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48 Research products, page 1 of 5

  • European Marine Science
  • Other research products
  • 2018-2022
  • Aurora Universities Network

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marques, Montse; Torres, Carmen M.; Garcia-Fernandez, Fernando; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika; Roe, Mark; Wilson, Annette M.; Reuver, Marieke; Nadal, Marti; Domingo, Jose L.;
    Country: Spain

    Since seafood is a significant source of nutrients with known health benefits, its consumption is promoted as a healthy food choice. However, seafood can also contain potentially hazardous environmental pollutants. In the context of the ECsafeSEAFOOD FP7 project, FishChoice (www.fishchoice.eu) was developed as a communication tool to help to the consumers to take the most appropriate decisions on their seafood consumption habits. FishChoice relies on scientific information that allows calculating, on an individual basis, intakes of nutrients and pollutants derived from seafood consumption. In the framework of the EU-H2020 funded SEAFOODTOMORROW project, an optimized version of the online tool has been released. FishChoice is available in 25 EU languages with a customized list of seafood species per EU country, considering specific (national) consumption habits. The list of nutrients has been extended according to the latest EFSA recommendations, while pollutants data incorporate results from recent studies. The sustainability of seafood consumption has been also implemented, providing recommendations to help preserve the marine environment. Finally, FishChoice is suitable not only for consumers, but also health professionals, schools and academia, as well as the industrial sector and public health providers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Párez-Sancho M; Cerdá I; Fernández-Bravo A; Domínguez L; Figueras M; Fernández-Garayzábal J; Vela A;
    Country: Spain

    © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the MALDI-TOF MS to identify 151 isolates of Aeromonas obtained mostly from diseased fish. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified all isolates to the genus level but important differences in the percentage of isolates correctly identified depending on the species were observed. Considering exclusively the first identification option, Aeromonas bestiarum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas sobria were the best identified with results >95%. However, considering the first and second identification options, the only species that showed values >90% was A. hydrophila. Overall, when the database was supplemented with 14 new spectra, the number of accurate identifications increased (41% vs. 55%) and the number of inconclusive identifications decreased (45% vs. 29%), but great differences in the success of species-level identifications were found. Species-distinctive mass peaks were identified only for A. hydrophila and A. bestiarum (5003 and 7360 m/z in 95.5% and 94.1% of their isolates, respectively). This work demonstrates the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for Aeromonas identification to the genus level, but there is no consistency for the accurate identification of some of the most prevalent species implicated in fish disease.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Reverte, Laia; Toldra, Anna; Andree, Karl B.; Fraga, Santiago; de Falco, Giada; Campas, Monica; Diogene, Jorge;
    Country: Spain

    Within the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus several species are well-known producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs). These compounds are potent marine toxins that accumulate through the food chain, leading to a foodborne disease known as ciguatera when contaminated fish is consumed. Given the threat that the presence of these toxins in seafood may pose to human health and fisheries, there is an evident necessity to assess the potential toxicity of Gambierdiscus sp. in a particular area. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the production of CTX and MTX of 10 strains of Gambierdiscus australes isolated from the Selvagem Grande Island (Madeira, Portugal) and El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The strains were first characterized by light microscopy and species were confirmed by molecular biology, being identified as G. australes. Following the species identification, CTX and MTX production of G. australes extracts was evaluated at the exponential growth phase using neuro-2a cell-based assays. Additionally, the production of MTX was also investigated in two of the G. australes strains collected at the stationary growth phase. Interestingly, 9 out of 10 strains were found to produce CTX-like compounds, ranging from 200 to 697 fg equiv. CTX1B cell(-1). None of the G. australes strains showed MTX-like activity at the exponential phase, but MTX production was observed in two strains at the stationary growth phase (227 and 275 pg equiv. MTX cell(-1)). Therefore, the presence of G. australes strains potentially producing CTX and MTX in these Macaronesian Islands was confirmed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fourteau, Kévin; Martinerie, Patricia; Faïn, Xavier; Schaller, Christoph Florian; Tuckwell, Rebecca; Löwe, Henning; Arnaud, Laurent; Magand, Olivier; Thomas, Elizabeth R; Freitag, Johannes; +3 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE&LASERS (291062)

