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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Qiu, C.; Zhu, D.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; +50 Authors

    Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO2 fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC) observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-to-day variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP) (r2 = 0.76; Nash–Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF = 0.76) and ecosystem respiration (ER, r2 = 0.78, MEF = 0.75), with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, r2 = 0.42, MEF = 0.14) and and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, r2 = 0.38, MEF = 0.26). Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high r2 values (0.57–0.86). For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, r2 values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT) variation was not well predicted (r2 cmax and latitude (temperature), which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average Vcmax value. Source at https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-497-2018.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Norwegian Open Resea...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: KITopen
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Norwegian Open Resea...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      KITopen
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: KITopen
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mitterboeck, T. Fatima;

    Molecular evolutionary rates vary dramatically across the tree of life. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, this thesis explores rates and patterns of molecular evolution associated with three major repeated evolutionary transitions that have shaped life: shifts between marine and freshwater environments in diverse lineages of eukaryotes, shifts between freshwater and terrestrial environments in insects, and shifts between flying ability and lack of ability in insects. These studies were novel in taxonomic scope and in the evolutionary transitions examined, as well as by assessing trends in both directions of transition. While rates of molecular evolution were here observed to be relatively equal among habitat categories, freshwater eukaryotes tended to have higher rates than marine or saline eukaryotes, and terrestrial insects tended to have higher rates than freshwater insects. In flightless insects, certain categories of genes more commonly exhibited signatures of positive or relaxed selection than observed in flying insects, and these trends mirrored those previously reported for other flying and secondarily flightless animal groups (birds and bats). Overall, the broad-scale trends observed in these studies support a degree of predictability in molecular evolution in association with biological and ecological traits of organisms. September 2012 to April 2013, May to August 2014: University of Guelph Integrative Biology PhD award to T.F.M. May 2013 to April 2014: Government of Ontario and University of Guelph Ontario Graduate Fellowship to T.F.M. September 2014 to August 2016: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Alexander Graham Bell Graduate Scholarship (CGS-D) and University of Guelph Dean’s Tri-council Scholarship to T.F.M. September 2012 to August 2016: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery Grants to S.J.A. (386591-2010) and J.F. (400479).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Benetti, Marion; Reverdin, Gilles; Lique, Camille; Yashayaev, Igor; +6 Authors

    The Labrador Current is an important conduit of freshwater from the Arctic to the interior North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Here we investigate the spatial variability of the freshwater sources over the southern Labrador shelf and slope during May–June 2014. Using measurements of seawater properties such as temperature, salinity, nutrients, and oxygen isotopic composition, we estimate the respective contributions of saline water of Atlantic and Pacific origins, of brines released during sea ice formation, and of freshwater from sea ice melt and meteoric water origins. On the southern Labrador shelf, we find a large brine signal and Pacific water influence indicating a large contribution of water from the Canadian Arctic. The brine signal implies that more than 4 m of sea ice formed upstream, either in the Arctic or in Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea. Over the midshelf and slope at 52°N, we find a stronger influence of slope water from the West Greenland Current with a smaller contribution of Pacific water and no brine signal. Thus, there is advection of water from the slope region to the midshelf between 55°N and 52°N. Very freshwater with high meteoric content is found close to the coast in June 2014. Observations from 1995 and 2008 suggest a higher fraction of brine and Pacific water on the shelf compared to that observed in 2014. International audience

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: S. T. Lennartz; S. T. Lennartz; C. A. Marandino; M. von Hobe; +18 Authors

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) are volatile sulfur gases that are naturally formed in seawater and exchanged with the atmosphere. OCS is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, and CS2 is its most important precursor. They have attracted increased interest due to their direct (OCS) or indirect (CS2 via oxidation to OCS) contribution to the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer. Furthermore, OCS serves as a proxy to constrain terrestrial CO2 uptake by vegetation. Oceanic emissions of both gases contribute a major part to their atmospheric concentration. Here we present a database of previously published and unpublished (mainly shipborne) measurements in seawater and the marine boundary layer for both gases, available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.905430 (Lennartz et al., 2019). The database contains original measurements as well as data digitalized from figures in publications from 42 measurement campaigns, i.e., cruises or time series stations, ranging from 1982 to 2019. OCS data cover all ocean basins except for the Arctic Ocean, as well as all months of the year, while the CS2 dataset shows large gaps in spatial and temporal coverage. Concentrations are consistent across different sampling and analysis techniques for OCS. The database is intended to support the identification of global spatial and temporal patterns and to facilitate the evaluation of model simulations.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Myler, Erika;

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is an emerging approach for the detection of whole biological communities from environmental bulk samples. This method is gaining acceptance towards broader application as a fish biomonitoring tool in Canada. However, species detections are often not congruent with conventional methods, which calls for further validation studies. In this thesis, I investigate the impact of sediment resuspension on species detection using eDNA metabarcoding and evaluate congruence with conventional methods. I found that sediment resuspension had a minimal effect on species detection. However, false negatives occurred for two species. To investigate the occurrence of false negatives across Canadian freshwater fishes, I collated species detections from five studies. I found that ~50% of species are affected by taxonomic blind spots arising from various sources. This thesis demonstrates the capabilities and limitations of eDNA metabarcoding for Canadian freshwater fish biomonitoring and proposes solutions to address taxonomic blind spots. Environment and Climate Change Canada Strategic Technology Applications of Genomics in the Environment (STAGE) Program; Environment and Climate Change Canada Research Affiliate Program (RAP); Agnico Eagle; Ages Foundation Research Fellowship & Bursaries Program

