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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Boyer, Matthew; Quéléver, Lauriane; Beck, Ivo; Laurila, Tiia; +3 Authors

    This dataset contains ambient concentrations of aerosol precursor vapors measured in the central Arctic during the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition. The timeseries includes a full year of sulfuric acid (SA), methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and iodic acid (IA) concentrations retrieved at a time resolution of 5 minutes between October 2019 and September 2020. The data were collected using a nitrate chemical ionization mass spectrometer (NO3-CIMS) as described by Jokinen et al. (2012). The instrument was located in the Swiss container, which was placed on the starboard side of Polarstern's bow on the D-deck during the campaign (Shupe et al., 2022). The concentration retrievals were obtained by integrating peaks from the high-resolution mass spectra for each compound of interest (either as a deprotonated ion or as its corresponding cluster with nitrate), normalizing the result with the sum of charger ions (NO3-, HNO3NO3-, (HNO3)2NO3-), and multiplying by the calibration factor (6×109 molec·cm-3) obtained from a dedicated calibration using SA. Since the instrument calibration was only performed using SA, the concentrations of MSA and IA are low limit estimations. SA was determined by peaks at mass to charge ratios (m/z) of 96.9601 Th (HSO4-) and 159.9557 Th (H2SO4NO3-), MSA was determined by m/z peaks at 94.9808 Th (CH3SO3-) and 157.9765 Th (CH3SO3HNO3-), and IA was determined by m/z peaks at 174.8898 Th (IO3-) and 237.8854 Th (HIO3NO3-). Zero measurements were performed periodically by placing a filter on the inlet of the instrument to determine the detection limit for each individual species. The detection limits were calculated as μ + 3 × σ, where µ is the average concentration and σ is the standard deviation, both of which were evaluated during filter measurements. The resulting detection limits are 8.8e4, 1.5e5, and 5.5e4 molec·cm-3 for SA, MSA, and IA, respectively. The dataset includes flags to specify the data that are below the detection limit. The influence of local pollution from the research vessel and other logistic activities was identified by applying a pollution detection algorithm (Beck et al., 2022) to particle number concentrations from a condensation particle counter (CPC3025, TSI) that was also located in the Swiss container. Periods that were potentially affected by primary pollution are flagged in the dataset. The columns in the data file include the date and time in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC); the concentration of SA, MSA, and IA in molec·cm-3; a detection limit flag for each individual species (1 = below detection limit); and a local pollution flag where the data may have influence from the vessel and logistical activities (1 = pollution was detected).

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2023
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2023
      Data sources: B2FIND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; +2 Authors

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at a coarser resolution than currently thought necessary.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Manier, Mollie K.; Lüpold, Stefan; Belote, John M.; Starmer, William T.; +4 Authors

