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48 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2019-2023
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  • Aurora Universities Network

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tangunan, Deborah N; Berke, Melissa A; Cartagena-Sierra, Alejandra; Flores, José Abel; +11 Authors

    In the southern Indian Ocean, the position of the subtropical front – the boundary between colder, fresher waters to the south and warmer, saltier waters to the north – has a strong influence on the upper ocean hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry. Here we analyse a sedimentary record from the Agulhas Plateau, located close to the modern position of the subtropical front and use alkenones and coccolith assemblages to reconstruct oceanographic conditions over the past 300,000 years. We identify a strong glacial-interglacial variability in sea surface temperature and productivity associated with subtropical front migration over the Agulhas Plateau, as well as shorter-term high frequency variability aligned with variations in high latitude insolation. Alkenone and coccolith abundances, in combination with diatom and organic carbon records indicate high glacial export productivity. We conclude that the biological pump was more efficient and strengthened during glacial periods, which could partly account for the reported reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

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    Authors: Marques, Montse; Torres, Carmen M.; Garcia-Fernandez, Fernando; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika; +5 Authors

    Since seafood is a significant source of nutrients with known health benefits, its consumption is promoted as a healthy food choice. However, seafood can also contain potentially hazardous environmental pollutants. In the context of the ECsafeSEAFOOD FP7 project, FishChoice (www.fishchoice.eu) was developed as a communication tool to help to the consumers to take the most appropriate decisions on their seafood consumption habits. FishChoice relies on scientific information that allows calculating, on an individual basis, intakes of nutrients and pollutants derived from seafood consumption. In the framework of the EU-H2020 funded SEAFOODTOMORROW project, an optimized version of the online tool has been released. FishChoice is available in 25 EU languages with a customized list of seafood species per EU country, considering specific (national) consumption habits. The list of nutrients has been extended according to the latest EFSA recommendations, while pollutants data incorporate results from recent studies. The sustainability of seafood consumption has been also implemented, providing recommendations to help preserve the marine environment. Finally, FishChoice is suitable not only for consumers, but also health professionals, schools and academia, as well as the industrial sector and public health providers.

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    Authors: González, N., Correig, E., Marmelo, I., Marques, A., la Cour, R., Sloth, J.J., Nadal, M., Marquès, M., Domingo, J.L.;

    Although sushi is considered as a healthy food, it can also be a route of exposure to chemical contaminants such as potentially toxic trace elements. In this study, we analysed the concentration of Cd, I, Ni, Pb and total Hg, as well as iAs and MeHg in sushi samples. Iodine levels were higher in samples containing seaweed, while iAs concentrations were greater in rice-containing sushi. In turn, total Hg and MeHg were significantly higher in sushi samples with tuna. Health risks of sushi consumption were assessed for three population groups: children, adolescents and adults. Considering an average intake of 8 sushi pieces for adults and adolescents, and 3 sushi pieces for children, the estimated exposure to MeHg by adolescents exceeded the tolerable daily intake set by EFSA, while MeHg intake by children and adults was below, but close to that threshold. A relatively high daily exposure of Ni and Pb was also found, especially for adolescents. Since this study focused only on the consumption of sushi, the contribution of other food groups to the overall dietary exposure should not be disregarded. It might lead to an exposure to MeHg and other trace elements above the health-based guideline values.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Knudsen, Karen Luise; Eiriksson, Jón; Jansen, Eystein; Jiang, Hui; +2 Authors

    Palaeoclimatic changes through the last 1200 calibrated years have been documented by high-resolution multi-proxy studies of three cores from about 400 m water depth on the North Icelandic shelf. Benthic and planktonic foraminiferal assemblages and stable isotope values, as well as ice rafted debris (IRD) concentrations, are compared with diatom-based sea-surface water temperatures and the reconstructed mean temperature for the Northern Hemisphere. Changes in surface and bottom water characteristics are mainly due to variations in the strength of the relatively warm, high-salinity Irminger Current and the cold East Icelandic Current. The time period between 1200 and around 7–800 cal. (years) BP, including the Medieval Warm Period, was characterized by relatively high bottom and surface water temperatures due to the inflow of Atlantic water masses. After that, a general temperature decrease in the area marks the transition to a period with increased influence of the East Icelandic Current and, at the sea floor, the Norwegian Sea Deep Water. This corresponds to the transition to the Little Ice Age. After about 3–400 cal. BP, the inflow of cold East Icelandic Current was further enhanced. In particular, this had a strong influence on the surface waters, while the sea floor was under some influence of Atlantic water masses, resulting in stratification of the water masses. There is no clear indication of any warming in the area during the last decades.