    Parallel measurements performed on the Lock-In core, drilled on the East Antarctic plateau. All data characterize the gas trapping zone of the firn (where atmospheric gases are enclosed in polar ice), as well as the methane record below the close-off of the firn. The datasets include: - High-resolution density (cm scale variability resolved) - High-resolution liquid conductivity - High-resolution methane concentrations - Major ions in the firn ice - Closed porosity data obtained with the two independent methods of pycnometry and tomography.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Expósito N; Rovira J; Sierra J; Gimenez G; Domingo JL; Schuhmacher M;
    Country: Spain

    Microplastics (MPs) are accessible for organisms with active filter feeding strategies, as are many marine molluscs, which live attached or semi-buried in sediments. In the present study, MPs (from 0.02 to 5 mm) concentration, morphology, and composition were determined in consumed mollusc species of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). Microplastic concentrations, morphologic characteristics and composition were studied according to species, catchment zones and depuration condition. Finally, human intake of MPs through molluscs' consumption was determined. >2300 individuals were analysed, being 1460 MPs extracted and their size, and polymeric composition registered. Big oysters and mussels showed the highest MPs concentration by individual, with levels of 22.8 ± 14.4 and 18.6 ± 23.0 MPs/individual, respectively. Mean annual MPs (≥20 μm) consumption for adult population was estimated in 8103 MPs/year, with a 95th percentile of 19,418 MPs/year. It suggests that the consumption of molluscs is an important route of MPs exposure for the Catalan population.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pérez-Heras A., Mayneris-Perxachs J., Cofán M., Serra-Mir M., Castellote A., López-Sabater C., Fitó M., Salas-Salvadó J., Martínez-González M., Corella D., Estruch R., Ros E., Sala-Vila A.;
    Country: Spain

    The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored.We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial.After adjustment for confounders, including changes in fasting triglycerides, plasma SCD1 index increased in parallel with body weight (0.221 [95% confidence interval, 0.021 to 0.422], P = 0.031) and BMI (0.115 [0.027 to 0.202], P = 0.011). Additionally, dietary LCn-3PUFA (but not MUFA or plant-derived PUFA) were associated with decreased plasma SCD1 index (-0.544 [-1.044 to -0.043], P = 0.033, for each 1 g/d-increase in LCn-3PUFA). No associations were found for other food groups, but there was a trend for fatty fish intake (-0.083 [-0.177 to 0.012], P = 0.085, for each 10 g/d-increase).Our data add clinical evidence on the down-regulation of plasma SCD1 index by LCn-3PUFA in the context of realistic changes in fish consumption in the customary, non-supplemented diet.http://www.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; +12 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COCOS (212196), EC | GEOCARBON (283080), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366)

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Garcin, Yannick; Deschamps, Pierre; Ménot, Guillemette; de Saulieu, Geoffroy; Schefuß, Enno; Sebag, David; Dupont, Lydie M; Oslisly, Richard; Brademann, Brian; Mbusnum, Kevin G; +7 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science

    A potential human footprint on Western Central African rainforests before the Common Era has become the focus of an ongoing controversy. Between 3,000 y ago and 2,000 y ago, regional pollen sequences indicate a replacement of mature rainforests by a forest-savannah mosaic including pioneer trees. Although some studies suggested an anthropogenic influence on this forest fragmentation, current interpretations based on pollen data attribute the ''rainforest crisis'' to climate change toward a drier, more seasonal climate. A rigorous test of this hypothesis, however, requires climate proxies independent of vegetation changes. Here we resolve this controversy through a continuous 10,500-y record of both vegetation and hydrological changes from Lake Barombi in Southwest Cameroon based on changes in carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of plant waxes. d13C-inferred vegetation changes confirm a prominent and abrupt appearance of C4 plants in the Lake Barombi catchment, at 2,600 calendar years before AD 1950 (cal y BP), followed by an equally sudden return to rainforest vegetation at 2,020 cal y BP. dD values from the same plant wax compounds, however, show no simultaneous hydrological change. Based on the combination of these data with a comprehensive regional archaeological database we provide evidence that humans triggered the rainforest fragmentation 2,600 y ago. Our findings suggest that technological developments, including agricultural practices and iron metallurgy, possibly related to the large-scale Bantu expansion, significantly impacted the ecosystems before the Common Era.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wu, Jiawang; Liu, Zhifei; Michard, Annie; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Filippidi, Amalia; He, Zhiwei; Hennekam, Rick; Yang, Shouye; Davies, Gareth R; de Lange, Gert J;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science

