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9 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
  • Publications
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  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Friedrich, J.; Janssen, F.; Aleynik, D.; Bange, H. W.; +35 Authors

    In this paper we provide an overview of new knowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomena in aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlocked water bodies", http://www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems, are discussed. Geologically driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of water-column oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved. Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales that cannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlaps with anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbially mediated redox cycling of elements. Observations and modeling studies of the sediments demonstrate the effect of seasonally changing oxygen conditions on benthic mineralization pathways and fluxes. Data quality and access are crucial in hypoxia research. Technical issues are therefore also addressed, including the availability of suitable sensor technology to resolve the gradual changes in bottom-water oxygen in marine systems that can be expected as a result of climate change. Using cabled observatories as examples, we show how the benefit of continuous oxygen monitoring can be maximized by adopting proper quality control. Finally, we discuss strategies for state-of-the-art data archiving and dissemination in compliance with global standards, and how ocean observations can contribute to global earth observation attempts.

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    Authors: Schoening, Timm; Kuhn, Thomas; Bergmann, Melanie; Nattkemper, Tim Wilhelm;

    Marine researchers continue to create large quantities of benthic images e.g. using AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles). In order to quantify the size of sessile objects in the images, a pixel-to-centimetre ratio is required for each image, often indirectly provided through a geometric laser point (LP) pattern, projected onto the seafloor. Manual annotation of these LPs in all images is too time-consuming and thus infeasible for nowadays data volumes. Because of the technical evolution of camera rigs, the LP's geometrical layout and colour features vary for different expeditions and projects. This makes the application of one algorithm, tuned to a strictly defined LP pattern, also ineffective. Here we present the web-tool DELPHI, that efficiently learns the LP layout for one image transect / collection from just a small number of hand labelled LPs and applies this layout model to the rest of the data. The efficiency in adapting to new data allows to compute the LPs and the pixel-to-centimetre ratio fully automatic and with high accuracy. DELPHI is applied to two real-world examples and shows clear improvements regarding reduction of tuning effort for new LP patterns as well as increasing detection performance.

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    Publications at Bielefeld University; Frontiers in Marine Science; Frontiers
    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: "In Copyright" Rights Statement
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    OceanRep
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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      Publications at Bielefeld University; Frontiers in Marine Science; Frontiers
      Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: "In Copyright" Rights Statement
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: OceanRep
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    Authors: Ragkousis, Michail; Hadjioannou, Louis; Agrotis, Neophytos; Moraitis, Manos L.;

    To enrich spatio-temporal information on the distribution of alien, cryptogenic, and neonative species in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, a collective effort by 173 marine scientists was made to provide unpublished records and make them open access to the scientific community. Through this effort, we collected and harmonized a dataset of 12,649 records. It includes 247 taxa, of which 217 are Animalia, 25 Plantae and 5 Chromista, from 23 countries surrounding the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Chordata was the most abundant taxonomic group, followed by Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Annelida. In terms of species records, Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Saurida lessepsianus, Pterois miles, Upeneus moluccensis, Charybdis (Archias) longicollis, and Caulerpa cylindracea were the most numerous. The temporal distribution of the records ranges from 1973 to 2022, with 44% of the records in 2020–2021. Lethrinus borbonicus is reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, while Pomatoschistus quagga, Caulerpa cylindracea, Grateloupia turuturu, and Misophria pallida are first records for the Black Sea; Kapraunia schneideri is recorded for the second time in the Mediterranean and for the first time in Israel; Prionospio depauperata and Pseudonereis anomala are reported for the first time from the Sea of Marmara. Many first country records are also included, namely: Amathia verticillata (Montenegro), Ampithoe valida (Italy), Antithamnion amphigeneum (Greece), Clavelina oblonga (Tunisia and Slovenia), Dendostrea cf. folium (Syria), Epinephelus fasciatus (Tunisia), Ganonema farinosum (Montenegro), Macrorhynchia philippina (Tunisia), Marenzelleria neglecta (Romania), Paratapes textilis (Tunisia), and Botrylloides diegensis (Tunisia).

