descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Other literature type , Article 2018 United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium Public Library of Science (PLoS) WT | Mechanistic and structura..., WT, EC | rEnDOx
WT| Mechanistic and structural analysis of Rab GTPase control systems in normal cells and human disease states. ,
Congenital or neonatal cardiomyopathies are commonly associated with a poor prognosis and have multiple etiologies. In two siblings, a male and female, we identified an undescribed type of lethal congenital restrictive cardiomyopathy affecting the right ventricle. We hypothesized a novel autosomal recessive condition. To identify the cause, we performed genetic, in vitro and in vivo studies. Genome-wide SNP typing and parametric linkage analysis was done in a recessive model to identify candidate regions. Exome sequencing analysis was done in unaffected and affected siblings. In the linkage regions, we selected candidate genes that harbor two rare variants with predicted functional effects in the patients and for which the unaffected sibling is either heterozygous or homozygous reference. We identified two compound heterozygous variants in KIF20A; a maternal missense variant (c.544C>T: p.R182W) and a paternal frameshift mutation (c.1905delT: p.S635Tfs*15). Functional studies confirmed that the R182W mutation creates an ATPase defective form of KIF20A which is not able to support efficient transport of Aurora B as part of the chromosomal passenger complex. Due to this, Aurora B remains trapped on chromatin in dividing cells and fails to translocate to the spindle midzone during cytokinesis. Translational blocking of KIF20A in a zebrafish model resulted in a cardiomyopathy phenotype. We identified a novel autosomal recessive congenital restrictive cardiomyopathy, caused by a near complete loss-of-function of KIF20A. This finding further illustrates the relationship of cytokinesis and congenital cardiomyopathy. Author summary Inborn heart defects can be divided into structural heart defects and diseases affecting the heart muscle, called cardiomyopathies. Congenital or neonatal cardiomyopathies are commonly associated with a poor prognosis and have multiple etiologies. In two siblings, a male and female, we identified an undescribed type of lethal congenital restrictive cardiomyopathy affecting the right ventricle. We hypothesized that this was most likely due to a novel autosomal recessive condition. To identify the cause, we used powerful genetic tools; linkage analysis combined to Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), which analyses the protein coding parts of the human genome. A compound heterozygous mutation was found in KIF20A, a gene which has never been associated with human pathology previously. Further functional studies confirmed that the found variants resulted in a loss-of-function of KIF20A. Studies in zebrafish as an animal model were consistent with a role of KIF20A in cardiac development and function. These findings provide a functional link between cytokinesis and cardiomyopathy, opening a new mechanism for future research in genes involved in cell division.
The marine silicon cycle is intrinsically linked with carbon cycling in the oceans via biological production of silica by a wide range of organisms. The stable silicon isotopic composition (denoted by δ30Si) of siliceous microfossils extracted from sediment cores can be used as an archive of past oceanic silicon cycling. However, the silicon isotopic composition of biogenic silica has only been measured in diatoms, sponges and radiolarians, and isotopic fractionation relative to seawater is entirely unknown for many other silicifiers. Furthermore, the biochemical pathways and mechanisms that determine isotopic fractionation during biosilicification remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first measurements of the silicon isotopic fractionation during biosilicification by loricate choanoflagellates, a group of protists closely related to animals. We cultured two species of choanoflagellates, Diaphanoeca grandis and Stephanoeca diplocostata, which showed consistently greater isotopic fractionation (approximately −5 ‰ to −7 ‰) than cultured diatoms (−0.5 ‰ to −2.1 ‰). Instead, choanoflagellate silicon isotopic fractionation appears to be more similar to sponges grown under similar dissolved silica concentrations. Our results highlight that there is a taxonomic component to silicon isotope fractionation during biosilicification, possibly via a shared or related biochemical transport pathway. These findings have implications for the use of biogenic silica δ30Si produced by different silicifiers as proxies for past oceanic change.
descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Article 2015 United Kingdom, Denmark, United Kingdom, Netherlands, United States Public Library of Science (PLoS) NWO | MediShield Isolator syste..., UKRI | Mechanisms underlying dev..., WT +1 projects
NWO| MediShield Isolator system ,
UKRI| Mechanisms underlying developmental programming of lifelong health ,
X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression profiles of X-linked genes. Tissues whose tissue-specific genes are very highly expressed (e.g., secretory tissues, tissues abundant in structural proteins) are also tissues in which gene expression is relatively rare on the X chromosome. These trends cannot be fully accounted for in terms of alternative models of biased expression. In conclusion, the notion that it is hard for genes on the Therian X to be highly expressed, owing to transcriptional traffic jams, provides a simple yet robustly supported rationale of many peculiar features of X’s gene content, gene expression, and evolution. Author Summary Genes located on the human X chromosome are not a random mix of genes: they tend to be expressed in relatively few tissues or are specific for a particular set of tissues, e.g., brain regions. Prior attempts to explain this skewed gene content have hypothesized that the X chromosome might be peculiar because it has to balance mutations that are advantageous to one sex but deleterious to the other, or because it has to shut down during the process of sperm manufacture in males. Here we suggest and test a third possible explanation: that genes on the X chromosome are limited in their transcription levels and thus tend to be genes that are lowly or specifically expressed. We consider the suggestion that since these genes can only be expressed from one chromosome, as males only have one X, the ability to express a gene at very high rates is limited owing to potential transcriptional traffic jams. As predicted, we find that human X-located genes have maximal expression rates far below that of genes residing on autosomes. When we look at genes that have moved onto or off the X chromosome during recent evolution, we find the maximal expression is higher when not on the X chromosome. We also find that X-located genes that are relatively highly expressed are not able to increase their expression level further. Our model explains both the enrichment for tissue specificity and the paucity of certain tissues with X-located genes. Genes underrepresented on the X are either expressed in many tissues—such genes tend to have high maximal expression—or are from tissues that require a lot of transcription (e.g., fast secreting tissues like the liver). Just as many of the findings cannot be explained by the two earlier models, neither can the traffic jam model explain all the peculiar features of the genes found on the X chromosome. Indeed, we find evidence of a reproduction-related bias in X-located genes, even after allowing for the traffic jam problem. Laurence Hurst, Lukasz Huminiecki, and the FANTOM5 consortium propose a new explanation for the peculiar expression properties of genes on the human X chromosome, based on the premise that very high expression levels cannot be achieved on a haploid-expressed chromosome.
Objective The composition of the healthy human adult gut microbiome is relatively stable over prolonged periods, and representatives of the most highly abundant and prevalent species have been cultured and described. However, microbial abundances can change on perturbations, such as antibiotics intake, enabling the identification and characterisation of otherwise low abundant species. Design Analysing gut microbial time-series data, we used shotgun metagenomics to create strain level taxonomic and functional profiles. Community dynamics were modelled postintervention with a focus on conditionally rare taxa and previously unknown bacteria. Results In response to a commonly prescribed cephalosporin (ceftriaxone), we observe a strong compositional shift in one subject, in which a previously unknown species, U Borkfalki ceftriaxensis, was identified, blooming to 92% relative abundance. The genome assembly reveals that this species (1) belongs to a so far undescribed order of Firmicutes, (2) is ubiquitously present at low abundances in at least one third of adults, (3) is opportunistically growing, being ecologically similar to typical probiotic species and (4) is stably associated to healthy hosts as determined by single nucleotide variation analysis. It was the first coloniser after the antibiotic intervention that led to a long-lasting microbial community shift and likely permanent loss of nine commensals. Conclusion The bloom of U B. ceftriaxensis and a subsequent one of Parabacteroides distasonis demonstrate the existence of monodominance community states in the gut. Our study points to an undiscovered wealth of low abundant but common taxa in the human gut and calls for more highly resolved longitudinal studies, in particular on ecosystem perturbations.
descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Article , Other literature type 2019 Belgium, France Oxford University Press (OUP) UKRI | Development of diagnostic..., EC | PALE-Blu, WT | Phylogeography, Transmiss...
