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5,688 Research products, page 1 of 569

  • European Marine Science
  • Other research products
  • 2013-2022

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David;
    Publisher: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    Bangladesh, with two-thirds of its land area less than five meters above sea level, is one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world. Low-lying coastal districts along the Bay of Bengal are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, tidal flooding, storm surges, and climate-induced increases in soil and water salinity. This paper investigates the impact of drinking water salinity on infant mortality in coastal Bangladesh. It focuses on the salinity of drinking water consumed during pregnancy, which extensive medical research has linked to maternal hypertension, preeclampsia, and post-partum morbidity and mortality. The study combines spatially-formatted salinity measures for 2001-09 provided by Bangladesh with individual and household survey information from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys for 2004 and 2007. It uses probit and logit analyses to estimate mortality probability for infants less than two months old. Controlling for many other determinants of infant mortality, the analysis finds high significance for salinity exposure during the last month of pregnancy and no significance for exposure during the preceding months. The estimated impact of salinity on infant mortality is comparable in magnitude to the estimated effects of traditionally-cited variables such as maternal age and education, gender of the household head, household wealth, toilet facilities, drinking water sources, and cooking fuels.

  • Open Access Persian
    Authors: 
    Sareban, H.; Rameshi, H.; Esmaeili, A.; Movahedi Nia, M.; Saayed Mordi, SH.; Argangi, GH.;

    Pharaoh Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) is commercially important and native cephalopods in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. In 2013, a total of 150 eggs of Pharaoh Cuttlefish were collected from 20 m depth in about 6 miles south of Lengeh Port and transferred to the laboratory of Mollusks Research Station in Bandar-e Lengeh. Eggs were incubated in temperature of 27.5±0.5 0C (mean ± SD) and salinity of about 37-38 ppt. After about 15±3 days (mean ± SD), eggs were hatched and the mean (±SD) of mantle length and wet weight of new hatched juveniles were 6.1±0.3 mm and 0.15±.04 g, respectively. In the first month, Artemia, Mysid and PL of L. vannamei shrimps were fed to juveniles and in second month it shifted to fish slices. After 30 days, average (±SD) mantle length and wet weight reached to 18.6±0.6 mm and 1.67±0.14 g, respectively. At the age of 60 days they reached to average (±SD) length of 32.3±4.2 mm and average (±SD) weight of 8.00±3.72 g. At the age of 120 days they reached to average (±SD) length of 74.5±11.3 mm and average (±SD) weight of 55.74±13.81 g. The sex was identified on the day of 150, and mate selecting occurred on 180th day, mating and spawning were occurred in days 208 and 210 of rearing period, respectively. Each female laid average (±SD) 185±30 eggs; and average (±SD) life spans for female and male were 212±7 and 218±20 days, respectively. Males were bigger than females and the biggest male reached to 157.9 mm in length and 367.10 g in weight. The biggest female reached to 105.1 mm in length and 227.18 g in weight. Results showed that Pharaoh Cuttlefish could easily be cultured under laboratory condition with possibility of rearing to the next generation after spawning. Published

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bermejo, Ricardo; Buschmann, Alejandro; Capuzzo, Elisa; Cottier-Cook, Elizabeth; Fricke, Anna; Hernández, Ignacio; Hofmann, Laurie Carol; Pereira, Rui; van den Burg, Sander;
    Publisher: Eklipse
    Country: Germany

    Macroalgae (or seaweed) aquaculture can potentially provide many ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation, coastal protection, preservation of biodiversity and improvement of water quality. Nevertheless, there are still many constraints and knowledge gaps that need to be overcome, as well as potential negative impacts or scale-dependent effects that need to be considered, before macroalgae cultivation in Europe can be scaled up successfully and sustainably. To investigate these uncertainties, the Expert Working Group (EWG) on Macroalgae was established. Its role was to determine the state of knowledge regarding the potential of macroalgae culture in providing climate-related and other ecosystem services (ES) and to identify specific knowledge gaps that must be addressed before harvesting this potential. The methodological framework combined a multiple expert consultation with Delphi process and a Quick Scoping Review (QSR). To analyse the outcome of both approaches, the EWG classified the findings under the categories Political, Environmental, Social, Technical, Economic and Legal (PESTEL approach) and categorised the ES based on the CICES 5.1 classification. Although representative stakeholders from many different disciplines were contacted, the majority of responses to the Delphi process were from representatives of academia or research. While the results of each method differed in many ways, both methods identified the following top six ecosystem services provided by seaweed cultivation: i) provisioning food, ii) provisioning hydrocolloids and feed, iii) regulating water quality, iv) provisioning habitats, v) provisioning of nurseries and vi) regulating climate. Diverse technological knowledge gaps were identified by both methods at all scales of the macroalgae cultivation process, followed by economic and environmental knowledge gaps depending on the method used. Based on suggestions from the expert respondents in the Delphi process, there is a clear need for an European-wide strategy for reducing risks for seaweed producers, providing clear standards and guidelines for obtaining permits, and providing financial support to improve technological innovation, that will ensure consistent quality. Legal (e.g., safety regulations), economic (e.g., lack of demand for seaweeds in many countries) and technological (e.g., production at large scale) constraints represented almost 70% of the total responses in the Delphi process, whereas environmental and technical constraints were more dominant in the literature. The most commonly identified potential negative impacts of macroalgae cultivation both among the expert responses and the reviewed articles were unknown environmental impacts, e.g. to deep sea, benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The present study provides an assessment of the state of knowledge regarding ES provided by seaweed cultivation and identifies the associated knowledge gaps, constraints and potential negative impacts. One of the main hurdles recognised by the EWG was the understanding of ES themselves by the different stakeholders, as well as the issue of scale. Studies providing clear evidence of ES provided by seaweed cultivation and/or valorisation of these services were lacking in the literature, and some aspects, like cultural impact etc. were missing in the responses to the questionnaires during the Delphi process. The issue of scale and scaling-up was omnipresent both in assessing the ES provided by seaweed cultivation and in identifying knowledge gaps, constraints and potential negative impacts. For example, the ES provided will depend on the scale of cultivation, the main technological knowledge gaps were often related to scale of cultivation. Likewise at a large scale of operations, there could be multiple associated potential side effects, which need to be further investigated. Based on the outcomes of this investigation, we provide an outlook with open questions that need to be answered to support the sustainable scaling-up of seaweed cultivation in Europe.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Roelfsema, Chris; Thurstan, Ruth; Flower, Jason; Beger, Maria; Gallo, Michelle; Loder, Jennifer; Kovacs, Eva; Gomez Cabrera, K-Le; Lea, Alex; Ortiz, Juan; +2 more
    Publisher: The University of Queensland Underwater Club
    Country: Germany
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michaud, Alexander B; Laufer, Katja; Findlay, Alyssa; Pellerin, Andre; Antler, Gilad; Turchyn, Alexandra V; Røy, Hans; Wehrmann, Laura Mariana; Jørgensen, Bo Barker;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | MICROENERGY (294200)