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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      Article . 2023
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      Article . 2023
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    Authors: A. Micallef; A. Micallef; R. Marchis; N. Saadatkhah; +10 Authors

    Gully formation has been associated to groundwater seepage in unconsolidated sand- to gravel-sized sediments. Our understanding of gully evolution by groundwater seepage mostly relies on experiments and numerical simulations, and these rarely take into consideration contrasts in lithology and permeability. In addition, process-based observations and detailed instrumental analyses are rare. As a result, we have a poor understanding of the temporal scale of gully formation by groundwater seepage and the influence of geological heterogeneity on their formation. This is particularly the case for coastal gullies, where the role of groundwater in their formation and evolution has rarely been assessed. We address these knowledge gaps along the Canterbury coast of the South Island (New Zealand) by integrating field observations, luminescence dating, multi-temporal unoccupied aerial vehicle and satellite data, time domain electromagnetic data and slope stability modelling. We show that gully formation is a key process shaping the sandy gravel cliffs of the Canterbury coastline. It is an episodic process associated to groundwater flow that occurs once every 227 d on average, when rainfall intensities exceed 40 mm d−1. The majority of the gullies in a study area southeast (SE) of Ashburton have undergone erosion, predominantly by elongation, during the last 11 years, with the most recent episode occurring 3 years ago. Gullies longer than 200 m are relict features formed by higher groundwater flow and surface erosion > 2 ka ago. Gullies can form at rates of up to 30 m d−1 via two processes, namely the formation of alcoves and tunnels by groundwater seepage, followed by retrogressive slope failure due to undermining and a decrease in shear strength driven by excess pore pressure development. The location of gullies is determined by the occurrence of hydraulically conductive zones, such as relict braided river channels and possibly tunnels, and of sand lenses exposed across sandy gravel cliffs. We also show that the gully planform shape is generally geometrically similar at consecutive stages of evolution. These outcomes will facilitate the reconstruction and prediction of a prevalent erosive process and overlooked geohazard along the Canterbury coastline.

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    Earth Surface Dynamics
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Earth Surface Dynamics
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Micallef, Aaron; Marchis, Remus; Saadatkhah, Nader; Pondthai, Potpreecha; +7 Authors

    Gully formation has been associated to groundwater seepage in unconsolidated sand- to gravel-sized sediments. Our understanding of gully evolution by groundwater seepage mostly relies on experiments and numerical simulations, and these rarely take into consideration contrasts in lithology and permeability. In addition, process-based observations and detailed instrumental analyses are rare. As a result, we have a poor understanding of the temporal scale of gully formation by groundwater seepage and the influence of geological heterogeneity on their formation. This is particularly the case for coastal gullies, where the role of groundwater in their formation and evolution has rarely been assessed. We address these knowledge gaps along the Canterbury coast of the South Island (New Zealand) by integrating field observations, luminescence dating, multi-temporal unoccupied aerial vehicle and satellite data, time domain electromagnetic data and slope stability modelling. We show that gully formation is a key process shaping the sandy gravel cliffs of the Canterbury coastline. It is an episodic process associated to groundwater flow that occurs once every 227 d on average, when rainfall intensities exceed 40mmd􀀀1. The majority of the gullies in a study area southeast (SE) of Ashburton have undergone erosion, predominantly by elongation, during the last 11 years, with the most recent episode occurring 3 years ago. Gullies longer than 200m are relict features formed by higher groundwater flow and surface erosion >2 ka ago. Gullies can form at rates of up to 30md􀀀1 via two processes, namely the formation of alcoves and tunnels by groundwater seepage, followed by retrogressive slope failure due to undermining and a decrease in shear strength driven by excess pore pressure development. The location of gullies is determined by the occurrence of hydraulically conductive zones, such as relict braided river channels and possibly tunnels, and of sand lenses exposed across sandy gravel cliffs.We also show that the gully planform shape is generally geometrically similar at consecutive stages of evolution. These outcomes will facilitate the reconstruction and prediction of a prevalent erosive process and overlooked geohazard along the Canterbury coastline. peer-reviewed

