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14 Research products

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  • Authors: Rowe, Will;

    This dissertation documents the development of an environmental framework for monitoring antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) dissemination in the aquatic environment. The work opens with a review of the relevant literature and outlines the importance of an environmental framework for monitoring ARG dissemination as part of antimicrobial resistance risk assessments. The ability to interrogate sequencing data quickly and easily for the presence of ARGs is crucial in order to facilitate their monitoring in the environment. As current laboratory methods for the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the environment were limited in their effectiveness and scope, the dissertation begins by describing the design and implementation of a Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance (SEAR), a pipeline and web interface for detection of horizontally-acquired ARGs in raw sequencing data. The suitability of metagenomic methods for monitoring the ARG content of effluents from faecal sources was then assessed via a pilot study of a river catchment. Novel metagenomes generated from effluents entering the catchment were interrogated for ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs in effluents were determined to be higher relative to the background environment, as were sequences relating to human and animal pathogens and mobile genetic elements. Thus, effluents were implicated in the dissemination of ARGs throughout the aquatic environment. To determine if ARGs were potentially in use in the environment, the expression of ARGs within effluents was then evaluated across a series of longitudinal samples through the use of metatranscriptomics, and the presence of potential environmental antimicrobial selection pressures was examined. This demonstrated that the abundance of ARGs, as well as antimicrobial usage at the effluent source, was correlated with the transcription of ARGs in aquatic environments. The work described in this dissertation has also found that horizontally transmitted ARGs were present in pathogenic endospore-forming bacteria commonly found across the aquatic environment, potentially providing a mechanism for ARG persistence in the environment. Finally, these findings were integrated into a universal framework for monitoring ARG dissemination in aquatic environments and used to highlight the developments required to incorporate this framework into future environmental ARG research and to facilitate antimicrobial resistance risk assessments. The work described in this dissertation has been carried out as part of a BBSRC Industrial CASE PhD studentship, sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline and the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science.

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    Apollo
    Thesis . 2016
    License: CC BY SA
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Apollo
      Thesis . 2016
      License: CC BY SA
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cannone, Giuseppe; Visentin, Silvia; Palud, Adeline; Henneke, Ghislaine; +1 Authors

    Cell division is a complex process that requires precise duplication of genetic material. Duplication is concerted by replisomes. The Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) replicative helicase is a crucial component of replisomes. Eukaryotic and archaeal MCM proteins are highly conserved. In fact, archaeal MCMs are powerful tools for elucidating essential features of MCM function. However, while eukaryotic MCM2-7 is a heterocomplex made of different polypeptide chains, the MCM complexes of many Archaea form homohexamers from a single gene product. Moreover, some archaeal MCMs are polymorphic, and both hexameric and heptameric architectures have been reported for the same polypeptide. Here, we present the structure of the archaeal MCM helicase from Pyrococcus abyssi in its single octameric ring assembly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a full-length octameric MCM helicase.

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    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: Scientific Reports
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: Scientific Reports
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    Authors: Jacquot, Maude; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Palmarini, Massimo; Mertens, Peter; +1 Authors

    Spatio-temporal patterns of the spread of infectious diseases are commonly driven by environmental and ecological factors. This is particularly true for vector-borne diseases because vector populations can be strongly affected by host distribution as well as by climatic and landscape variables. Here, we aim to identify environmental drivers for bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of a major vector-borne disease of ruminants that has emerged multiple times in Europe in recent decades. In order to determine the importance of climatic, landscape and host-related factors affecting BTV diffusion across Europe, we fitted different phylogeographic models to a dataset of 113 time-stamped and geo-referenced BTV genomes, representing multiple strains and serotypes. Diffusion models using continuous space revealed that terrestrial habitat below 300 m altitude, wind direction and higher livestock densities were associated with faster BTV movement. Results of discrete phylogeographic analysis involving generalized linear models broadly supported these findings, but varied considerably with the level of spatial partitioning. Contrary to common perception, we found no evidence for average temperature having a positive effect on BTV diffusion, though both methodological and biological reasons could be responsible for this result. Our study provides important insights into the drivers of BTV transmission at the landscape scale that could inform predictive models of viral spread and have implications for designing control strategies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Royal Society Data Sharing and Accessibility
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
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      Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Royal Society Data Sharing and Accessibility
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    Authors: Pinharanda, A.; Martin, S. H.; Barker, S. L.; Davey, J. W.; +1 Authors