    RemateSperm numbers in space and time after second mating. Variables: Cross - Species identity of first and second male to mate with a D. simulans female, where "s" indicates D. simulans and "m" indicates D. mauritiana, such that "ss" indicates that both males were D. simulans, "ms" indicates that the first male was D. mauritiana and the second male was D. simulans, etc. MinASM – time after the start of mating at which female was frozen, in minutes. Remate – day after first mating (day 0) on which female remated. Cop1 – duration in minutes of the first copulation. Cop2 – duration in minutes of the second copulation. PriorProg – number of progeny produced by female before remating. Matings - number of successful matings by that female. ThoraxF - female thorax length, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM1 - thorax length of the first male, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM2 - thorax length of the second male, in arbitrary units. Bursa1 – number of first-male sperm in the bursa. Bursa2 – number of second-male sperm in the bursa. SR1 – number of first-male sperm in the SR. SR2 – number of second-male sperm in the SR. Sp1 – number of first-male sperm in the spermathecae. Sp2 – number of second-male sperm in the spermathecaeVirginData on sperm transfer and storage after single mating of D. simulans female with D. mauritiana male. Variables: Treat – treatment, storage or transfer. Cop – copulation duration in minutes. ThoraxF - female thorax length, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM - thorax length of the second male, in arbitrary units. Bursa – number of sperm in the bursa. SR – number of sperm in the seminal receptacle. Sp – number of sperm in the spermathecaeEjection1Timing and number of sperm ejected after a single mating of a D. simulans female with a D. mauritiana male. Variables: CopDur - copulation duration in minutes. EjTime - minutes after start of copulation when female ejected sperm mass. Sperm – number of sperm in the ejected sperm massEjection2Timing and numbers of first- and second-male sperm ejected after remating, and numbers of first- and second-male sperm remaining in the female reproductive tract after ejection. Variables: Cross – Species identity of first and second male to mate with a D. simulans female, where "s" indicates D. simulans and "m" indicates D. mauritiana, such that "ss" indicates that both males were D. simulans, "ms" indicates that the first male was D. mauritiana and the second male was D. simulans, etc. Remate – day after first mating (day 0) on which female remated. Eject - 1 if female ejected, 0 if she did not eject. EjStart - Minutes after start of mating when female began ejecting a sperm mass (sometimes it got stuck). EjEnd - Minutes after start of mating when female finished ejecting a sperm mass. PriorProg - presence of prior progeny, where 0 = none, 1 = a few, 2 = a lot. Eject1 – number of first-male sperm in ejected sperm mass. Eject2 - number of second-male sperm in ejected sperm mass. ThoraxF - female thorax length, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM - thorax length of the second male, in arbitrary units. Bursa1 – number of first-male sperm in the bursa. Bursa2 – number of second-male sperm in the bursa. SR1 – number of first-male sperm in the SR. SR2 – number of second-male sperm in the SR. Sp1 – number of first-male sperm in the spermathecae. Sp2 – number of second-male sperm in the spermathecaeVelocitySperm velocity and sperm numbers in the SR. Variables: Treat - sxm indicates single mating between D. simulans female and D. mauritiana male, NR indicates "no remate" treatment, other treatments are rematings defined by the species identity of first and second male to mate with a D. simulans female, where "s" indicates D. simulans and "m" indicates D. mauritiana, such that "ss" indicates that both males were D. simulans, "ms" indicates that the first male was D. mauritiana and the second male was D. simulans, etc. Region – region of the female reproductive tract, bursa or SR. Male – species and color tag of male whose sperm velocity is recorded. Order - first or second male to mate. Remate - for remating treatments, day after first mating (day 0) on which female remated. Velmps – instantaneous linear velocity in microns per second, averaged for each sperm and for all sperm recorded in a movie. N – number of sperm tracked per movie. SR.G – number of GFP sperm in the SR. SR.R – number of RFP sperm in the SR.mxsNumbers of sperm transferred and stored for D. mauritiana females mating with D. simulans males. Variables: Cross - mxs = D. mauritiana female mating once with a D. simulans male; mxsm = D. mauritiana female mating first with a D. simulans male followed by a D. mauritiana male; mxms = D. mauritiana female mating first with a D. mauritiana male followed by a D. simulans male. Cop - copulation duration in minutes, for second copulation for mxsm and mxms crosses. Bursa1 – number of first-male sperm in the bursa. Bursa2 – number of second-male sperm in the bursa. SR1 – number of first-male sperm in the SR. SR2 – number of second-male sperm in the SR. Sp1 – number of first-male sperm in the spermathecae. Sp2 – number of second-male sperm in the spermathecaeP2Paternity and sperm count data. Variables: Cross - Species identity of first and second male to mate with a D. simulans female, where "s" indicates D. simulans and "m" indicates D. mauritiana, such that "ss" indicates that both males were D. simulans, "ms" indicates that the first male was D. mauritiana and the second male was D. simulans, etc. Treat – time after mating for which paternity and sperm numbers in the female reproductive tract were quantified. ThoraxF - female thorax length, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM1 - thorax length of the first male, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM2 - thorax length of the second male, in arbitrary units. Cop1 – duration in minutes of the first copulation. Cop2 – duration in minutes of the second copulation. Remate – day after first mating (day 0) on which female remated. PriorProg – number of progeny produced by female before remating. P2Prog1 - number of progeny produced after remating sired by the first male. P2Prog2 - number of progeny produced after remating sired by the second male. P2 – proportion of progeny produced after remating sired by the second male. Bursa1 – number of first-male sperm in the bursa. Bursa2 – number of second-male sperm in the bursa. SR1 – number of first-male sperm in the SR. SR2 – number of second-male sperm in the SR. Sp1 – number of first-male sperm in the spermathecae. Sp2 – number of second-male sperm in the spermathecae. Background: Identifying traits that reproductively isolate species, and the selective forces underlying their divergence, is a central goal of evolutionary biology and speciation research. There is growing recognition that postcopulatory sexual selection, which can drive rapid diversification of interacting ejaculate and female reproductive tract traits that mediate sperm competition, may be an engine of speciation. Conspecific sperm precedence (CSP) is a taxonomically widespread form of reproductive isolation, but the selective causes and divergent traits responsible for CSP are poorly understood. Results: To test the hypothesis that postcopulatory sexual selection can generate reproductive isolation, we expressed green (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) in sperm heads of recently diverged sister species, Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana, to enable detailed resolution of species-specific sperm precedence mechanisms. Between-species divergence in sperm competition traits and mechanisms prompted six a priori predictions regarding mechanisms of CSP and degree of cross asymmetry in reproductive isolation. We resolved four distinct mechanisms of CSP that were highly consistent with predictions. These comprise interactions between multiple sex-specific traits, including two independent mechanisms by which females exert sophisticated control over sperm fate to favor the conspecific male. Conclusions: Our results confirm that reproductive isolation can quickly arise from diversifying (allopatric) postcopulatory sexual selection. This experimental approach to "speciation phenotypes" illustrates how knowledge of sperm precedence mechanisms can be used to predict the mechanisms and extent of reproductive isolation between populations and species.