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    Earth Surface Dynamics
    Article
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    Data sources: Sygma
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    OceanRep
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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    OAR@UM
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)
    Other literature type . 2021
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      Earth Surface Dynamics
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: OceanRep
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      OAR@UM
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: OAR@UM
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      Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Géli, L.; Henry, P.; Grall, C.; Tary, J.-B.; +34 Authors

    International audience; Understanding micro-seismicity is a critical question for earthquake hazard assessment. Since the devastating earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999, the seismicity along the submerged section of North Anatolian Fault within the Sea of Marmara (comprising the "Istanbul seismic gap") has been extensively studied in order to infer its mechanical behaviour (creeping vs locked). So far, the seismicity has been interpreted only in terms of being tectonic-driven, although the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) is known to strike across multiple hydrocarbon gas sources. Here, we show that a large number of the aftershocks that followed the M 5.1 earthquake of July, 25th 2011 in the western Sea of Marmara, occurred within a zone of gas overpressuring in the 1.5-5 km depth range, from where pressurized gas is expected to migrate along the MMF, up to the surface sediment layers. Hence, gas-related processes should also be considered for a complete interpretation of the micro-seismicity (similar to M < 3) within the Istanbul offshore domain.

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    e-Prints Soton
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: e-Prints Soton
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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    OceanRep
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2018
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2018
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      e-Prints Soton
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      NERC Open Research Archive
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2018
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mantzouki, Evanthia; Beklioǧlu, Meryem; Brookes, Justin D.; de Senerpont Domis, Lisette Nicole; +13 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Frontiers in...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Steluţa Camelia Sava; Elena Pogurschi; Gratziela Victoria Bahaciu; Nela Dragomir; +1 Authors

    Maintaining and improving the health status of fish as well as increasing production performance of fish ponds are essential for aquaculture systems. The use of natural zeolites as additives in fish feed has become an important concern of researchers over the past two decades. The paper aims to review the global research on the use of clinoptilolite as a feed additive in feeding of various fish species. Clinoptilolite captures heavy toxic metals (Cd, Pb) and also cations, such as ammonium, from fish-ponds water, which leads to optimum media conditions and increased productivity. According to the specific literature, the clinoptilolite zeolite has to be considered as a material with high potential of applicability in the aquaculture. Worldwide, research is ongoing on how to use clinoptilolite more efficiently, as well as finding new opportunities for applying this zeolite to aquaculture.

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    Article . 2019
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9 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Friedrich, J.; Janssen, F.; Aleynik, D.; Bange, H. W.; +35 Authors

    In this paper we provide an overview of new knowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomena in aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlocked water bodies", http://www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems, are discussed. Geologically driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of water-column oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved. Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales that cannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlaps with anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbially mediated redox cycling of elements. Observations and modeling studies of the sediments demonstrate the effect of seasonally changing oxygen conditions on benthic mineralization pathways and fluxes. Data quality and access are crucial in hypoxia research. Technical issues are therefore also addressed, including the availability of suitable sensor technology to resolve the gradual changes in bottom-water oxygen in marine systems that can be expected as a result of climate change. Using cabled observatories as examples, we show how the benefit of continuous oxygen monitoring can be maximized by adopting proper quality control. Finally, we discuss strategies for state-of-the-art data archiving and dissemination in compliance with global standards, and how ocean observations can contribute to global earth observation attempts.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schoening, Timm; Kuhn, Thomas; Bergmann, Melanie; Nattkemper, Tim Wilhelm;