    Gene duplications can facilitate adaptation and may lead to interpopulation divergence, causing reproductive isolation. We used whole-genome resequencing data from 34 butterflies to detect duplications in two Heliconius species, Heliconius cydno and Heliconius melpomene. Taking advantage of three distinctive signals of duplication in short-read sequencing data, we identified 744 duplicated loci in H. cydno and H. melpomene and evaluated the accuracy of our approach using single-molecule sequencing. We have found that duplications overlap genes significantly less than expected at random in H. melpomene, consistent with the action of background selection against duplicates in functional regions of the genome. Duplicate loci that are highly differentiated between H. melpomene and H. cydno map to four different chromosomes. Four duplications were identified with a strong signal of divergent selection, including an odorant binding protein and another in close proximity with a known wing colour pattern locus that differs between the two species.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Apollo
      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Apollo
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    Authors: Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Sweeting, Michael; +51 Authors

    Background: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition). Methods: In this prospective study of 409 885 men and women in 9 European countries, diet was assessed with validated questionnaires and calibrated with 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During a mean of 12.6 years of follow-up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died of IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined with Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. Results: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06–1.33) for a 100-g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09–1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89–0.98] per 100-g/d increment), cheese (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86–0.98] per 30-g/d increment), and eggs (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88–0.99] per 20-g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and nonsignificant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish, or milk. In analyses modeling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese, or eggs was associated with ≈20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese, and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects. Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: Apollo
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    Apollo
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      Other literature type . 2019
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      Article . 2019
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Richter, Sandy; Helm, Conrad; Meunier, Frederic A.; Hering, Lars; +6 Authors

    This work was supported by Cancer Research UK [GS], a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Award (107116/Z/15/Z) [GS], and University College London [GS]. This work was further supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG; grant BL787/7-1) and an EU ASSEMBLE grant (No. 227799; http://www.assemblemarine.org) to CB. We acknowledge support from the German Research Foundation (DFG) and Universität Leipzig within the program of Open Access Publishing. [Background]: We present the first molecular characterization of glycerotoxin (GLTx), a potent neurotoxin found in the venom of the bloodworm Glycera tridactyla (Glyceridae, Annelida). Within the animal kingdom, GLTx shows a unique mode of action as it can specifically up-regulate the activity of Cav2.2 channels (N-type) in a reversible manner. The lack of sequence information has so far hampered a detailed understanding of its mode of action. [Conclusions]: Our results overturn a century old textbook view on the glycerid venom system, suggesting that it is anatomically and functionally much more complex than previously thought. The herein presented GLTx sequence information constitutes an important step towards the establishment of GLTx as a versatile tool to understand the mechanism of synaptic function, as well as the mode of action of this novel neurotoxin. [Results]: Our analyses reveal three ~3.8 kb GLTx full-length transcripts, show that GLTx represents a multigene family, and suggest it functions as a dimer. An integrative approach using transcriptomics, quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry shows that GLTx is highly expressed exclusively in four pharyngeal lobes, a previously unrecognized part of the venom apparatus. © The Author(s). Peer Reviewed

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Golding, Jean; Gregory, Steven; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Hibbeln, Joseph; +2 Authors

    Introduction There is evidence that high levels of mercury exposure to the pregnant woman can result in damage to the brain of the developing fetus. However there is uncertainty as to whether lower levels of the metal have adverse effects on the development of the infant and whether components of fish consumption and/or the selenium status of the woman is protective. Methods In this study we analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 2875–3264) to determine whether levels of total blood mercury of pregnant women collected in the first half of pregnancy are associated with the development of the offspring at ages 6, 18, 30 and 42 months. The developmental measures used maternal self-reported scales for individual types of development (fine and gross motor, social and communication skills) and total scores. Multiple and logistic regression analyses treated the outcomes both as continuous and as suboptimal (the lowest 15th centile). The statistical analyses first examined the association of prenatal mercury exposure with these developmental endpoints and then adjusted each for a number of social and maternal lifestyle factors; finally this model was adjusted for the blood selenium level. Results Total maternal prenatal blood mercury and selenium ranged from 0.17 to 12.76 and 17.0 to 324 μg/L respectively. We found no evidence to suggest that prenatal levels of maternal blood mercury were associated with adverse development of the child, even when the mother had consumed no fish during pregnancy. In general, the higher the mercury level the more advanced the development of the child within the range of exposure studied. For example, the fully adjusted effect sizes for total development at 6 and 42 months were +0.51 [95%CI +0.05, +1.00] and +0.43 [95%CI +0.08, +0.78] points per SD of mercury. For the risk of suboptimal development the ORs at these ages were 0.90 [95%CI 0.80, 1.02] and 0.88 [95%CI 0.77, 1.02]. In regard to the associations between blood mercury and child development there were no differences between the mothers who ate fish and those who did not, thus implying that the benefits were not solely due to the beneficial nutrients in fish. Conclusions We found no evidence of adverse associations between maternal prenatal blood mercury and child development between 6 and 42 months of age. The significant associations that were present were all in the beneficial direction. Highlights • Prenatal blood mercury was measured in >2000 women linked their offspring’s development at 4 time points. • Adjusted associations indicated that the higher the level of blood mercury the more advanced the child’s development. • Adjustment of the analyses for blood selenium did not alter the results. • Separate analyses of women who consumed or did not consume fish produced similar results. • There was no indication that child development is harmed by the levels of mercury we studied (up to the EPA’s RFD).