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2013
    Data sources: B2FIND
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    DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
    Dataset . 2013
    License: CC 0
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DANS-EASYarrow_drop_down
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2013
      Data sources: B2FIND
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      DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
      Dataset . 2013
      License: CC 0
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    Authors: Zweifel, Roman; Etzold, Sophia; Haeni, Matthias; Feichtinger, Linda; +6 Authors

    Within the setup of a long‐term irrigation experiment in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest at Pfynwald in the inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley, ecophysiological data were recorded from permanently irrigated trees, from trees cut off the irrigation after 11 years, and non-treated control trees. The data sets include continuous stem radius changes (automated point dendrometer at breast height), tree stem sap flow (Granier-type sap flow sensors at breast height), air temperature and humidity, vapour pressure deficit, net solar radiation, precipitation (tipping bucket), and volumetric soil water content (TDR and HS-sensors). The meteorological data were measured 2 m above the canopy in about 13 m height on top of a scaffold. The soil water sensors covered soil depth of up to 80 cm. Data resolution is 1 hour or higher and covers the years 2011-2017. Data as used and published in Zweifel, et al. (2020), Determinants of legacy effects in pine trees ‐ implications from an irrigation‐stop experiment. New Phytol. doi:10.1111/nph.16582

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2020
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2020
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Lemoine, Mélissa; Lucek, Kay; Perrier, Charles; Saladin, Verena; +24 Authors

    Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species – the great tit Parus major – at different spatial scales. We analysed 884 individuals from 30 sites across Europe including 10 close-by sites (< 50 km), using 22 microsatellite markers. Overall we found a low but significant genetic differentiation among sites (FST = 0.008). Genetic differentiation was higher, and genetic diversity lower, in south-western Europe. These regional differences were statistically best explained by winter temperature. Overall, our results suggest that great tits form a single patchy metapopulation across Europe, in which genetic differentiation is independent of geographical distance and gene flow may be regulated by environmental factors via movements related to winter severity. This might have important implications for the evolutionary trajectories of sub-populations, especially in the context of climate change, and calls for future investigations of local differences in costs and benefits of philopatry at large scales. Genetic data for 30 populations of great tits across EuropeThis file contains the combined dataset collected on great tits (Parus major) from 30 sites in Europe. Provided are individual data for microsatellites (GenData) and environmental data by site (EnvData)Lemoineetal_BJLS4237.R1.xlsx

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    KNAW Pure
    Dataset
    Data sources: KNAW Pure
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    DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
    Dataset . 2015
    License: CC 0
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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2015
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      KNAW Pure
      Dataset
      Data sources: KNAW Pure
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      DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
      Dataset . 2015
      License: CC 0
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2015
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Ala-Honkola, Outi; Hosken, David J.; Manier, Mollie K.; Lüpold, Stefan; +5 Authors

