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  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mavromatis, Vasileios; Meister, Patrick; Oelkers, Eric H;

    The magnesium isotope composition of diagenetic dolomites and their adjacent pore fluids were studied in a 250 m thick sedimentary section drilled into the Peru Margin during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 (Site 1230) and Leg 112 (Site 685). Previous studies revealed the presence of two types of dolomite: type I dolomite forms at ~ 6 m below seafloor (mbsf) due to an increase in alkalinity associated with anaerobic methane oxidation, and type II dolomite forms at focused sites below ~ 230 mbsf due to episodic inflow of deep-sourced fluids into an intense methanogenesis zone. The pore fluid delta 26Mg composition becomes progressively enriched in 26Mg with depth from values similar to seawater (i.e. -0.8 per mil, relative to DSM3 Mg reference material) in the top few meters below seafloor (mbsf) to 0.8 ± 0.2 per mil within the sediments located below 100 mbsf. Type I dolomites have a delta 26Mg of -3.5 per mil, and exhibit apparent dolomite-pore fluid fractionation factors of about -2.6 per mil consistent with previous studies of dolomite precipitation from seawater. In contrast, type II dolomites have delta 26Mg values ranging from -2.5 to -3.0 per mil and are up to -3.6 per mil lighter than the modern pore fluid Mg isotope composition. The enrichment of pore fluids in 26Mg and depletion in total Mg concentration below ~ 200 mbsf is likely the result of Mg isotope fractionation during dolomite formation, The 26Mg enrichment of pore fluids in the upper ~ 200 mbsf of the sediment sequence can be attributed to desorption of Mg from clay mineral surfaces. The obtained results indicate that Mg isotopes recorded in the diagenetic carbonate record can distinguish near surface versus deep formed dolomite demonstrating their usefulness as a paleo-diagenetic proxy.

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    Authors: García-Isarch, Eva;
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    Authors: Körner, Mareike (Ed.); Claus, Martin (Ed.); Brandt, Peter (Ed.); Tuchen, Franz Philip (Ed.);

    This dataset is a collection of moored velocity data used in the study “Sources and pathways of intraseasonal meridional kinetic energy in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean” (Körner et al., 2022) to analyze the representation of meridional intraseasonal velocity variability in a general circulation model. The observational velocity data were collected at five different locations along the equator. At 0°N, 35°W velocity data were collected by single-point current meters in four different depths from October 1992 until May 1994. Between August 2004 and June 2006 an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and single-point current meters collected data at 0°N, 35°W. Moorings at 0°N, 23°W provide velocity measurements from December 2001 to June 2021 (apart from a period from December 2002 to February 2004 when no mooring was in place). At 0°N, 10°W velocity data were collected between May 2003 to March 2019 using ADCPs and single-point current meters. However, the mooring was not consecutively installed leading to data gaps of up to two years. Between 2007 and 2011 ADCPs recorded velocity data at 0°N, 0°E.

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    Authors: Coch, Caroline; Lamoureux, Scott F; Knoblauch, Christian; Eischeid, Isabell; +3 Authors

    Coastal ecosystems in the Arctic are affected by climate change. As summer rainfall frequency and intensity are projected to increase in the future, more organic matter, nutrients and sediment could be mobilized and transported into the coastal nearshore zones. However, knowledge of current processes and future changes is limited. We investigated streamflow dynamics and the impacts of summer rainfall on lateral fluxes in a small coastal catchment on Herschel Island in the western Canadian Arctic. For the summer monitoring periods of 2014-16, mean dissolved organic matter (DOM) flux over 17 days amounted to 82.7 ± 30.7 kg km**-2 and mean total dissolved solids flux to 5252 ± 1224 kg km-2. Flux of suspended sediment (SS) were 7245 kg km**-2 in 2015, and 369 kg km**-2 in 2016. We found that 2.0 % of SS was composed of particulate organic carbon. Data and hysteresis analysis suggests a limited supply of sediments; their interannual variability is most likely caused by short-lived localized disturbances. In contrast, our results imply that DOC is widely available throughout the catchment and exhibits positive linear relationship with runoff. We hypothesize that increased projected rainfall in the future will result in a similar increase of DOC fluxes.