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Keller, M.; Turchyn, A. V.; Ralser, M.;

    The reaction sequences of central metabolism, glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway provide essential precursors for nucleic acids, amino acids and lipids. However, their evolutionary origins are not yet understood. Here, we provide evidence that their structure could have been fundamentally shaped by the general chemical environments in earth's earliest oceans. We reconstructed potential scenarios for oceans of the prebiotic Archean based on the composition of early sediments. We report that the resultant reaction milieu catalyses the interconversion of metabolites that in modern organisms constitute glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. The 29 observed reactions include the formation and/or interconversion of glucose, pyruvate, the nucleic acid precursor ribose‐5‐phosphate and the amino acid precursor erythrose‐4‐phosphate, antedating reactions sequences similar to that used by the metabolic pathways. Moreover, the Archean ocean mimetic increased the stability of the phosphorylated intermediates and accelerated the rate of intermediate reactions and pyruvate production. The catalytic capacity of the reconstructed ocean milieu was attributable to its metal content. The reactions were particularly sensitive to ferrous iron Fe(II), which is understood to have had high concentrations in the Archean oceans. These observations reveal that reaction sequences that constitute central carbon metabolism could have been constrained by the iron‐rich oceanic environment of the early Archean. The origin of metabolism could thus date back to the prebiotic world.

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    Authors: Marron, Alan; Cassarino, Lucie; Hatton, Jade; Curnow, Paul; +1 Authors

    The marine silicon cycle is intrinsically linked with carbon cycling in the oceans via biological production of silica by a wide range of organisms. The stable silicon isotopic composition (denoted by δ30Si) of siliceous microfossils extracted from sediment cores can be used as an archive of past oceanic silicon cycling. However, the silicon isotopic composition of biogenic silica has only been measured in diatoms, sponges and radiolarians, and isotopic fractionation relative to seawater is entirely unknown for many other silicifiers. Furthermore, the biochemical pathways and mechanisms that determine isotopic fractionation during biosilicification remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first measurements of the silicon isotopic fractionation during biosilicification by loricate choanoflagellates, a group of protists closely related to animals. We cultured two species of choanoflagellates, Diaphanoeca grandis and Stephanoeca diplocostata, which showed consistently greater isotopic fractionation (approximately −5 ‰ to −7 ‰) than cultured diatoms (−0.5 ‰ to −2.1 ‰). Instead, choanoflagellate silicon isotopic fractionation appears to be more similar to sponges grown under similar dissolved silica concentrations. Our results highlight that there is a taxonomic component to silicon isotope fractionation during biosilicification, possibly via a shared or related biochemical transport pathway. These findings have implications for the use of biogenic silica δ30Si produced by different silicifiers as proxies for past oceanic change.

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    Authors: Mocho, Jean-Philippe; Martin, Darren J.; Millington, Mollie E.; Saavedra Torres, Yolanda;

    Health monitoring systems are developed and used in zebrafish research facilities because pathogens of Danio rerio such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium spp., and Pseudocapillaria tomentosa have the potential to impair animal welfare and research. The fish are typically analyzed post mortem to detect microbes. The use of sentinels is a suggested way to improve the sensitivity of the surveillance and to reduce the number of animals to sample. The setting of a pre-filtration sentinel tank out of a recirculating system is described. The technique is developed to prevent water pollution and to represent the fish population by a careful selection of age, gender, and strains. In order to use the minimum number of animals, techniques to screen the environment are also detailed. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on surface sump swabs is used to significantly improve the detection of some prevalent and pathogenic mycobacterial species such as Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium haemophilum, and Mycobacterium chelonae. Another environmental method consists of processing the sludge at the bottom of a holding tank or sump to look for P. tomentosa eggs. This is a cheap and fast technique that can be applied in quarantine where a breeding device is submerged into the holding tank of imported animals. Finally, PCR is applied to the sludge sample and A. hydrophila is detected at the sump's bottom and surface. Generally, these environmental screening techniques applied to these specific pathogens have led to an increased sensitivity compared to the testing of pre-filtration sentinels.