    P2 dataData for P2 analysis, and for offspring production before and after remating in the P2 experiment. Column abbreviations: id = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, P2day = day to which P2 value refers to, gl = number of first male's offspring, ngl = number of second male's offspring, totpriroprog= number of offspring produced before second mating, P2 = P2 (proportion), totremoffspring = number of offspring produced after second mating, asp2 = acrsin sqrt transformed P2 valuedatap2.txtcopulation-duration-with-virginCopulation durations with virgin females in single-mating-productivity experiment. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Femaleth = female thorax lentgh, Maleth = male thorax lentgh, Matlat = mating latency (min), copdur = copulation durationCopulation duration with non-virginCopulation durations with non-virgins in the P2 expriment. Column abbreviations: id = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25),line = the line male originated from, Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, remday = remating day, copdur2 = duration of the second copulation2ndcopulationduration.txtmating latency (male attractiveness)Mating latencies with virgins in the single-mating-productivity experiment. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Femaleth = female thorax lentgh, Maleth = male thorax lentgh, Matlat = mating latency (min), copdur = copulation durationmating-latency.txtremating dayRemating days in the P2 experiment. Column abbreviations: id = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25),line = the line male originated from, Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, remday = remating day, copdur2 = duration of the second copulationrematingday.txtsingle-mating-productivityOffspring production during ten days after single mating. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Maleth = male thorax lentgh, Femaleth = female thorax lentgh, Mfamoforig = Male line of origin (within treatment), progeny = number of eclosed offspring, fday = day as a factorspermcounts 60min after 2nd copulation startedSperm counts in 60 min ASM treatment. Column abbreviations: ID = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, bursagr = 1st male sperm in bursa, bursared = 2nd male sperm in bursa, prSRgr = 1st male sperm in proximal SR (seminal receptacle), prSRred = 2nd male sperm in proximal SR, distSRgr = 1st male sperm in distal SR, distSRgr = 2nd male sperm in distal SR, SPT1gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca (SPT) 1, SPT1red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 1, SPT2gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca 2, SPT2red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 2, duct1gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct1red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct2gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, duct2red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, SRtotred = 2nd male sperm in SR, TOTred = total number of 2nd male sperm, SPTtotred = total number of 2nd male sperm in SPT, STOREDred =total number of 2nd male sperm in SR and SPT, remday = remating day, copdur = copulation duration, totgr = total number of first male spermspermcounts60min.txtsperm counts 5h after 2nd copulation startedSperm counts from 5 h ASM treatment. Column abbreviations: ID = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, bursagr = 1st male sperm in bursa, bursared = 2nd male sperm in bursa, prSRgr = 1st male sperm in proximal SR (seminal receptacle), prSRred = 2nd male sperm in proximal SR, distSRgr = 1st male sperm in distal SR, distSRgr = 2nd male sperm in distal SR, SPT1gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca (SPT) 1, SPT1red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 1, SPT2gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca 2, SPT2red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 2, duct1gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct1red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct2gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, duct2red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, SRtotred = 2nd male sperm in SR, TOTred = total number of 2nd male sperm, SPTtotred = total number of 2nd male sperm in SPT, STOREDred =total number of 2nd male sperm in SR and SPT, remday = remating day, copdur = copulation duration, totgr = total number of first male sperm, S2SR = proportion of second male sperm in SR, asS2= acrsin sqrt transformed S2 valuespermcounts5h.txtsperm counts 6 days after 2nd copulationSperm counts from the 6 day ASM treatment. Column abbreviations: ID = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, bursagr = 1st male sperm in bursa, bursared = 2nd male sperm in bursa, prSRgr = 1st male sperm in proximal SR (seminal receptacle), prSRred = 2nd male sperm in proximal SR, distSRgr = 1st male sperm in distal SR, distSRgr = 2nd male sperm in distal SR, SPT1gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca (SPT) 1, SPT1red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 1, SPT2gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca 2, SPT2red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 2, duct1gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct1red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct2gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, duct2red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, SRtotred = 2nd male sperm in SR, TOTred = total number of 2nd male sperm, SPTtotred = total number of 2nd male sperm in SPT, STOREDred =total number of 2nd male sperm in SR and SPT, remday = remating day, copdur = copulation duration, totgr = total number of first male sperm, logGR = log transformed 1st male sperm, S2 = proportion of second male sperm in SR, asS2= acrsin sqrt transformed S2 value, S2spt = proportion of second male sperm in SPTspermcounts6days.txtsperm length dataSperm lengths in different inbreeding levels. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: ob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25),male = male id, line = the line male originated from, (within treatment), Thorax = male thorax lentgh, Slentgh = sperm lentgh (mm)spermlentgh.txtsperm velocitySperm velocity in different male inbreeding levels. Column abbreviations: id = male id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Track = individual sperm followed for ten frames, velocity = sperm velocity, spermcount = number of sperm in seminal receptacle, Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, Mthorax = male thorax lentgh, correctedvelocity = velocity in microm/s, locvel = log-transformed correctedvelocityspermvelocity.txtegg-to-adut viabilityEgg-to-adult viability on days 1, 3 and 5 in the single-mating-productivity experiment. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Maleth = male thorax lentgh, Femaleth = female thorax lentgh, viab = viability, fday = day as a factorviability.txt Directional dominance is a prerequisite of inbreeding depression. Directionality arises when selection drives alleles that increase fitness to fixation and eliminates dominant deleterious alleles, while deleterious recessives are hidden from it and maintained at low frequencies. Traits under directional selection (i.e., fitness traits) are expected to show directional dominance and therefore an increased susceptibility to inbreeding depression. In contrast, traits under stabilizing selection or weakly linked to fitness are predicted to exhibit little-to-no inbreeding depression. Here, we quantify the extent of inbreeding depression in a range of male reproductive characters and then infer the mode of past selection on them. The use of transgenic populations of Drosophila melanogaster with red or green fluorescent-tagged sperm heads permitted in vivo discrimination of sperm from competing males and quantification of characteristics of ejaculate composition, performance, and fate. We found that male attractiveness (mating latency) and competitive fertilization success (P2) both show some inbreeding depression, suggesting they may have been under directional selection, whereas sperm length showed no inbreeding depression suggesting a history of stabilizing selection. However, despite having measured several sperm quality and quantity traits, our data did not allow us to discern the mechanism underlying the lowered competitive fertilization success of inbred (f = 0.50) males.