    Marine researchers continue to create large quantities of benthic images e.g. using AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles). In order to quantify the size of sessile objects in the images, a pixel-to-centimetre ratio is required for each image, often indirectly provided through a geometric laser point (LP) pattern, projected onto the seafloor. Manual annotation of these LPs in all images is too time-consuming and thus infeasible for nowadays data volumes. Because of the technical evolution of camera rigs, the LP's geometrical layout and colour features vary for different expeditions and projects. This makes the application of one algorithm, tuned to a strictly defined LP pattern, also ineffective. Here we present the web-tool DELPHI, that efficiently learns the LP layout for one image transect / collection from just a small number of hand labelled LPs and applies this layout model to the rest of the data. The efficiency in adapting to new data allows to compute the LPs and the pixel-to-centimetre ratio fully automatic and with high accuracy. DELPHI is applied to two real-world examples and shows clear improvements regarding reduction of tuning effort for new LP patterns as well as increasing detection performance.

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    Publications at Bielefeld University; Frontiers in Marine Science; Frontiers
    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: "In Copyright" Rights Statement
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    OceanRep
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Publications at Bielefeld University; Frontiers in Marine Science; Frontiers
      Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: "In Copyright" Rights Statement
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      OceanRep
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ragkousis, Michail; Hadjioannou, Louis; Agrotis, Neophytos; Moraitis, Manos L.;

    To enrich spatio-temporal information on the distribution of alien, cryptogenic, and neonative species in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, a collective effort by 173 marine scientists was made to provide unpublished records and make them open access to the scientific community. Through this effort, we collected and harmonized a dataset of 12,649 records. It includes 247 taxa, of which 217 are Animalia, 25 Plantae and 5 Chromista, from 23 countries surrounding the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Chordata was the most abundant taxonomic group, followed by Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Annelida. In terms of species records, Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Saurida lessepsianus, Pterois miles, Upeneus moluccensis, Charybdis (Archias) longicollis, and Caulerpa cylindracea were the most numerous. The temporal distribution of the records ranges from 1973 to 2022, with 44% of the records in 2020–2021. Lethrinus borbonicus is reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, while Pomatoschistus quagga, Caulerpa cylindracea, Grateloupia turuturu, and Misophria pallida are first records for the Black Sea; Kapraunia schneideri is recorded for the second time in the Mediterranean and for the first time in Israel; Prionospio depauperata and Pseudonereis anomala are reported for the first time from the Sea of Marmara. Many first country records are also included, namely: Amathia verticillata (Montenegro), Ampithoe valida (Italy), Antithamnion amphigeneum (Greece), Clavelina oblonga (Tunisia and Slovenia), Dendostrea cf. folium (Syria), Epinephelus fasciatus (Tunisia), Ganonema farinosum (Montenegro), Macrorhynchia philippina (Tunisia), Marenzelleria neglecta (Romania), Paratapes textilis (Tunisia), and Botrylloides diegensis (Tunisia).

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
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    Authors: A. Micallef; A. Micallef; R. Marchis; N. Saadatkhah; +10 Authors

    Gully formation has been associated to groundwater seepage in unconsolidated sand- to gravel-sized sediments. Our understanding of gully evolution by groundwater seepage mostly relies on experiments and numerical simulations, and these rarely take into consideration contrasts in lithology and permeability. In addition, process-based observations and detailed instrumental analyses are rare. As a result, we have a poor understanding of the temporal scale of gully formation by groundwater seepage and the influence of geological heterogeneity on their formation. This is particularly the case for coastal gullies, where the role of groundwater in their formation and evolution has rarely been assessed. We address these knowledge gaps along the Canterbury coast of the South Island (New Zealand) by integrating field observations, luminescence dating, multi-temporal unoccupied aerial vehicle and satellite data, time domain electromagnetic data and slope stability modelling. We show that gully formation is a key process shaping the sandy gravel cliffs of the Canterbury coastline. It is an episodic process associated to groundwater flow that occurs once every 227 d on average, when rainfall intensities exceed 40 mm d−1. The majority of the gullies in a study area southeast (SE) of Ashburton have undergone erosion, predominantly by elongation, during the last 11 years, with the most recent episode occurring 3 years ago. Gullies longer than 200 m are relict features formed by higher groundwater flow and surface erosion > 2 ka ago. Gullies can form at rates of up to 30 m d−1 via two processes, namely the formation of alcoves and tunnels by groundwater seepage, followed by retrogressive slope failure due to undermining and a decrease in shear strength driven by excess pore pressure development. The location of gullies is determined by the occurrence of hydraulically conductive zones, such as relict braided river channels and possibly tunnels, and of sand lenses exposed across sandy gravel cliffs. We also show that the gully planform shape is generally geometrically similar at consecutive stages of evolution. These outcomes will facilitate the reconstruction and prediction of a prevalent erosive process and overlooked geohazard along the Canterbury coastline.