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    Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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14 Research products
  • Authors: Rowe, Will;

    This dissertation documents the development of an environmental framework for monitoring antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) dissemination in the aquatic environment. The work opens with a review of the relevant literature and outlines the importance of an environmental framework for monitoring ARG dissemination as part of antimicrobial resistance risk assessments. The ability to interrogate sequencing data quickly and easily for the presence of ARGs is crucial in order to facilitate their monitoring in the environment. As current laboratory methods for the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the environment were limited in their effectiveness and scope, the dissertation begins by describing the design and implementation of a Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance (SEAR), a pipeline and web interface for detection of horizontally-acquired ARGs in raw sequencing data. The suitability of metagenomic methods for monitoring the ARG content of effluents from faecal sources was then assessed via a pilot study of a river catchment. Novel metagenomes generated from effluents entering the catchment were interrogated for ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs in effluents were determined to be higher relative to the background environment, as were sequences relating to human and animal pathogens and mobile genetic elements. Thus, effluents were implicated in the dissemination of ARGs throughout the aquatic environment. To determine if ARGs were potentially in use in the environment, the expression of ARGs within effluents was then evaluated across a series of longitudinal samples through the use of metatranscriptomics, and the presence of potential environmental antimicrobial selection pressures was examined. This demonstrated that the abundance of ARGs, as well as antimicrobial usage at the effluent source, was correlated with the transcription of ARGs in aquatic environments. The work described in this dissertation has also found that horizontally transmitted ARGs were present in pathogenic endospore-forming bacteria commonly found across the aquatic environment, potentially providing a mechanism for ARG persistence in the environment. Finally, these findings were integrated into a universal framework for monitoring ARG dissemination in aquatic environments and used to highlight the developments required to incorporate this framework into future environmental ARG research and to facilitate antimicrobial resistance risk assessments. The work described in this dissertation has been carried out as part of a BBSRC Industrial CASE PhD studentship, sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline and the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science.

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    Apollo
    Thesis . 2016
    License: CC BY SA
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Apolloarrow_drop_down
      Apollo
      Thesis . 2016
      License: CC BY SA
      Data sources: Datacite
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cannone, Giuseppe; Visentin, Silvia; Palud, Adeline; Henneke, Ghislaine; +1 Authors

    Cell division is a complex process that requires precise duplication of genetic material. Duplication is concerted by replisomes. The Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) replicative helicase is a crucial component of replisomes. Eukaryotic and archaeal MCM proteins are highly conserved. In fact, archaeal MCMs are powerful tools for elucidating essential features of MCM function. However, while eukaryotic MCM2-7 is a heterocomplex made of different polypeptide chains, the MCM complexes of many Archaea form homohexamers from a single gene product. Moreover, some archaeal MCMs are polymorphic, and both hexameric and heptameric architectures have been reported for the same polypeptide. Here, we present the structure of the archaeal MCM helicase from Pyrococcus abyssi in its single octameric ring assembly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a full-length octameric MCM helicase.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: Scientific Reports
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: Scientific Reports
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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jacquot, Maude; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Palmarini, Massimo; Mertens, Peter; +1 Authors

    Spatio-temporal patterns of the spread of infectious diseases are commonly driven by environmental and ecological factors. This is particularly true for vector-borne diseases because vector populations can be strongly affected by host distribution as well as by climatic and landscape variables. Here, we aim to identify environmental drivers for bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of a major vector-borne disease of ruminants that has emerged multiple times in Europe in recent decades. In order to determine the importance of climatic, landscape and host-related factors affecting BTV diffusion across Europe, we fitted different phylogeographic models to a dataset of 113 time-stamped and geo-referenced BTV genomes, representing multiple strains and serotypes. Diffusion models using continuous space revealed that terrestrial habitat below 300 m altitude, wind direction and higher livestock densities were associated with faster BTV movement. Results of discrete phylogeographic analysis involving generalized linear models broadly supported these findings, but varied considerably with the level of spatial partitioning. Contrary to common perception, we found no evidence for average temperature having a positive effect on BTV diffusion, though both methodological and biological reasons could be responsible for this result. Our study provides important insights into the drivers of BTV transmission at the landscape scale that could inform predictive models of viral spread and have implications for designing control strategies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...