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    Authors: Guerreiro, Catarina V; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Valente, André; +4 Authors

    Data refer to export fluxes of carbonate produced by calcifying phytoplankton (coccolithophores), and coccolith-CaCO₃ percent contribution to total carbonate flux across the tropical North Atlantic, from upwelling affected NW Africa, via three ocean sites along 12°N to the Caribbean. Sampling was undertaken by means of a spatial array of four time-series sediment traps (i.e., CB at 21°N 20°W; M1U at 12°N 23°W; M2U at 14°N 37°W; M4U at 12°N 49°W; Guerreiro et al., 2021) collecting particle fluxes in two-week intervals, from October 2012 to February 2014, allowing to track temporal changes along the southern margin of the North Atlantic central gyre. Auxiliary PIC (Particulate Inorganic Carbon) data from NASA's Ocean Biology Processing Group (https://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov) are also provided for the sediment sampling period at all four trap sites. Particle flux data (mg/m²/d) of CaCO₃, organic matter, particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (bSiO₂) and unspecified residual fraction are provided for sediment trap site CB.

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    Authors: Expósito N; Rovira J; Sierra J; Gimenez G; +2 Authors

    Microplastics (MPs) are accessible for organisms with active filter feeding strategies, as are many marine molluscs, which live attached or semi-buried in sediments. In the present study, MPs (from 0.02 to 5 mm) concentration, morphology, and composition were determined in consumed mollusc species of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). Microplastic concentrations, morphologic characteristics and composition were studied according to species, catchment zones and depuration condition. Finally, human intake of MPs through molluscs' consumption was determined. >2300 individuals were analysed, being 1460 MPs extracted and their size, and polymeric composition registered. Big oysters and mussels showed the highest MPs concentration by individual, with levels of 22.8 ± 14.4 and 18.6 ± 23.0 MPs/individual, respectively. Mean annual MPs (≥20 μm) consumption for adult population was estimated in 8103 MPs/year, with a 95th percentile of 19,418 MPs/year. It suggests that the consumption of molluscs is an important route of MPs exposure for the Catalan population.

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    Authors: Bajo, Petra; Drysdale, Russell N; Woodhead, Jon D; Hellstrom, John C; +10 Authors

    The archived data presented here are derived from analytical measurements performed on ocean sediments from cores drilled off the Iberian Margin and speleothems collected from Corchia Cave (Italy). The time span is 970 to 810 ka. A full description of the sample preparation procedures and analytical methods is contained in the Supplementary Material of the article. The ocean coring sites are IODP Site U1385 and Site U1387. From Site U1385 for this study, we measured: the oxygen isotope ratios on planktic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides weullerstorfi) foraminfera at 2 cm resolution. The alkenone C37:4 biomarker data from the same site were taken from Rodrigues et al. (2017). From Site U1387 for this study, we measured: the oxygen isotope ratios on planktic foraminifera (Globigerina bulloides) and alkenone biomarkers for calculating the index Uk'37 , a proxy for sea-surface temperatures. Data from U1387 were placed onto the U1385 depth scale by synchronising the planktic oxygen isotope series. All measurements were made using standard analytical methods following the preparation procedures outlined in the Supplementary Materials of Bajo et al. (2020). The data for Corchia Cave were from four stalagmites and one subaqueous speleothem. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes were measured on all speleothems. For the four stalagmites, sampling was conducted at 1 mm resolution. For stalagmite CC8, which covers the longest time interval, the sampling resolution was increased to 250 μm through termination X and XII. For the subaqueous speleothem (CD3), oxygen and carbon isotopes were measured on samples milled at 200 μm increments. The speleothem chronology was based on U-Pb radiometric ages from the four stalagmites. The individual time series were stacked into a single time series utilising all of the U-Pb ages. Analytical methods are described in detail in the Supplementary Materials of Bajo et al. (2020). The ocean and speleothem data were combined in order to place the ocean proxy series onto a radiometric time scale. This was achieved by synchronising the planktic G. bulloides oxygen isotope series to the speleothem oxygen isotope series. The principal purpose was to determine the timing of terminations X and XII and compare these ages with the astronomical template.