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    Authors: Hennekam, Rick; Jilbert, Tom; Schnetger, Bernhard; de Lange, Gert J;

    We present high-resolution records for oxygen isotopes of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber (d18Oruber) and bulk sediment inorganic geochemistry for Holocene-age sediments from the southeast Mediterranean. Our d18Oruber record appears to be dominated by Nile discharge rather than basin-scale salinity/temperature changes. Nile discharge was enhanced in the early to middle Holocene relative to today. The timing of the long-term maximum in Nile discharge during the early Holocene corresponds to the timing of maximum intensity of the Indian Ocean-influenced Southwest Indian summer monsoon (SIM). This coincidence suggests a major influence of an Indian Ocean moisture source on Nile discharge in the early to middle Holocene, while, presently, the Atlantic Ocean is the main moisture source. Nile discharge was highly variable on multicentennial time scale during the early to middle Holocene, being strongly influenced by variable solar activity. This solar-driven variability is also recorded in contemporaneous SIM records, however, not observed in an Atlantic Ocean-derived West African summer monsoon record from the Holocene. This supports the hypothesis that the Indian Ocean moisture source predominantly controlled Nile discharge at that time. Solar-driven variability in Nile discharge also influenced paleoenvironmental conditions in the eastern Mediterranean. Bulk sediment Ba/Al and V/Al, used as indicators for (export) productivity and redox conditions, respectively, varied both in response to solar forcing on multicentennial time scales. We suggest that changes in Nile discharge on these time scales have been concordant with nutrient inputs to, and shallow ventilation of, the eastern Mediterranean.

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    Authors: Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel; Domínguez-Petit, R. (Rosario); Saborido-Rey, F. (Francisco);
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    Authors: Stuut, Jan-Berend W; Temmesfeld, Felix; De Deckker, Patrick;

    The terrigenous fraction of sediments from a deep-sea sediment core recovered from the northwestern Western Australian continental slope offshore North West Cape, SE Indian Ocean, reveals a history of Western Australian climate throughout the last 550 ka. End-member modelling of a data set of grain-size distributions (n = 438) of the terrigenous sediment fraction allows to interpret the record in terms of aeolian and fluvial sediment deposition, both related to palaeo-environmental conditions in the North West Cape area. The data set can be best described by two aeolian end members and one fluvial one. Changes in the ratio of the two aeolian end members over the fluvial one are interpreted as aridity variations in northwestern Western Australia. These grain-size data are compared with bulk geochemical data obtained by XRF scans of the core. Log-ratios of the elements Zr/Fe and Ti/Ca, which indicate a terrigenous origin, corroborate the grain-size data. We postulate that the mid- to late Quaternary near North West Cape climate was relatively arid during the glacial and relatively humid during the interglacial stages, owing to meridional shifts in the atmospheric circulation system. Opposite to published palaeo-environmental records from the same latitude (20°S) offshore Chile and offshore Namibia, the Australian aridity record does not show the typical southern hemisphere climate variability of humid glacials and dry interglacials, which we interpret to be the result of the relatively large land mass of the Australian continent, which emphasises a strong monsoonal climatic system.

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    Authors: Hartmann, Jörg;

    This dataset was created via processing of raw position data acquired by the GPS sensor for scientific equipment on Polar 6/Polar 5 to receive a validated master track which is used as reference of further expedition data.

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    Authors: López-Urrutia-Lorente, Ángel;
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    Authors: Lau, Danny C.P.; Christoffersen, Kirsten S.; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Hayden, Brian; +16 Authors