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    DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
    Dataset . 2013
    License: CC 0
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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2013
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
      Dataset . 2013
      License: CC 0
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      Dataset . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Boyer, Matthew; Quéléver, Lauriane; Beck, Ivo; Laurila, Tiia; +3 Authors

    This dataset contains ambient concentrations of aerosol precursor vapors measured in the central Arctic during the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition. The timeseries includes a full year of sulfuric acid (SA), methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and iodic acid (IA) concentrations retrieved at a time resolution of 5 minutes between October 2019 and September 2020. The data were collected using a nitrate chemical ionization mass spectrometer (NO3-CIMS) as described by Jokinen et al. (2012). The instrument was located in the Swiss container, which was placed on the starboard side of Polarstern's bow on the D-deck during the campaign (Shupe et al., 2022). The concentration retrievals were obtained by integrating peaks from the high-resolution mass spectra for each compound of interest (either as a deprotonated ion or as its corresponding cluster with nitrate), normalizing the result with the sum of charger ions (NO3-, HNO3NO3-, (HNO3)2NO3-), and multiplying by the calibration factor (6×109 molec·cm-3) obtained from a dedicated calibration using SA. Since the instrument calibration was only performed using SA, the concentrations of MSA and IA are low limit estimations. SA was determined by peaks at mass to charge ratios (m/z) of 96.9601 Th (HSO4-) and 159.9557 Th (H2SO4NO3-), MSA was determined by m/z peaks at 94.9808 Th (CH3SO3-) and 157.9765 Th (CH3SO3HNO3-), and IA was determined by m/z peaks at 174.8898 Th (IO3-) and 237.8854 Th (HIO3NO3-). Zero measurements were performed periodically by placing a filter on the inlet of the instrument to determine the detection limit for each individual species. The detection limits were calculated as μ + 3 × σ, where µ is the average concentration and σ is the standard deviation, both of which were evaluated during filter measurements. The resulting detection limits are 8.8e4, 1.5e5, and 5.5e4 molec·cm-3 for SA, MSA, and IA, respectively. The dataset includes flags to specify the data that are below the detection limit. The influence of local pollution from the research vessel and other logistic activities was identified by applying a pollution detection algorithm (Beck et al., 2022) to particle number concentrations from a condensation particle counter (CPC3025, TSI) that was also located in the Swiss container. Periods that were potentially affected by primary pollution are flagged in the dataset. The columns in the data file include the date and time in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC); the concentration of SA, MSA, and IA in molec·cm-3; a detection limit flag for each individual species (1 = below detection limit); and a local pollution flag where the data may have influence from the vessel and logistical activities (1 = pollution was detected).

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2023
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2023
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    Authors: Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; +2 Authors

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at a coarser resolution than currently thought necessary.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Manier, Mollie K.; Lüpold, Stefan; Belote, John M.; Starmer, William T.; +4 Authors