    Here we present the data of a sequential extraction scheme, which aims to evaluate the effect of barite-bound Sr in the residual fraction after decarbonation. The investigation is done with pertinent examples for Mediterranean sediments, focusing on the most-recent sapropel S1 interval. A total of 130 samples were taken from 10 cores in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) and 1 core in the western Mediterranean Sea. This selection represents a geographic and bathymetric coverage of the EMS and permits the basin-wide comparison between organic-rich and -lean sediments. After decarbonation using 1 M HCl solution, the residual sediments were subject to NH4Cl extraction (2 M, pH 7), known to selectively dissolve barite. Our results demonstrate the presence of Sr-bearing barite after traditional carbonate removal and its effect on the derived “detrital” Sr signature, with important implications for detrital provenance studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kumar, Vikas; Kumar, Saurav;
    Country: Spain

    Seafood, one of the most important food commodities consumed worldwide, is considered a high-quality, healthy, and safe food option. However, marine ecosystems are the ultimate destination for a large group of chemicals, including contaminants of emerging concern, and seafood consumption is a major pathway of human exposure. With growing awareness of food safety and food quality, and increased demand for information on the risk of contaminants of emerging concern, there is a need to assess food safety issues related to harmful contaminants in seafood and ensure the safety of marine food resources. In this study, the risks of emerging compounds (endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and toxic elements) in fish and seafood were analyzed according to their PBT (persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity) properties as well as in terms of their concentration levels in seafood. A hazard index (HI) was estimated for each compound by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) approach known as Self-Organizing-Maps. Subsequently, an integrated risk rank (IRI) was developed considering the values of HI and the concentrations of emerging compounds in seafood species gathered from the scientific literature. Current results identified HHCB, MeHg, NP, AHTN and PBDE209 as the top five highest ranked compounds present in seafood, according to the 50th percentile (mean) of the IRI. However, this ranking slightly changed when taking into account the 99th percentile of the IRI, showing toxic elements, methylmercury and inorganic arsenic, as having the highest risk. The outcome of this study identified the priority contaminants and should help in regulatory decision-making and scientific panels to design screening programs as well as t

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
48 Research products, page 1 of 5
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marques, Montse; Torres, Carmen M.; Garcia-Fernandez, Fernando; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika; Roe, Mark; Wilson, Annette M.; Reuver, Marieke; Nadal, Marti; Domingo, Jose L.;
    Country: Spain

    Since seafood is a significant source of nutrients with known health benefits, its consumption is promoted as a healthy food choice. However, seafood can also contain potentially hazardous environmental pollutants. In the context of the ECsafeSEAFOOD FP7 project, FishChoice (www.fishchoice.eu) was developed as a communication tool to help to the consumers to take the most appropriate decisions on their seafood consumption habits. FishChoice relies on scientific information that allows calculating, on an individual basis, intakes of nutrients and pollutants derived from seafood consumption. In the framework of the EU-H2020 funded SEAFOODTOMORROW project, an optimized version of the online tool has been released. FishChoice is available in 25 EU languages with a customized list of seafood species per EU country, considering specific (national) consumption habits. The list of nutrients has been extended according to the latest EFSA recommendations, while pollutants data incorporate results from recent studies. The sustainability of seafood consumption has been also implemented, providing recommendations to help preserve the marine environment. Finally, FishChoice is suitable not only for consumers, but also health professionals, schools and academia, as well as the industrial sector and public health providers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Párez-Sancho M; Cerdá I; Fernández-Bravo A; Domínguez L; Figueras M; Fernández-Garayzábal J; Vela A;
    Country: Spain

    © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the MALDI-TOF MS to identify 151 isolates of Aeromonas obtained mostly from diseased fish. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified all isolates to the genus level but important differences in the percentage of isolates correctly identified depending on the species were observed. Considering exclusively the first identification option, Aeromonas bestiarum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas sobria were the best identified with results >95%. However, considering the first and second identification options, the only species that showed values >90% was A. hydrophila. Overall, when the database was supplemented with 14 new spectra, the number of accurate identifications increased (41% vs. 55%) and the number of inconclusive identifications decreased (45% vs. 29%), but great differences in the success of species-level identifications were found. Species-distinctive mass peaks were identified only for A. hydrophila and A. bestiarum (5003 and 7360 m/z in 95.5% and 94.1% of their isolates, respectively). This work demonstrates the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for Aeromonas identification to the genus level, but there is no consistency for the accurate identification of some of the most prevalent species implicated in fish disease.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Reverte, Laia; Toldra, Anna; Andree, Karl B.; Fraga, Santiago; de Falco, Giada; Campas, Monica; Diogene, Jorge;
    Country: Spain