    1. Arctic and sub-Arctic lakes in northern Europe are increasingly threatened by climate change, which can affect their biodiversity directly by shifting thermal and hydrological regimes, and indirectly by altering landscape processes and catchment vegetation. Most previous studies of northern lake biodiversity responses to environmental changes have focused on only a single organismal group. Investigations at whole-lake scales that integrate different habitats and trophic levels are currently rare, but highly necessary for future lake monitoring and management. 2. We analysed spatial biodiversity patterns of 74 sub-Arctic lakes in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Faroe Islands with monitoring data for at least three biological focal ecosystem components (FECs)—benthic diatoms, macrophytes, phytoplankton, littoral benthic macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, and fish—that covered both pelagic and benthic habitats and multiple trophic levels. 3. We calculated the richnessrelative (i.e. taxon richness of a FEC in the lake divided by the total richness of that FEC in all 74 lakes) and the biodiversity metrics (i.e. taxon richness, inverse Simpson index (diversity), and taxon evenness) of individual FECs using presence–absence and abundance data, respectively. We then investigated whether the FEC richnessrelative and biodiversity metrics were correlated with lake abiotic and geospatial variables. We hypothesised that (1) individual FECs would be more diverse in a warmer and wetter climate (e.g. at lower latitudes and/or elevations), and in hydrobasins with greater forest cover that could enhance the supply of terrestrial organic matter and nutrients that stimulated lake productivity; and (2) patterns in FEC responses would be coupled among trophic levels. 4. Results from redundancy analyses showed that the richnessrelative of phytoplankton, macrophytes, and fish decreased, but those of the intermediate trophic levels (i.e. macroinvertebrates and zooplankton) increased with decreasing latitude and/ or elevation. Fish richnessrelative and diversity increased with increasing temporal variation in climate (temperature and/or precipitation), ambient nutrient concentrations (e.g. total nitrogen) in lakes, and woody vegetation (e.g. taiga forest) cover in hydrobasins, whereas taxon richness of macroinvertebrates and zooplankton decreased with increasing temporal variation in climate. 5. The similar patterns detected for richnessrelative of fish, macrophytes, and phytoplankton could be caused by similar responses to the environmental descriptors, and/or the beneficial effects of macrophytes as habitat structure. By creating habitat, macrophytes may increase fish diversity and production, which in turn may promote higher densities and probably more diverse assemblages of phytoplankton through trophic cascades. Lakes with greater fish richnessrelative tended to have greater average richnessrelative among FECs, suggesting that fish are a potential indicator for overall lake biodiversity. 6. Overall, the biodiversity patterns observed along the environmental gradients were trophic-level specific, indicating that an integrated food-web perspective may lead to a more holistic understanding of ecosystem biodiversity in future monitoring and management of high-latitude lakes. In future, monitoring should also focus on collecting more abundance data for fish and lower trophic levels in both benthic and pelagic habitats. This may require more concentrated sampling effort on fewer lakes at smaller spatial scales, while continuing to sample lakes distributed along environmental gradients.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mavromatis, Vasileios; Meister, Patrick; Oelkers, Eric H;

    The magnesium isotope composition of diagenetic dolomites and their adjacent pore fluids were studied in a 250 m thick sedimentary section drilled into the Peru Margin during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 (Site 1230) and Leg 112 (Site 685). Previous studies revealed the presence of two types of dolomite: type I dolomite forms at ~ 6 m below seafloor (mbsf) due to an increase in alkalinity associated with anaerobic methane oxidation, and type II dolomite forms at focused sites below ~ 230 mbsf due to episodic inflow of deep-sourced fluids into an intense methanogenesis zone. The pore fluid delta 26Mg composition becomes progressively enriched in 26Mg with depth from values similar to seawater (i.e. -0.8 per mil, relative to DSM3 Mg reference material) in the top few meters below seafloor (mbsf) to 0.8 ± 0.2 per mil within the sediments located below 100 mbsf. Type I dolomites have a delta 26Mg of -3.5 per mil, and exhibit apparent dolomite-pore fluid fractionation factors of about -2.6 per mil consistent with previous studies of dolomite precipitation from seawater. In contrast, type II dolomites have delta 26Mg values ranging from -2.5 to -3.0 per mil and are up to -3.6 per mil lighter than the modern pore fluid Mg isotope composition. The enrichment of pore fluids in 26Mg and depletion in total Mg concentration below ~ 200 mbsf is likely the result of Mg isotope fractionation during dolomite formation, The 26Mg enrichment of pore fluids in the upper ~ 200 mbsf of the sediment sequence can be attributed to desorption of Mg from clay mineral surfaces. The obtained results indicate that Mg isotopes recorded in the diagenetic carbonate record can distinguish near surface versus deep formed dolomite demonstrating their usefulness as a paleo-diagenetic proxy.

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    Authors: García-Isarch, Eva;
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    Authors: Körner, Mareike (Ed.); Claus, Martin (Ed.); Brandt, Peter (Ed.); Tuchen, Franz Philip (Ed.);

    This dataset is a collection of moored velocity data used in the study “Sources and pathways of intraseasonal meridional kinetic energy in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean” (Körner et al., 2022) to analyze the representation of meridional intraseasonal velocity variability in a general circulation model. The observational velocity data were collected at five different locations along the equator. At 0°N, 35°W velocity data were collected by single-point current meters in four different depths from October 1992 until May 1994. Between August 2004 and June 2006 an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and single-point current meters collected data at 0°N, 35°W. Moorings at 0°N, 23°W provide velocity measurements from December 2001 to June 2021 (apart from a period from December 2002 to February 2004 when no mooring was in place). At 0°N, 10°W velocity data were collected between May 2003 to March 2019 using ADCPs and single-point current meters. However, the mooring was not consecutively installed leading to data gaps of up to two years. Between 2007 and 2011 ADCPs recorded velocity data at 0°N, 0°E.

