CYP1A was observed in winter and increased further in spring. Several PCBs were found in seawater in winter. They decreased below the limit of detection in spring, when the PAH fluorene was detected. It is concluded that the constant presence of CYP1A expression is probably due to pollutants in the environment, whereas increased expression of CYP1A in spring results from exposure of the fish to fluorene. .

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cakić Predrag; Paunović M.; Stojanović Bojana; Đikanović Vesna; Kulišić Z.;
    Publisher: Acta veterinaria
    Country: Serbia

    During the study of fish parasites in the Serbian section of the Danube River in 2003, a new Trematoda species for ichthyofauna of Serbia has been detected. It is, at the same time, the first finding of larvae of Metagonimus yokogawai in Serbia, as adult forms have been observed from mallard Anas platyrhynchus (L.), previously. Metacercariae of M. yokogawai have been identified on the scales of chub Leuciscus cephalus (L.), barbel Barbus barbus (L.), bleak Alburnus alburnus (L.), pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.) and rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.) in the Serbian part of Danube River. The particular risk, beside the possible negative influence of spreading on fish and other host populations (some aquatic snails, fish-eating birds and some mammals), is the potential spreading of the parasitic disease in humans - Metagonimosis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hose Dirk; Seckinger Anja; Jauch Anna; Reme Thierry; Moreaux Jerome; Bertsch Uta; Neben Kai; Klein Bernard; Goldschmidt Hartmut;
    Publisher: Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
    Country: Serbia

    Multiple myeloma patients’ survival under treatment varies from a few months to more than 15 years. Clinical prognostic factors, especially beta2-microglobulin (B2M) and the international staging system (ISS), allow risk assessment to a certain extent, but do not identify patients at very high risk. As malignant plasma cells are characterized by a variety of chromosomal aberrations and changes in gene expression, a molecular characterization of CD138-purified myeloma cells by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) and gene expression profiling (GEP) can be used for improved risk assessment. iFISH allows a risk stratification with presence of a translocation t(4;14) and/or deletion of 17p13 being the best documented adverse prognostic factors. A deletion of 13q14 is no longer considered to define adverse risk. Patients harbouring a t(4;14) seems to benefit from a bortezomib- or lenalidomide containing regimen, whereas patients with deletion 17p13 seem only to benefit from a high dose therapy approach using long term bortezomib (in induction and maintenance) and autologous tandem-transplantation as used in the GMMG-HD4 trial, or the total therapy 3 concept. Gene expression profiling allows the assessment of high risk scores (IFM, UAMS), remaining prognostic despite treatment with novel agents, and prognostic surrogates of biological factors (e.g. proliferation) and (prognostic) target gene expression (e.g. Aurora-kinase A). Thus, assessment of B2M and ISS-stage, iFISH, and GEP is considered extended routine diagnostics in therapy requiring multiple myeloma patients for risk assessment and, even now, to a certain extent selection of treatment.