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    Authors: Probst, Alexander J; Elling, Felix J; Castelle, C J; Zhu, Qing-Zeng; +9 Authors

    Sediment-hosted CO2-rich aquifers deep below the Colorado Plateau (USA) contain a remarkable diversity of uncultivated microorganisms, including Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) bacteria that are putative symbionts unable to synthesize membrane lipids. The origin of organic carbon in these ecosystems is unknown and the source of CPR membrane lipids remains elusive. We collected cells from deep groundwater brought to the surface by eruptions of Crystal Geyser, sequenced the community, and analyzed the whole community lipidome over time. Characteristic stable carbon isotopic compositions of microbial lipids suggest that bacterial and archaeal CO2 fixation ongoing in the deep subsurface provides organic carbon for the complex communities that reside there. Coupled lipidomic-metagenomic analysis indicates that CPR bacteria lack complete lipid biosynthesis pathways but still possess regular lipid membranes. These lipids may therefore originate from other community members, which also adapt to high in situ pressure by increasing fatty acid unsaturation. An unusually high abundance of lysolipids attributed to CPR bacteria may represent an adaptation to membrane curvature stress induced by their small cell sizes. Our findings provide new insights into the carbon cycle in the deep subsurface and suggest the redistribution of lipids into putative symbionts within this community.

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    Authors: Wu, Jiawang; Liu, Zhifei; Michard, Annie; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; +6 Authors

    Here we present the data of a sequential extraction scheme, which aims to evaluate the effect of barite-bound Sr in the residual fraction after decarbonation. The investigation is done with pertinent examples for Mediterranean sediments, focusing on the most-recent sapropel S1 interval. A total of 130 samples were taken from 10 cores in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) and 1 core in the western Mediterranean Sea. This selection represents a geographic and bathymetric coverage of the EMS and permits the basin-wide comparison between organic-rich and -lean sediments. After decarbonation using 1 M HCl solution, the residual sediments were subject to NH4Cl extraction (2 M, pH 7), known to selectively dissolve barite. Our results demonstrate the presence of Sr-bearing barite after traditional carbonate removal and its effect on the derived “detrital” Sr signature, with important implications for detrital provenance studies.

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    Authors: Wichern, Nina Maria Annegret; de Winter, Niels J; Johnson, Andrew L A; Goolaerts, Stijn; +5 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tangunan, Deborah N; Berke, Melissa A; Cartagena-Sierra, Alejandra; Flores, José Abel; +11 Authors

    In the southern Indian Ocean, the position of the subtropical front – the boundary between colder, fresher waters to the south and warmer, saltier waters to the north – has a strong influence on the upper ocean hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry. Here we analyse a sedimentary record from the Agulhas Plateau, located close to the modern position of the subtropical front and use alkenones and coccolith assemblages to reconstruct oceanographic conditions over the past 300,000 years. We identify a strong glacial-interglacial variability in sea surface temperature and productivity associated with subtropical front migration over the Agulhas Plateau, as well as shorter-term high frequency variability aligned with variations in high latitude insolation. Alkenone and coccolith abundances, in combination with diatom and organic carbon records indicate high glacial export productivity. We conclude that the biological pump was more efficient and strengthened during glacial periods, which could partly account for the reported reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

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    Authors: Marques, Montse; Torres, Carmen M.; Garcia-Fernandez, Fernando; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika; +5 Authors

    Since seafood is a significant source of nutrients with known health benefits, its consumption is promoted as a healthy food choice. However, seafood can also contain potentially hazardous environmental pollutants. In the context of the ECsafeSEAFOOD FP7 project, FishChoice (www.fishchoice.eu) was developed as a communication tool to help to the consumers to take the most appropriate decisions on their seafood consumption habits. FishChoice relies on scientific information that allows calculating, on an individual basis, intakes of nutrients and pollutants derived from seafood consumption. In the framework of the EU-H2020 funded SEAFOODTOMORROW project, an optimized version of the online tool has been released. FishChoice is available in 25 EU languages with a customized list of seafood species per EU country, considering specific (national) consumption habits. The list of nutrients has been extended according to the latest EFSA recommendations, while pollutants data incorporate results from recent studies. The sustainability of seafood consumption has been also implemented, providing recommendations to help preserve the marine environment. Finally, FishChoice is suitable not only for consumers, but also health professionals, schools and academia, as well as the industrial sector and public health providers.