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    Authors: Coch, Caroline; Lamoureux, Scott F; Knoblauch, Christian; Eischeid, Isabell; +3 Authors

    Coastal ecosystems in the Arctic are affected by climate change. As summer rainfall frequency and intensity are projected to increase in the future, more organic matter, nutrients and sediment could be mobilized and transported into the coastal nearshore zones. However, knowledge of current processes and future changes is limited. We investigated streamflow dynamics and the impacts of summer rainfall on lateral fluxes in a small coastal catchment on Herschel Island in the western Canadian Arctic. For the summer monitoring periods of 2014-16, mean dissolved organic matter (DOM) flux over 17 days amounted to 82.7 ± 30.7 kg km**-2 and mean total dissolved solids flux to 5252 ± 1224 kg km-2. Flux of suspended sediment (SS) were 7245 kg km**-2 in 2015, and 369 kg km**-2 in 2016. We found that 2.0 % of SS was composed of particulate organic carbon. Data and hysteresis analysis suggests a limited supply of sediments; their interannual variability is most likely caused by short-lived localized disturbances. In contrast, our results imply that DOC is widely available throughout the catchment and exhibits positive linear relationship with runoff. We hypothesize that increased projected rainfall in the future will result in a similar increase of DOC fluxes.

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    Authors: Hennekam, Rick; Jilbert, Tom; Schnetger, Bernhard; de Lange, Gert J;

    We present high-resolution records for oxygen isotopes of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber (d18Oruber) and bulk sediment inorganic geochemistry for Holocene-age sediments from the southeast Mediterranean. Our d18Oruber record appears to be dominated by Nile discharge rather than basin-scale salinity/temperature changes. Nile discharge was enhanced in the early to middle Holocene relative to today. The timing of the long-term maximum in Nile discharge during the early Holocene corresponds to the timing of maximum intensity of the Indian Ocean-influenced Southwest Indian summer monsoon (SIM). This coincidence suggests a major influence of an Indian Ocean moisture source on Nile discharge in the early to middle Holocene, while, presently, the Atlantic Ocean is the main moisture source. Nile discharge was highly variable on multicentennial time scale during the early to middle Holocene, being strongly influenced by variable solar activity. This solar-driven variability is also recorded in contemporaneous SIM records, however, not observed in an Atlantic Ocean-derived West African summer monsoon record from the Holocene. This supports the hypothesis that the Indian Ocean moisture source predominantly controlled Nile discharge at that time. Solar-driven variability in Nile discharge also influenced paleoenvironmental conditions in the eastern Mediterranean. Bulk sediment Ba/Al and V/Al, used as indicators for (export) productivity and redox conditions, respectively, varied both in response to solar forcing on multicentennial time scales. We suggest that changes in Nile discharge on these time scales have been concordant with nutrient inputs to, and shallow ventilation of, the eastern Mediterranean.

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    Authors: Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel; Domínguez-Petit, R. (Rosario); Saborido-Rey, F. (Francisco);
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    Authors: Stuut, Jan-Berend W; Temmesfeld, Felix; De Deckker, Patrick;

    The terrigenous fraction of sediments from a deep-sea sediment core recovered from the northwestern Western Australian continental slope offshore North West Cape, SE Indian Ocean, reveals a history of Western Australian climate throughout the last 550 ka. End-member modelling of a data set of grain-size distributions (n = 438) of the terrigenous sediment fraction allows to interpret the record in terms of aeolian and fluvial sediment deposition, both related to palaeo-environmental conditions in the North West Cape area. The data set can be best described by two aeolian end members and one fluvial one. Changes in the ratio of the two aeolian end members over the fluvial one are interpreted as aridity variations in northwestern Western Australia. These grain-size data are compared with bulk geochemical data obtained by XRF scans of the core. Log-ratios of the elements Zr/Fe and Ti/Ca, which indicate a terrigenous origin, corroborate the grain-size data. We postulate that the mid- to late Quaternary near North West Cape climate was relatively arid during the glacial and relatively humid during the interglacial stages, owing to meridional shifts in the atmospheric circulation system. Opposite to published palaeo-environmental records from the same latitude (20°S) offshore Chile and offshore Namibia, the Australian aridity record does not show the typical southern hemisphere climate variability of humid glacials and dry interglacials, which we interpret to be the result of the relatively large land mass of the Australian continent, which emphasises a strong monsoonal climatic system.

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    Authors: Hartmann, Jörg;

    This dataset was created via processing of raw position data acquired by the GPS sensor for scientific equipment on Polar 6/Polar 5 to receive a validated master track which is used as reference of further expedition data.

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    Authors: López-Urrutia-Lorente, Ángel;
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