Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.
The relationship between classical morphometric measurements (12) and meristic traits (8) was examined in 435 specimens of megrim (214 males, 221 females) caught in the eastern central Adriatic Sea. Total length of all specimens ranged from 9.0 to 34.6 cm. Morphological differences between males and females was not marked. Biometric analysis of the morphometric and meristic traits indicated a homogenous morphology stock of Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis in the eastern central Adriatic Sea. Changes in some morphometric traits obtained in conjunction with an increase in body length showed that smaller specimens have longer standard length, head, pectoral fins and preanal distance than adult specimens. The positive correlation recorded for the maximum body height indicated that the body slightly shortened with megrim growth. The morphometric and meristic traits of megrim from different Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic areas are mostly in accordance with previously published articles.
This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation). SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istrazivanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema) III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, odrzivo koriscenje i zastita) 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia]
Publisher: Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Belgrade
This manuscript describes the importance of using histological methods to assess the effects of feed on the liver and intestine of fish. Due to the constantly increasing world production of fish and other aquatic organisms, it is necessary to replace fishmeal and fish oil in diets with less expensive raw materials of plant origin. Due to the increased fiber content, increased presence of carbohydrates, antinutritional factors, and inappropriate content of amino acids and new compounds can have negative effects on the digestive system of fish and therefore on fitness, health and production characteristics of cultivated fish. The liver and intestines are the most important organs for the digestion and absorption of nutrients from feed. Therefore, monitoring histological structure of fish liver and intestine is the method of choice in assessing the effects of nutrient mixtures that use raw materials of plant origin. For both of these vital organs the normal histological structure and the most important results obtained by research are discussed. This paper presents a critical review of the histological methods used in research on feed effects. Results related to the negative effects of raw soy-based feed on the occurrence of enteritis in carnivorous fish species are discussed. The results point out that use of modern approach in fish pathology such as improved histochemical, stereological, scoring, and other analytical methods could be a beneficial approach in an accurate assessment of new feed effects on fish.
Specimens of Pontic shad (Alosa pontica Eichwald, 1838) were collected during April and May of 2006 in the Danube River (rkm 863) just downstream of the Iron Gate (Djerdap) II dam. Twenty-eight scales and 30 vertebrae were prepared and given to five interpreters with fish aging experience of from 3 to 30 years and with shad aging experience of from 0 to 12 years. Interpreters with experience in shad age determination showed lower values for the index of average percent error (IAPE) and an index of coefficient of variation (ICV). In regard to within-interpreter reproducibility, no significant differences were found between scale and vertebrae as structure for age determination. The most experienced reader showed the lowest value for IAPE, while the least experienced reader showed the highest value for IAPE. The results of this work indicate that experience in age determination by particular structure had more impact on age determination precision than specificity of structure, scale or vertebra. More work is needed on adopting standard protocols that must include some sort of common interaction between responsible age readers.
The expression of CYP1A, a biomarker for the presence of xenobiotic compounds, was examined in three fish species from the wider vicinity of Bar harbor in winter and spring. Induction of CYP1A was observed in winter and increased further in spring. Several PCBs were found in seawater in winter. They decreased below the limit of detection in spring, when the PAH fluorene was detected. It is concluded that the constant presence of CYP1A expression is probably due to pollutants in the environment, whereas increased expression of CYP1A in spring results from exposure of the fish to fluorene. .
Topolnitsa Reservoir is located in a region of Bulgaria rich in copper mines where intensive mining has been ongoing for several decades. General data on the ecological status of the reservoir and the effects of metal on fish is relatively scarce. The first aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of six metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in water samples and in the gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). The second objective was to examine gill structure and determine the severity of histological alteration as a result of metal exposure. Surface water and fish gill samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn in 2012 and metal and histological analyses were performed. Metal concentrations in the water samples varied, but only Cu concentrations were determined in all three seasons and they were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The gill metal concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the water. Examination of gill structure revealed the presence of proliferative and degenerative changes, as well as changes in the blood vessels. Histological lesions were similar in their severity in all three seasons. This study provides the first information about metal effects on the morphology of European perch gills from Topolnitsa Reservoir. It can be concluded that the metal contamination of the Topolnitsa Reservoir and fish is chronic and that it can negatively affect the structure and function of fish gills. As metals display a tendency to accumulate in fish gills, their effects are expected to become more severe with time, as they affect gill functions.
The Caucasian Sea, fringing the northern margin of the Jurassic Neotethys Ocean, largely covered the Caucasus. Continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine palaeoenvironments delineate palaeogeographic outlines for three significant time slices: the Late Toarcian, the Early Bajocian and the Middle Oxfordian. These new palaeogeographic outlines of the Caucasus and adjacent territories match the Neotethys Ocean reconstructions. In the Late Toarcian the Caucasian Sea embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin and the Black Sea Caspian Sea Basin, which were divided by the Northern Transcaucasian Arc; it opened to the Neotethys Ocean which covered the Exterior Caucasian Basin. In the Early Bajocian, the Caucasian Sea only embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin; it opened the epicontinental seas of the Russian Platform, connecting them with the Neotethys Ocean by straits between islands of the Transcaucasian Arc. In the Middle Oxfordian, the Caucasian Sea which further embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin had its outer shelf fringed by carbonate build-ups. The connection between the Russian Platform shallow sea and the Neotethys Ocean was maintained. In the course of the Jurassic, a seaway developed along the northern margin of the Neotethys, of which the Caucasian Sea became a significant part.
Đokić Lidija; Savić M.; Narančić Tanja; Vasiljević Branka;
Đokić Lidija; Savić M.; Narančić Tanja; Vasiljević Branka;
Publisher: Archives of Biological Sciences
Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae, rare resurrection plants growing in the Balkan Peninsula, produce a high amount of phenolic compounds as a response to stress. The composition and size of bacterial communities in two rhizosphere soil samples of these plants were analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments together with DAPI staining showed that the metabolically active bacteria represent only a small fraction, approximately 5%, of total soil bacteria. Using universal bacteria - specific primers 16S rDNA genes were amplified directly from metagenomic DNAs and two libraries were constructed. The Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RLFP) method was used in library screening. Amongst 192 clones, 35 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were determined from the rhizosphere of R. nathaliae, and 13 OTUs out of 80 clones in total from the library of R. serbica. Representative clones from each OTU were sequenced. The majority of sequences from metagenomes showed very little similarity to any cultured bacteria. In conclusion, the bacterial communities in the studied soil samples showed quite poor diversity. .
Pathological lying is compulsive and impulsive, pervasive conduct of the individual, does not aim to achieve material gain, but sometimes there are also self-defeating quality. A small number of research works on intelligence or personality of people who exhibit pathological lying, because they are not operationalized criteria of disorder and methodology of the test assessment. The aim of this paper is presenting how psychological assessment can respond to a number of important questions: a differential diagnostic dilemma (distinguishing pathological lying of confabulations, delusions beliefs and simulation), what is the amount and structure of intelligence in these subjects, if the person proves neuropsychological deficits that are expected in the prefrontal localization, whether pathological lying beside respondent meets criteria for personality disorder, identifying roles / motives which lie in a dynamic personality, the family system and social environment. The paper outlines the specific psychological tests to be applied in order to respond to these questions and how to harmonize the methods of testing with patients who exhibit pathological lying.