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    Authors: González, N., Correig, E., Marmelo, I., Marques, A., la Cour, R., Sloth, J.J., Nadal, M., Marquès, M., Domingo, J.L.;

    Although sushi is considered as a healthy food, it can also be a route of exposure to chemical contaminants such as potentially toxic trace elements. In this study, we analysed the concentration of Cd, I, Ni, Pb and total Hg, as well as iAs and MeHg in sushi samples. Iodine levels were higher in samples containing seaweed, while iAs concentrations were greater in rice-containing sushi. In turn, total Hg and MeHg were significantly higher in sushi samples with tuna. Health risks of sushi consumption were assessed for three population groups: children, adolescents and adults. Considering an average intake of 8 sushi pieces for adults and adolescents, and 3 sushi pieces for children, the estimated exposure to MeHg by adolescents exceeded the tolerable daily intake set by EFSA, while MeHg intake by children and adults was below, but close to that threshold. A relatively high daily exposure of Ni and Pb was also found, especially for adolescents. Since this study focused only on the consumption of sushi, the contribution of other food groups to the overall dietary exposure should not be disregarded. It might lead to an exposure to MeHg and other trace elements above the health-based guideline values.

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    Authors: Knudsen, Karen Luise; Eiriksson, Jón; Jansen, Eystein; Jiang, Hui; +2 Authors

    Palaeoclimatic changes through the last 1200 calibrated years have been documented by high-resolution multi-proxy studies of three cores from about 400 m water depth on the North Icelandic shelf. Benthic and planktonic foraminiferal assemblages and stable isotope values, as well as ice rafted debris (IRD) concentrations, are compared with diatom-based sea-surface water temperatures and the reconstructed mean temperature for the Northern Hemisphere. Changes in surface and bottom water characteristics are mainly due to variations in the strength of the relatively warm, high-salinity Irminger Current and the cold East Icelandic Current. The time period between 1200 and around 7–800 cal. (years) BP, including the Medieval Warm Period, was characterized by relatively high bottom and surface water temperatures due to the inflow of Atlantic water masses. After that, a general temperature decrease in the area marks the transition to a period with increased influence of the East Icelandic Current and, at the sea floor, the Norwegian Sea Deep Water. This corresponds to the transition to the Little Ice Age. After about 3–400 cal. BP, the inflow of cold East Icelandic Current was further enhanced. In particular, this had a strong influence on the surface waters, while the sea floor was under some influence of Atlantic water masses, resulting in stratification of the water masses. There is no clear indication of any warming in the area during the last decades.

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    Authors: Guerreiro, Catarina V; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Valente, André; +4 Authors

    Data refer to export fluxes of carbonate produced by calcifying phytoplankton (coccolithophores), and coccolith-CaCO₃ percent contribution to total carbonate flux across the tropical North Atlantic, from upwelling affected NW Africa, via three ocean sites along 12°N to the Caribbean. Sampling was undertaken by means of a spatial array of four time-series sediment traps (i.e., CB at 21°N 20°W; M1U at 12°N 23°W; M2U at 14°N 37°W; M4U at 12°N 49°W; Guerreiro et al., 2021) collecting particle fluxes in two-week intervals, from October 2012 to February 2014, allowing to track temporal changes along the southern margin of the North Atlantic central gyre. Auxiliary PIC (Particulate Inorganic Carbon) data from NASA's Ocean Biology Processing Group (https://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov) are also provided for the sediment sampling period at all four trap sites. Particle flux data (mg/m²/d) of CaCO₃, organic matter, particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (bSiO₂) and unspecified residual fraction are provided for sediment trap site CB.

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    Authors: Expósito N; Rovira J; Sierra J; Gimenez G; +2 Authors

    Microplastics (MPs) are accessible for organisms with active filter feeding strategies, as are many marine molluscs, which live attached or semi-buried in sediments. In the present study, MPs (from 0.02 to 5 mm) concentration, morphology, and composition were determined in consumed mollusc species of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). Microplastic concentrations, morphologic characteristics and composition were studied according to species, catchment zones and depuration condition. Finally, human intake of MPs through molluscs' consumption was determined. >2300 individuals were analysed, being 1460 MPs extracted and their size, and polymeric composition registered. Big oysters and mussels showed the highest MPs concentration by individual, with levels of 22.8 ± 14.4 and 18.6 ± 23.0 MPs/individual, respectively. Mean annual MPs (≥20 μm) consumption for adult population was estimated in 8103 MPs/year, with a 95th percentile of 19,418 MPs/year. It suggests that the consumption of molluscs is an important route of MPs exposure for the Catalan population.