    RemateSperm numbers in space and time after second mating. Variables: Cross - Species identity of first and second male to mate with a D. simulans female, where "s" indicates D. simulans and "m" indicates D. mauritiana, such that "ss" indicates that both males were D. simulans, "ms" indicates that the first male was D. mauritiana and the second male was D. simulans, etc. MinASM – time after the start of mating at which female was frozen, in minutes. Remate – day after first mating (day 0) on which female remated. Cop1 – duration in minutes of the first copulation. Cop2 – duration in minutes of the second copulation. PriorProg – number of progeny produced by female before remating. Matings - number of successful matings by that female. ThoraxF - female thorax length, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM1 - thorax length of the first male, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM2 - thorax length of the second male, in arbitrary units. Bursa1 – number of first-male sperm in the bursa. Bursa2 – number of second-male sperm in the bursa. SR1 – number of first-male sperm in the SR. SR2 – number of second-male sperm in the SR. Sp1 – number of first-male sperm in the spermathecae. Sp2 – number of second-male sperm in the spermathecaeVirginData on sperm transfer and storage after single mating of D. simulans female with D. mauritiana male. Variables: Treat – treatment, storage or transfer. Cop – copulation duration in minutes. ThoraxF - female thorax length, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM - thorax length of the second male, in arbitrary units. Bursa – number of sperm in the bursa. SR – number of sperm in the seminal receptacle. Sp – number of sperm in the spermathecaeEjection1Timing and number of sperm ejected after a single mating of a D. simulans female with a D. mauritiana male. Variables: CopDur - copulation duration in minutes. EjTime - minutes after start of copulation when female ejected sperm mass. Sperm – number of sperm in the ejected sperm massEjection2Timing and numbers of first- and second-male sperm ejected after remating, and numbers of first- and second-male sperm remaining in the female reproductive tract after ejection. Variables: Cross – Species identity of first and second male to mate with a D. simulans female, where "s" indicates D. simulans and "m" indicates D. mauritiana, such that "ss" indicates that both males were D. simulans, "ms" indicates that the first male was D. mauritiana and the second male was D. simulans, etc. Remate – day after first mating (day 0) on which female remated. Eject - 1 if female ejected, 0 if she did not eject. EjStart - Minutes after start of mating when female began ejecting a sperm mass (sometimes it got stuck). EjEnd - Minutes after start of mating when female finished ejecting a sperm mass. PriorProg - presence of prior progeny, where 0 = none, 1 = a few, 2 = a lot. Eject1 – number of first-male sperm in ejected sperm mass. Eject2 - number of second-male sperm in ejected sperm mass. ThoraxF - female thorax length, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM - thorax length of the second male, in arbitrary units. Bursa1 – number of first-male sperm in the bursa. Bursa2 – number of second-male sperm in the bursa. SR1 – number of first-male sperm in the SR. SR2 – number of second-male sperm in the SR. Sp1 – number of first-male sperm in the spermathecae. Sp2 – number of second-male sperm in the spermathecaeVelocitySperm velocity and sperm numbers in the SR. Variables: Treat - sxm indicates single mating between D. simulans female and D. mauritiana male, NR indicates "no remate" treatment, other treatments are rematings defined by the species identity of first and second male to mate with a D. simulans female, where "s" indicates D. simulans and "m" indicates D. mauritiana, such that "ss" indicates that both males were D. simulans, "ms" indicates that the first male was D. mauritiana and the second male was D. simulans, etc. Region – region of the female reproductive tract, bursa or SR. Male – species and color tag of male whose sperm velocity is recorded. Order - first or second male to mate. Remate - for remating treatments, day after first mating (day 0) on which female remated. Velmps – instantaneous linear velocity in microns per second, averaged for each sperm and for all sperm recorded in a movie. N – number of sperm tracked per movie. SR.G – number of GFP sperm in the SR. SR.R – number of RFP sperm in the SR.mxsNumbers of sperm transferred and stored for D. mauritiana females mating with D. simulans males. Variables: Cross - mxs = D. mauritiana female mating once with a D. simulans male; mxsm = D. mauritiana female mating first with a D. simulans male followed by a D. mauritiana male; mxms = D. mauritiana female mating first with a D. mauritiana male followed by a D. simulans male. Cop - copulation duration in minutes, for second copulation for mxsm and mxms crosses. Bursa1 – number of first-male sperm in the bursa. Bursa2 – number of second-male sperm in the bursa. SR1 – number of first-male sperm in the SR. SR2 – number of second-male sperm in the SR. Sp1 – number of first-male sperm in the spermathecae. Sp2 – number of second-male sperm in the spermathecaeP2Paternity and sperm count data. Variables: Cross - Species identity of first and second male to mate with a D. simulans female, where "s" indicates D. simulans and "m" indicates D. mauritiana, such that "ss" indicates that both males were D. simulans, "ms" indicates that the first male was D. mauritiana and the second male was D. simulans, etc. Treat – time after mating for which paternity and sperm numbers in the female reproductive tract were quantified. ThoraxF - female thorax length, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM1 - thorax length of the first male, in arbitrary units. ThoraxM2 - thorax length of the second male, in arbitrary units. Cop1 – duration in minutes of the first copulation. Cop2 – duration in minutes of the second copulation. Remate – day after first mating (day 0) on which female remated. PriorProg – number of progeny produced by female before remating. P2Prog1 - number of progeny produced after remating sired by the first male. P2Prog2 - number of progeny produced after remating sired by the second male. P2 – proportion of progeny produced after remating sired by the second male. Bursa1 – number of first-male sperm in the bursa. Bursa2 – number of second-male sperm in the bursa. SR1 – number of first-male sperm in the SR. SR2 – number of second-male sperm in the SR. Sp1 – number of first-male sperm in the spermathecae. Sp2 – number of second-male sperm in the spermathecae. Background: Identifying traits that reproductively isolate species, and the selective forces underlying their divergence, is a central goal of evolutionary biology and speciation research. There is growing recognition that postcopulatory sexual selection, which can drive rapid diversification of interacting ejaculate and female reproductive tract traits that mediate sperm competition, may be an engine of speciation. Conspecific sperm precedence (CSP) is a taxonomically widespread form of reproductive isolation, but the selective causes and divergent traits responsible for CSP are poorly understood. Results: To test the hypothesis that postcopulatory sexual selection can generate reproductive isolation, we expressed green (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) in sperm heads of recently diverged sister species, Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana, to enable detailed resolution of species-specific sperm precedence mechanisms. Between-species divergence in sperm competition traits and mechanisms prompted six a priori predictions regarding mechanisms of CSP and degree of cross asymmetry in reproductive isolation. We resolved four distinct mechanisms of CSP that were highly consistent with predictions. These comprise interactions between multiple sex-specific traits, including two independent mechanisms by which females exert sophisticated control over sperm fate to favor the conspecific male. Conclusions: Our results confirm that reproductive isolation can quickly arise from diversifying (allopatric) postcopulatory sexual selection. This experimental approach to "speciation phenotypes" illustrates how knowledge of sperm precedence mechanisms can be used to predict the mechanisms and extent of reproductive isolation between populations and species.