    Within the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus several species are well-known producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs). These compounds are potent marine toxins that accumulate through the food chain, leading to a foodborne disease known as ciguatera when contaminated fish is consumed. Given the threat that the presence of these toxins in seafood may pose to human health and fisheries, there is an evident necessity to assess the potential toxicity of Gambierdiscus sp. in a particular area. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the production of CTX and MTX of 10 strains of Gambierdiscus australes isolated from the Selvagem Grande Island (Madeira, Portugal) and El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The strains were first characterized by light microscopy and species were confirmed by molecular biology, being identified as G. australes. Following the species identification, CTX and MTX production of G. australes extracts was evaluated at the exponential growth phase using neuro-2a cell-based assays. Additionally, the production of MTX was also investigated in two of the G. australes strains collected at the stationary growth phase. Interestingly, 9 out of 10 strains were found to produce CTX-like compounds, ranging from 200 to 697 fg equiv. CTX1B cell(-1). None of the G. australes strains showed MTX-like activity at the exponential phase, but MTX production was observed in two strains at the stationary growth phase (227 and 275 pg equiv. MTX cell(-1)). Therefore, the presence of G. australes strains potentially producing CTX and MTX in these Macaronesian Islands was confirmed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fourteau, Kévin; Martinerie, Patricia; Faïn, Xavier; Schaller, Christoph Florian; Tuckwell, Rebecca; Löwe, Henning; Arnaud, Laurent; Magand, Olivier; Thomas, Elizabeth R; Freitag, Johannes; +3 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE&LASERS (291062)

    Parallel measurements performed on the Lock-In core, drilled on the East Antarctic plateau. All data characterize the gas trapping zone of the firn (where atmospheric gases are enclosed in polar ice), as well as the methane record below the close-off of the firn. The datasets include: - High-resolution density (cm scale variability resolved) - High-resolution liquid conductivity - High-resolution methane concentrations - Major ions in the firn ice - Closed porosity data obtained with the two independent methods of pycnometry and tomography.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Expósito N; Rovira J; Sierra J; Gimenez G; Domingo JL; Schuhmacher M;
    Country: Spain

    Microplastics (MPs) are accessible for organisms with active filter feeding strategies, as are many marine molluscs, which live attached or semi-buried in sediments. In the present study, MPs (from 0.02 to 5 mm) concentration, morphology, and composition were determined in consumed mollusc species of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). Microplastic concentrations, morphologic characteristics and composition were studied according to species, catchment zones and depuration condition. Finally, human intake of MPs through molluscs' consumption was determined. >2300 individuals were analysed, being 1460 MPs extracted and their size, and polymeric composition registered. Big oysters and mussels showed the highest MPs concentration by individual, with levels of 22.8 ± 14.4 and 18.6 ± 23.0 MPs/individual, respectively. Mean annual MPs (≥20 μm) consumption for adult population was estimated in 8103 MPs/year, with a 95th percentile of 19,418 MPs/year. It suggests that the consumption of molluscs is an important route of MPs exposure for the Catalan population.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pérez-Heras A., Mayneris-Perxachs J., Cofán M., Serra-Mir M., Castellote A., López-Sabater C., Fitó M., Salas-Salvadó J., Martínez-González M., Corella D., Estruch R., Ros E., Sala-Vila A.;
    Country: Spain

    The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored.We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial.After adjustment for confounders, including changes in fasting triglycerides, plasma SCD1 index increased in parallel with body weight (0.221 [95% confidence interval, 0.021 to 0.422], P = 0.031) and BMI (0.115 [0.027 to 0.202], P = 0.011). Additionally, dietary LCn-3PUFA (but not MUFA or plant-derived PUFA) were associated with decreased plasma SCD1 index (-0.544 [-1.044 to -0.043], P = 0.033, for each 1 g/d-increase in LCn-3PUFA). No associations were found for other food groups, but there was a trend for fatty fish intake (-0.083 [-0.177 to 0.012], P = 0.085, for each 10 g/d-increase).Our data add clinical evidence on the down-regulation of plasma SCD1 index by LCn-3PUFA in the context of realistic changes in fish consumption in the customary, non-supplemented diet.http://www.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; +12 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COCOS (212196), EC | GEOCARBON (283080), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366)