UKRI| Development of diagnostic systems, reference collections and molecular epidemiology studies for important arboviral pathogens of livestock in India ,
EC| PALE-Blu ,
WT| Phylogeography, Transmission Dynamics and Pathogenesis of Bluetongue
Authors: Maude Jacquot; P. P. Rao; Sarita Yadav; Kyriaki Nomikou; +10 Authors
Maude Jacquot; P. P. Rao; Sarita Yadav; Kyriaki Nomikou; Sushila Maan; Y Krishna Jyothi; Narasimha Y Reddy; Kalyani Putty; Divakar Hemadri; Karam Pal Singh; Narender S. Maan; Nagendra R. Hegde; Peter P. C. Mertens; Roman Biek;
For segmented viruses, rapid genomic and phenotypic changes can occur through the process of reassortment, whereby co-infecting strains exchange entire segments creating novel progeny virus genotypes. However, for many viruses with segmented genomes, this process and its effect on transmission dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the consequences of reassortment for selection on viral diversity through time using bluetongue virus (BTV), a segmented arbovirus that is the causative agent of a major disease of ruminants. We analysed ninety-Two BTV genomes isolated across four decades from India, where BTV diversity, and thus opportunities for reassortment, are among the highest in the world. Our results point to frequent reassortment and segment turnover, some of which appear to be driven by selective sweeps and serial hitchhiking. Particularly, we found evidence for a recent selective sweep affecting segment 5 and its encoded NS1 protein that has allowed a single variant to essentially invade the full range of BTV genomic backgrounds and serotypes currently circulating in India. In contrast, diversifying selection was found to play an important role in maintaining genetic diversity in genes encoding outer surface proteins involved in virus interactions (VP2 and VP5, encoded by segments 2 and 6, respectively). Our results support the role of reassortment in driving rapid phenotypic change in segmented viruses and generate testable hypotheses for in vitro experiments aiming at understanding the specific mechanisms underlying differences in fitness and selection across viral genomes. info:eu-repo/semantics/published SCOPUS: ar.j
Summary The ring-shaped structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes are multi-subunit ATPases that topologically encircle DNA. SMC rings make vital contributions to numerous chromosomal functions, including mitotic chromosome condensation, sister chromatid cohesion, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. They are thought to do so by establishing interactions between more than one DNA. Here, we demonstrate DNA-DNA tethering by the purified fission yeast cohesin complex. DNA-bound cohesin efficiently and topologically captures a second DNA, but only if that is single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Like initial double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) embrace, second ssDNA capture is ATP-dependent, and it strictly requires the cohesin loader complex. Second-ssDNA capture is relatively labile but is converted into stable dsDNA-dsDNA cohesion through DNA synthesis. Our study illustrates second-DNA capture by an SMC complex and provides a molecular model for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Highlights • The recombinant cohesin complex mediates DNA-DNA interactions • Second-DNA capture by cohesin requires ssDNA • DNA replication stabilizes second-strand capture • Second-DNA capture at a replication fork could establish sister chromatid cohesion Cohesin sets up the initial steps of chromosome cohesion by anchoring single-stranded DNA along to a region of duplex DNA. Graphical Abstract
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential regulators of epigenetic gene silencing and development. The PcG protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) is a key component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 and is responsible for placing the histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repressive mark on the genome through its methyltransferase domain. Ezh2 is highly conserved in vertebrates. We studied the role of ezh2 during development of zebrafish with the use of a mutant allele (ezh2(sa1199), R18STOP), which has a stop mutation in the second exon of the ezh2 gene. Two versions of the same line were used during this study. The first and original version of zygotic ezh2(sa1199) mutants unexpectedly retained ezh2 expression in brain, gut, branchial arches, and eyes at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf), as revealed by in-situ hybridization. Moreover, the expression pattern in homozygous mutants was identical to that of wild types, indicating that mutant ezh2 mRNA is not subject to nonsense mediated decay (NMD) as predicted. Both wild type and ezh2 mutant embryos presented edemas at 2 and 3 dpf. The line was renewed by selective breeding to counter select the non-specific phenotypes and survival was assessed. In contrast to earlier studies on ezh2 mutant zebrafish, ezh2(sa1199) mutants survived until adulthood. Interestingly, the ezh2 mRNA and Ezh2 protein were present during adulthood (70 dpf) in both wild type and ezh2(sa1199) mutant zebrafish. We conclude that the ezh2(sa1199) allele does not exhibit an ezh2 loss-of-function phenotype.
AbstractPathogens are exposed to toxic levels of copper during infection and copper tolerance may be a general virulence mechanism used by bacteria to resist host defences. In support of this, inactivation of copper-exporter genes has been found to reduce the virulence of bacterial pathogensin vivo. Here we investigate the role of copper-hypertolerance in methicillin resistantStaphylococcus aureus. We show that a copper-hypertolerance locus (copB-mco), carried on a mobile genetic element, is prevalent in a collection of invasiveS. aureusstrains and more widely among clonal complex 22, 30 and 398 strains. ThecopBandmcogenes encode a copper efflux pump and a multicopper oxidase, respectively. Isogenic mutants lackingcopBormcohad impaired growth in subinhibitory concentrations of copper. Transfer of acopB-mcoencoding plasmid to a naive clinical isolate resulted in a gain of copper hypertolerance and enhanced bacterial survival inside primed macrophages. ThecopBandmcogenes were upregulated within infected macrophages and their expression was dependent on the copper sensitive operon repressor CsoR. IsogeniccopBandmcomutants were impaired in their ability to persist intracellularly in macrophages and were less resistant to phagocytic killing in human blood than the parent strain. The importance of copper-regulated genes in resistance to phagocytic killing was further elaborated using mutants expressing a copper-insensitive variant of CsoR. Our findings suggest that the gain of mobile genetic elements carrying copper-hypertolerance genes contributes to the evolution of virulent strains ofS. aureus, better equipped to resist killing by host immune cells.
descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Other literature type , Article 2018 United Kingdom American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) SSHRC, WT | Genome diversity and evol..., NIH | Comprehensive Characteriz... +7 projects
WT| Genome diversity and evolution in transmissible cancers in dogs and tasmanian devils ,
NIH| Comprehensive Characterization of Canine Genomic Structural Diversity ,
EC| UNDEAD ,
UKRI| Deciphering dog domestication through a combined ancient DNA and geometric morphometric approach ,
NSF| Doctoral Dissertation Research: Human Population Inferences Via Canine Genetics ,
EC| Extinction Genomics ,
WT| Domestic animals as a model to understand the relationship between deleterious mutations, demography and disease ,
EC| TURKEY ,
Authors: Máire Ní Leathlobhair; Angela R. Perri; Evan K. Irving-Pease; Kelsey E. Witt; +46 Authors
Máire Ní Leathlobhair; Angela R. Perri; Evan K. Irving-Pease; Kelsey E. Witt; Anna Linderholm; James Haile; Ophélie Lebrasseur; Carly Ameen; Jeffrey P. Blick; Adam R. Boyko; Selina Brace; Yahaira Nunes Cortes; Susan J. Crockford; Alison Devault; Evangelos A. Dimopoulos; Morley Eldridge; Jacob Enk; Shyam Gopalakrishnan; Kevin Gori; Vaughan Grimes; Eric J. Guiry; Anders J. Hansen; Ardern Hulme-Beaman; John R. Johnson; Andrew Kitchen; Aleksei Kasparov; Young Mi Kwon; Pavel A. Nikolskiy; Carlos Peraza Lope; Aurélie Manin; Terrance J. Martin; Michael C. Meyer; Kelsey Noack Myers; Mark Omura; Jean Marie Rouillard; Elena Y. Pavlova; Paul W. Sciulli; Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding; Andrea Strakova; Varvara V. Ivanova; Chris Widga; Eske Willerslev; Vladimir V. Pitulko; Ian Barnes; M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Keith Dobney; Ripan S. Malhi; Elizabeth P. Murchison; Greger Larson; Laurent A. F. Frantz;
Lineage losses for man's best friend Dogs have been present in North America for at least 9000 years. To better understand how present-day breeds and populations reflect their introduction to the New World, Ní Leathlobhair et al. sequenced the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of ancient dogs (see the Perspective by Goodman and Karlsson). The earliest New World dogs were not domesticated from North American wolves but likely originated from a Siberian ancestor. Furthermore, these lineages date back to a common ancestor that coincides with the first human migrations across Beringia. This lineage appears to have been mostly replaced by dogs introduced by Europeans, with the primary extant lineage remaining as a canine transmissible venereal tumor. Science , this issue p. 81 ; see also p. 27
Summary Maintenance of epigenetic integrity relies on coordinated recycling and partitioning of parental histones and deposition of newly synthesized histones during DNA replication. This process depends upon a poorly characterized network of histone chaperones, remodelers, and binding proteins. Here we implicate the POLE3-POLE4 subcomplex of the leading-strand polymerase, Polε, in replication-coupled nucleosome assembly through its ability to selectively bind to histones H3-H4. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and physical mapping, we define minimal domains necessary for interaction between POLE3-POLE4 and histones H3-H4. Biochemical analyses establish that POLE3-POLE4 is a histone chaperone that promotes tetrasome formation and DNA supercoiling in vitro. In cells, POLE3-POLE4 binds both newly synthesized and parental histones, and its depletion hinders helicase unwinding and chromatin PCNA unloading and compromises coordinated parental histone retention and new histone deposition. Collectively, our study reveals that POLE3-POLE4 possesses intrinsic H3-H4 chaperone activity, which facilitates faithful nucleosome dynamics at the replication fork. Bellelli et al. report that mammalian POLE3-POLE4 binds to histones H3-H4 and promotes tetrasome formation and DNA supercoiling, acting as a bona fide histone chaperone. Consistent with this, cells lacking POLE3/POLE4 exhibit defective RPA accumulation and PCNA retention on chromatin, features of defective chromatin dismantling/maturation at the replication fork. Highlights • Mammalian POLE3-POLE4 is a bona fide H2A-H2B histone fold complex • The POLE3-POLE4 complex binds to histones H3-H4 in vitro and in vivo • POLE3-POLE4 induces tetrasome formation and DNA supercoiling in vitro • POLE3-POLE4 chaperone activity promotes chromatin integrity in mammalian cells Graphical Abstract