    In the summer of 2016, we collected sediment cores from three fjords (Smeerenburgfjorden, stn. J; Kongsfjorden, stn. P; and Van Keulenfjorden, stn. AC). These cores were both long cores (~80 cm) and short (~25 cm) where we conducted porewater geochemistry and incubation experiments to quantify the rate of sulfide oxidation and changes to the reactive Fe(III)-oxide pool over time. All coordinates of sampling sites are in the data file. The methods are included in the manuscript doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.12.033.

  • Other research product . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rohardt, Gerd;
    Publisher: Alfred Wegener Institute
    Country: Germany
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rohardt, Gerd;
    Publisher: Alfred Wegener Institute
    Country: Germany
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank Group;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    The World Bank Group (WBG) has a long experience in engaging in biodiversity with world-class expertise in the field. It has been the single largest funder of biodiversity investments since the late 1980s. The WBG investments have largely been of two kinds: (1) investments in biodiversity, aimed at the conservation and sustainable use of species, habitats, and ecosystems that sustain healthy ecosystems, while enhancing people's livelihoods and safety nets. These investments have also been providing jobs and economic development in frequently impoverished rural areas for example by supporting protected areas and an increasingly important tourism industry; and (2) investments that add value to projects in other sectors, such as irrigation, hydropower, and infrastructure, by increasing their environmental sustainability. The WBG is a global center of excellence that provides economy wide technical and economic knowledge and expertise on biodiversity and ecosystems. It has the standing and convening power to facilitate participatory dialogue between client countries and networks of other relevant stakeholders on matters of biodiversity and climate change concern, such as loss of ecosystem resilience, forest law enforcement and governance, wildlife trade, and overexploitation of natural resources.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . Collection . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Heuer, Verena B; Inagaki, F; Morono, Yuki; Kubo, Y; Spivack, Arthur J; Viehweger, Bernhard; Treude, Tina; Beulig, F; Schubotz, Florence; Tonai, S; +32 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science

    This data set documents data for a publication currently under consideration at Science. It documents data obtained for IODP Site C0023 during IODP Expedition 370. The data include: concentration of microbial cells and concentration of endospores in sediments, concentration and isotopic composition of methane and acetate in interstitial waters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maturilli, Marion; Kayser, Markus;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science

    Radiosonde measurements obtained at the Arctic site Ny-Ålesund (78.9°N, 11.9°E), Svalbard, from 1993 to 2014 have been homogenized accounting for instrumentation discontinuities by correcting known errors in the manufacturer provided profiles. From the homogenized data record, the first Ny-Ålesund upper-air climatology of wind, temperature and humidity is presented, forming the background for the analysis of changes during the 22-year period. Particularly during the winter season, a strong increase in atmospheric temperature and humidity is observed, with a significant warming of the free troposphere in January and February up to 3 K per decade. This winter warming is even more pronounced in the boundary layer below 1 km, presumably amplified by mesoscale processes including e.g. orographic effects or the boundary layer capping inversion. Though the largest contribution to the increasing atmospheric water vapour column in winter originates from the lowermost 2 km, no increase in the contribution by specific humidity inversions is detected. Instead, we find an increase in the humidity content of the large-scale background humidity profiles. At the same time, the tropospheric flow in winter is found to occur less frequent from northerly directions and to the same amount more frequent from the South. We conclude that changes in the atmospheric circulation lead to an enhanced advection of warm and moist air from lower latitudes to the Svalbard region in the winter season, causing the warming and moistening of the atmospheric column above Ny-Ålesund, and link the observations to changes in the Arctic Oscillation.