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Garcin, Yannick; Deschamps, Pierre; Ménot, Guillemette; de Saulieu, Geoffroy; Schefuß, Enno; Sebag, David; Dupont, Lydie M; Oslisly, Richard; Brademann, Brian; Mbusnum, Kevin G; +7 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science

    A potential human footprint on Western Central African rainforests before the Common Era has become the focus of an ongoing controversy. Between 3,000 y ago and 2,000 y ago, regional pollen sequences indicate a replacement of mature rainforests by a forest-savannah mosaic including pioneer trees. Although some studies suggested an anthropogenic influence on this forest fragmentation, current interpretations based on pollen data attribute the ''rainforest crisis'' to climate change toward a drier, more seasonal climate. A rigorous test of this hypothesis, however, requires climate proxies independent of vegetation changes. Here we resolve this controversy through a continuous 10,500-y record of both vegetation and hydrological changes from Lake Barombi in Southwest Cameroon based on changes in carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of plant waxes. d13C-inferred vegetation changes confirm a prominent and abrupt appearance of C4 plants in the Lake Barombi catchment, at 2,600 calendar years before AD 1950 (cal y BP), followed by an equally sudden return to rainforest vegetation at 2,020 cal y BP. dD values from the same plant wax compounds, however, show no simultaneous hydrological change. Based on the combination of these data with a comprehensive regional archaeological database we provide evidence that humans triggered the rainforest fragmentation 2,600 y ago. Our findings suggest that technological developments, including agricultural practices and iron metallurgy, possibly related to the large-scale Bantu expansion, significantly impacted the ecosystems before the Common Era.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wu, Jiawang; Liu, Zhifei; Michard, Annie; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Filippidi, Amalia; He, Zhiwei; Hennekam, Rick; Yang, Shouye; Davies, Gareth R; de Lange, Gert J;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science

    Here we present the data of a sequential extraction scheme, which aims to evaluate the effect of barite-bound Sr in the residual fraction after decarbonation. The investigation is done with pertinent examples for Mediterranean sediments, focusing on the most-recent sapropel S1 interval. A total of 130 samples were taken from 10 cores in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) and 1 core in the western Mediterranean Sea. This selection represents a geographic and bathymetric coverage of the EMS and permits the basin-wide comparison between organic-rich and -lean sediments. After decarbonation using 1 M HCl solution, the residual sediments were subject to NH4Cl extraction (2 M, pH 7), known to selectively dissolve barite. Our results demonstrate the presence of Sr-bearing barite after traditional carbonate removal and its effect on the derived “detrital” Sr signature, with important implications for detrital provenance studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kumar, Vikas; Kumar, Saurav;
    Country: Spain

    Seafood, one of the most important food commodities consumed worldwide, is considered a high-quality, healthy, and safe food option. However, marine ecosystems are the ultimate destination for a large group of chemicals, including contaminants of emerging concern, and seafood consumption is a major pathway of human exposure. With growing awareness of food safety and food quality, and increased demand for information on the risk of contaminants of emerging concern, there is a need to assess food safety issues related to harmful contaminants in seafood and ensure the safety of marine food resources. In this study, the risks of emerging compounds (endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and toxic elements) in fish and seafood were analyzed according to their PBT (persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity) properties as well as in terms of their concentration levels in seafood. A hazard index (HI) was estimated for each compound by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) approach known as Self-Organizing-Maps. Subsequently, an integrated risk rank (IRI) was developed considering the values of HI and the concentrations of emerging compounds in seafood species gathered from the scientific literature. Current results identified HHCB, MeHg, NP, AHTN and PBDE209 as the top five highest ranked compounds present in seafood, according to the 50th percentile (mean) of the IRI. However, this ranking slightly changed when taking into account the 99th percentile of the IRI, showing toxic elements, methylmercury and inorganic arsenic, as having the highest risk. The outcome of this study identified the priority contaminants and should help in regulatory decision-making and scientific panels to design screening programs as well as t