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    Authors: Bajo, Petra; Drysdale, Russell N; Woodhead, Jon D; Hellstrom, John C; +10 Authors

    The archived data presented here are derived from analytical measurements performed on ocean sediments from cores drilled off the Iberian Margin and speleothems collected from Corchia Cave (Italy). The time span is 970 to 810 ka. A full description of the sample preparation procedures and analytical methods is contained in the Supplementary Material of the article. The ocean coring sites are IODP Site U1385 and Site U1387. From Site U1385 for this study, we measured: the oxygen isotope ratios on planktic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides weullerstorfi) foraminfera at 2 cm resolution. The alkenone C37:4 biomarker data from the same site were taken from Rodrigues et al. (2017). From Site U1387 for this study, we measured: the oxygen isotope ratios on planktic foraminifera (Globigerina bulloides) and alkenone biomarkers for calculating the index Uk'37 , a proxy for sea-surface temperatures. Data from U1387 were placed onto the U1385 depth scale by synchronising the planktic oxygen isotope series. All measurements were made using standard analytical methods following the preparation procedures outlined in the Supplementary Materials of Bajo et al. (2020). The data for Corchia Cave were from four stalagmites and one subaqueous speleothem. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes were measured on all speleothems. For the four stalagmites, sampling was conducted at 1 mm resolution. For stalagmite CC8, which covers the longest time interval, the sampling resolution was increased to 250 μm through termination X and XII. For the subaqueous speleothem (CD3), oxygen and carbon isotopes were measured on samples milled at 200 μm increments. The speleothem chronology was based on U-Pb radiometric ages from the four stalagmites. The individual time series were stacked into a single time series utilising all of the U-Pb ages. Analytical methods are described in detail in the Supplementary Materials of Bajo et al. (2020). The ocean and speleothem data were combined in order to place the ocean proxy series onto a radiometric time scale. This was achieved by synchronising the planktic G. bulloides oxygen isotope series to the speleothem oxygen isotope series. The principal purpose was to determine the timing of terminations X and XII and compare these ages with the astronomical template.

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    Authors: Probst, Alexander J; Elling, Felix J; Castelle, C J; Zhu, Qing-Zeng; +9 Authors

    Sediment-hosted CO2-rich aquifers deep below the Colorado Plateau (USA) contain a remarkable diversity of uncultivated microorganisms, including Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) bacteria that are putative symbionts unable to synthesize membrane lipids. The origin of organic carbon in these ecosystems is unknown and the source of CPR membrane lipids remains elusive. We collected cells from deep groundwater brought to the surface by eruptions of Crystal Geyser, sequenced the community, and analyzed the whole community lipidome over time. Characteristic stable carbon isotopic compositions of microbial lipids suggest that bacterial and archaeal CO2 fixation ongoing in the deep subsurface provides organic carbon for the complex communities that reside there. Coupled lipidomic-metagenomic analysis indicates that CPR bacteria lack complete lipid biosynthesis pathways but still possess regular lipid membranes. These lipids may therefore originate from other community members, which also adapt to high in situ pressure by increasing fatty acid unsaturation. An unusually high abundance of lysolipids attributed to CPR bacteria may represent an adaptation to membrane curvature stress induced by their small cell sizes. Our findings provide new insights into the carbon cycle in the deep subsurface and suggest the redistribution of lipids into putative symbionts within this community.

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    Authors: Wu, Jiawang; Liu, Zhifei; Michard, Annie; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; +6 Authors

    Here we present the data of a sequential extraction scheme, which aims to evaluate the effect of barite-bound Sr in the residual fraction after decarbonation. The investigation is done with pertinent examples for Mediterranean sediments, focusing on the most-recent sapropel S1 interval. A total of 130 samples were taken from 10 cores in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) and 1 core in the western Mediterranean Sea. This selection represents a geographic and bathymetric coverage of the EMS and permits the basin-wide comparison between organic-rich and -lean sediments. After decarbonation using 1 M HCl solution, the residual sediments were subject to NH4Cl extraction (2 M, pH 7), known to selectively dissolve barite. Our results demonstrate the presence of Sr-bearing barite after traditional carbonate removal and its effect on the derived “detrital” Sr signature, with important implications for detrital provenance studies.

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    Authors: Wichern, Nina Maria Annegret; de Winter, Niels J; Johnson, Andrew L A; Goolaerts, Stijn; +5 Authors
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