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2013
    Data sources: B2FIND
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    DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
    Dataset . 2013
    License: CC 0
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      Dataset . 2013
      Data sources: B2FIND
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      DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
      Dataset . 2013
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    Authors: Zweifel, Roman; Etzold, Sophia; Haeni, Matthias; Feichtinger, Linda; +6 Authors

    Within the setup of a long‐term irrigation experiment in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest at Pfynwald in the inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley, ecophysiological data were recorded from permanently irrigated trees, from trees cut off the irrigation after 11 years, and non-treated control trees. The data sets include continuous stem radius changes (automated point dendrometer at breast height), tree stem sap flow (Granier-type sap flow sensors at breast height), air temperature and humidity, vapour pressure deficit, net solar radiation, precipitation (tipping bucket), and volumetric soil water content (TDR and HS-sensors). The meteorological data were measured 2 m above the canopy in about 13 m height on top of a scaffold. The soil water sensors covered soil depth of up to 80 cm. Data resolution is 1 hour or higher and covers the years 2011-2017. Data as used and published in Zweifel, et al. (2020), Determinants of legacy effects in pine trees ‐ implications from an irrigation‐stop experiment. New Phytol. doi:10.1111/nph.16582

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2020
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2020
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Lemoine, Mélissa; Lucek, Kay; Perrier, Charles; Saladin, Verena; +24 Authors

    Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species – the great tit Parus major – at different spatial scales. We analysed 884 individuals from 30 sites across Europe including 10 close-by sites (< 50 km), using 22 microsatellite markers. Overall we found a low but significant genetic differentiation among sites (FST = 0.008). Genetic differentiation was higher, and genetic diversity lower, in south-western Europe. These regional differences were statistically best explained by winter temperature. Overall, our results suggest that great tits form a single patchy metapopulation across Europe, in which genetic differentiation is independent of geographical distance and gene flow may be regulated by environmental factors via movements related to winter severity. This might have important implications for the evolutionary trajectories of sub-populations, especially in the context of climate change, and calls for future investigations of local differences in costs and benefits of philopatry at large scales. Genetic data for 30 populations of great tits across EuropeThis file contains the combined dataset collected on great tits (Parus major) from 30 sites in Europe. Provided are individual data for microsatellites (GenData) and environmental data by site (EnvData)Lemoineetal_BJLS4237.R1.xlsx

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    KNAW Pure
    Dataset
    Data sources: KNAW Pure
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    DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
    Dataset . 2015
    License: CC 0
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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2015
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      KNAW Pure
      Dataset
      Data sources: KNAW Pure
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      DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
      Dataset . 2015
      License: CC 0
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2015
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Ala-Honkola, Outi; Hosken, David J.; Manier, Mollie K.; Lüpold, Stefan; +5 Authors