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    Earth Surface Dynamics
    Article . 2021
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      Earth Surface Dynamics
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Micallef, Aaron; Marchis, Remus; Saadatkhah, Nader; Pondthai, Potpreecha; +7 Authors

    Gully formation has been associated to groundwater seepage in unconsolidated sand- to gravel-sized sediments. Our understanding of gully evolution by groundwater seepage mostly relies on experiments and numerical simulations, and these rarely take into consideration contrasts in lithology and permeability. In addition, process-based observations and detailed instrumental analyses are rare. As a result, we have a poor understanding of the temporal scale of gully formation by groundwater seepage and the influence of geological heterogeneity on their formation. This is particularly the case for coastal gullies, where the role of groundwater in their formation and evolution has rarely been assessed. We address these knowledge gaps along the Canterbury coast of the South Island (New Zealand) by integrating field observations, luminescence dating, multi-temporal unoccupied aerial vehicle and satellite data, time domain electromagnetic data and slope stability modelling. We show that gully formation is a key process shaping the sandy gravel cliffs of the Canterbury coastline. It is an episodic process associated to groundwater flow that occurs once every 227 d on average, when rainfall intensities exceed 40mmd􀀀1. The majority of the gullies in a study area southeast (SE) of Ashburton have undergone erosion, predominantly by elongation, during the last 11 years, with the most recent episode occurring 3 years ago. Gullies longer than 200m are relict features formed by higher groundwater flow and surface erosion >2 ka ago. Gullies can form at rates of up to 30md􀀀1 via two processes, namely the formation of alcoves and tunnels by groundwater seepage, followed by retrogressive slope failure due to undermining and a decrease in shear strength driven by excess pore pressure development. The location of gullies is determined by the occurrence of hydraulically conductive zones, such as relict braided river channels and possibly tunnels, and of sand lenses exposed across sandy gravel cliffs.We also show that the gully planform shape is generally geometrically similar at consecutive stages of evolution. These outcomes will facilitate the reconstruction and prediction of a prevalent erosive process and overlooked geohazard along the Canterbury coastline. peer-reviewed

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    Earth Surface Dynamics
    Article
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    OceanRep
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)
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      Earth Surface Dynamics
      Article
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      OAR@UM
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Géli, L.; Henry, P.; Grall, C.; Tary, J.-B.; +34 Authors

    International audience; Understanding micro-seismicity is a critical question for earthquake hazard assessment. Since the devastating earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999, the seismicity along the submerged section of North Anatolian Fault within the Sea of Marmara (comprising the "Istanbul seismic gap") has been extensively studied in order to infer its mechanical behaviour (creeping vs locked). So far, the seismicity has been interpreted only in terms of being tectonic-driven, although the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) is known to strike across multiple hydrocarbon gas sources. Here, we show that a large number of the aftershocks that followed the M 5.1 earthquake of July, 25th 2011 in the western Sea of Marmara, occurred within a zone of gas overpressuring in the 1.5-5 km depth range, from where pressurized gas is expected to migrate along the MMF, up to the surface sediment layers. Hence, gas-related processes should also be considered for a complete interpretation of the micro-seismicity (similar to M < 3) within the Istanbul offshore domain.

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    e-Prints Soton
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: e-Prints Soton
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