    P2 dataData for P2 analysis, and for offspring production before and after remating in the P2 experiment. Column abbreviations: id = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, P2day = day to which P2 value refers to, gl = number of first male's offspring, ngl = number of second male's offspring, totpriroprog= number of offspring produced before second mating, P2 = P2 (proportion), totremoffspring = number of offspring produced after second mating, asp2 = acrsin sqrt transformed P2 valuedatap2.txtcopulation-duration-with-virginCopulation durations with virgin females in single-mating-productivity experiment. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Femaleth = female thorax lentgh, Maleth = male thorax lentgh, Matlat = mating latency (min), copdur = copulation durationCopulation duration with non-virginCopulation durations with non-virgins in the P2 expriment. Column abbreviations: id = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25),line = the line male originated from, Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, remday = remating day, copdur2 = duration of the second copulation2ndcopulationduration.txtmating latency (male attractiveness)Mating latencies with virgins in the single-mating-productivity experiment. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Femaleth = female thorax lentgh, Maleth = male thorax lentgh, Matlat = mating latency (min), copdur = copulation durationmating-latency.txtremating dayRemating days in the P2 experiment. Column abbreviations: id = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25),line = the line male originated from, Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, remday = remating day, copdur2 = duration of the second copulationrematingday.txtsingle-mating-productivityOffspring production during ten days after single mating. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Maleth = male thorax lentgh, Femaleth = female thorax lentgh, Mfamoforig = Male line of origin (within treatment), progeny = number of eclosed offspring, fday = day as a factorspermcounts 60min after 2nd copulation startedSperm counts in 60 min ASM treatment. Column abbreviations: ID = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, bursagr = 1st male sperm in bursa, bursared = 2nd male sperm in bursa, prSRgr = 1st male sperm in proximal SR (seminal receptacle), prSRred = 2nd male sperm in proximal SR, distSRgr = 1st male sperm in distal SR, distSRgr = 2nd male sperm in distal SR, SPT1gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca (SPT) 1, SPT1red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 1, SPT2gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca 2, SPT2red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 2, duct1gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct1red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct2gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, duct2red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, SRtotred = 2nd male sperm in SR, TOTred = total number of 2nd male sperm, SPTtotred = total number of 2nd male sperm in SPT, STOREDred =total number of 2nd male sperm in SR and SPT, remday = remating day, copdur = copulation duration, totgr = total number of first male spermspermcounts60min.txtsperm counts 5h after 2nd copulation startedSperm counts from 5 h ASM treatment. Column abbreviations: ID = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, bursagr = 1st male sperm in bursa, bursared = 2nd male sperm in bursa, prSRgr = 1st male sperm in proximal SR (seminal receptacle), prSRred = 2nd male sperm in proximal SR, distSRgr = 1st male sperm in distal SR, distSRgr = 2nd male sperm in distal SR, SPT1gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca (SPT) 1, SPT1red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 1, SPT2gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca 2, SPT2red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 2, duct1gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct1red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct2gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, duct2red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, SRtotred = 2nd male sperm in SR, TOTred = total number of 2nd male sperm, SPTtotred = total number of 2nd male sperm in SPT, STOREDred =total number of 2nd male sperm in SR and SPT, remday = remating day, copdur = copulation duration, totgr = total number of first male sperm, S2SR = proportion of second male sperm in SR, asS2= acrsin sqrt transformed S2 valuespermcounts5h.txtsperm counts 6 days after 2nd copulationSperm counts from the 6 day ASM treatment. Column abbreviations: ID = female id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, M2thorax = 2nd male thorax lentgh, bursagr = 1st male sperm in bursa, bursared = 2nd male sperm in bursa, prSRgr = 1st male sperm in proximal SR (seminal receptacle), prSRred = 2nd male sperm in proximal SR, distSRgr = 1st male sperm in distal SR, distSRgr = 2nd male sperm in distal SR, SPT1gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca (SPT) 1, SPT1red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 1, SPT2gr = 1st male sperm in spermatheca 2, SPT2red = 2nd male sperm in spermatheca 2, duct1gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct1red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 1, duct2gr = 1st male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, duct2red = 2nd male sperm in spermathecal duct 2, SRtotred = 2nd male sperm in SR, TOTred = total number of 2nd male sperm, SPTtotred = total number of 2nd male sperm in SPT, STOREDred =total number of 2nd male sperm in SR and SPT, remday = remating day, copdur = copulation duration, totgr = total number of first male sperm, logGR = log transformed 1st male sperm, S2 = proportion of second male sperm in SR, asS2= acrsin sqrt transformed S2 value, S2spt = proportion of second male sperm in SPTspermcounts6days.txtsperm length dataSperm lengths in different inbreeding levels. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: ob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25),male = male id, line = the line male originated from, (within treatment), Thorax = male thorax lentgh, Slentgh = sperm lentgh (mm)spermlentgh.txtsperm velocitySperm velocity in different male inbreeding levels. Column abbreviations: id = male id, trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Track = individual sperm followed for ten frames, velocity = sperm velocity, spermcount = number of sperm in seminal receptacle, Fthorax = female thorax lentgh, Mthorax = male thorax lentgh, correctedvelocity = velocity in microm/s, locvel = log-transformed correctedvelocityspermvelocity.txtegg-to-adut viabilityEgg-to-adult viability on days 1, 3 and 5 in the single-mating-productivity experiment. Column abbreviations: trt = treatment: aob = outbred (f =0), ib = highly inbred (f = 0.5), sib = moderately inbred (f = 0.25), Maleth = male thorax lentgh, Femaleth = female thorax lentgh, viab = viability, fday = day as a factorviability.txt Directional dominance is a prerequisite of inbreeding depression. Directionality arises when selection drives alleles that increase fitness to fixation and eliminates dominant deleterious alleles, while deleterious recessives are hidden from it and maintained at low frequencies. Traits under directional selection (i.e., fitness traits) are expected to show directional dominance and therefore an increased susceptibility to inbreeding depression. In contrast, traits under stabilizing selection or weakly linked to fitness are predicted to exhibit little-to-no inbreeding depression. Here, we quantify the extent of inbreeding depression in a range of male reproductive characters and then infer the mode of past selection on them. The use of transgenic populations of Drosophila melanogaster with red or green fluorescent-tagged sperm heads permitted in vivo discrimination of sperm from competing males and quantification of characteristics of ejaculate composition, performance, and fate. We found that male attractiveness (mating latency) and competitive fertilization success (P2) both show some inbreeding depression, suggesting they may have been under directional selection, whereas sperm length showed no inbreeding depression suggesting a history of stabilizing selection. However, despite having measured several sperm quality and quantity traits, our data did not allow us to discern the mechanism underlying the lowered competitive fertilization success of inbred (f = 0.50) males.

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    DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
    Dataset . 2013
    License: CC 0
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    Dataset . 2013
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCI...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
      Dataset . 2013
      License: CC 0
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2013
      Data sources: B2FIND
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