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    Authors: Wagner, R.; Ickes, L.; Bertram, A. K.; Els, N.; +5 Authors

    Sea spray aerosol particles are a recognised type of ice-nucleating particles under mixed-phase cloud conditions. Entities that are responsible for the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability include intact or fragmented cells of marine microorganisms as well as organic matter released by cell exudation. Only a small fraction of sea spray aerosol is transported to the upper troposphere, but there are indications from mass-spectrometric analyses of the residuals of sublimated cirrus particles that sea salt could also contribute to heterogeneous ice nucleation under cirrus conditions. Experimental studies on the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of sea spray aerosol particles and their proxies at temperatures below 235 K are still scarce. In our article, we summarise previous measurements and present a new set of ice nucleation experiments at cirrus temperatures with particles generated from sea surface microlayer and surface seawater samples collected in three different regions of the Arctic and from a laboratory-grown diatom culture (Skeletonema marinoi). The particles were suspended in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber and ice formation was induced by expansion cooling. We confirmed that under cirrus conditions, apart from the ice-nucleating entities mentioned above, also crystalline inorganic salt constituents can contribute to heterogeneous ice formation. This takes place at temperatures below 220 K, where we observed in all experiments a strong immersion freezing mode due to the only partially deliquesced inorganic salts. The inferred ice nucleation active surface site densities for this nucleation mode reached a maximum of about 5×1010 m−2 at an ice saturation ratio of 1.3. Much smaller densities in the range of 108–109 m−2 were observed at temperatures between 220 and 235 K, where the inorganic salts fully deliquesced and only the organic matter and/or algal cells and cell debris could contribute to heterogeneous ice formation. These values are 2 orders of magnitude smaller than those previously reported for particles generated from microlayer suspensions collected in temperate and subtropical zones. While this difference might simply underline the strong variability of the number of ice-nucleating entities in the sea surface microlayer across different geographical regions, we also discuss how instrumental parameters like the aerosolisation method and the ice nucleation measurement technique might affect the comparability of the results amongst different studies.

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    KITopen
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Article . 2021
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    Long-term monitoring of the underwater environment is still labour intensive work. Using underwater surveillance cameras to monitor this environment has the potential advantage to make the task become less labour intensive. Also, the obtained data can be stored making the research reproducible. In this work, a system to analyse long-term underwater camera footage (more than 3 years of 12 hours a day underwater camera footage from 10 cameras) is described. This system uses video processing software to detect and recognise fish species. This footage is processed on supercomputers, which allow marine biologists to request automatic processing on these videos and afterwards analyse the results using a web-interface that allows them to display counts of fish species in the camera footage.

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    Authors: Stortini, Christine;

    This thesis explores the application of a traditionally terrestrial-based ecological theory, the Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB), to a large marine ecosystem. Decades of testing of this theory have led to various extensions acknowledging that the slope of the Species-Area Relationship (SAR) reflects species traits related to dispersal capacity, and species’ competitive and predatory interactions. Until recently, it was largely believed that marine ecosystems were too large and interconnected for this body of theory to apply. My research indicates that this is not true. I tested the applicability of TIB and its derivatives to the structure and dynamics of fish and macroinvertebrate communities inhabiting ten highly productive offshore banks (ranging 500 to 10’500 km2) located on the Scotian Shelf, NW Atlantic Ocean. In Chapter 2, I found support for the TIB: there was a positive SAR for the fish species of the offshore banks. I also found support for predictions of the Trophic TIB concerning the role of predators in controlling the SAR of lower trophic levels: prey and mesopredator SAR slopes increased following the collapse of largebodied predatory groundfish populations due to overfishing. In Chapter 3, I tested for a positive SAR across the macroinvertebrate assemblages of the banks. I found a significant SAR slope only for the least dispersive taxon, supporting early predictions of a negative relation between dispersal capacity and SAR slope. I also found that oceanographic processes play an important role in connecting these assemblages, most-so for highly dispersive taxa. In Chapter 4, across the fish assemblages of the banks, I found support for the original predictions of TIB that, on average over the long-term, bank-specific colonization and extinction events are at equilibrium. However, I also found a dramatic increase in interannual turnover of prey fish species following predator collapse, particularly on the coldest, largest banks, suggesting an extension of the Trophic TIB linking increased SAR slopes to reduced temporal stability may be warranted. My research supports the continued application of TIB and its modern derivatives in large marine ecosystems to elucidate variation of insularity and temporal stability among species assemblages under different disturbance regimes.

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    Thesis
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    Thesis . 2020
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      Thesis . 2020
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    Authors: Mota Damasceno, Flavia;

    The development of nutritional dietary strategies to efficiently meet phosphorus requirement of fish and minimize phosphorus (P) waste output from aquaculture operation depends on a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic digestion of P by the animals. Dietary P is found under different chemical forms in feed (e.g. bone-P, phytate-P, organic- P). Each of these forms has distinct solubility and, therefore, is expected to have different digestion dynamics. This thesis presents: (i) an in vivo trial to assess the dynamic of digestion of dietary P forms postprandially, with emphasis on phytate-P and tricalcium-P; (ii) application of a dynamic model to estimate absorption and endogenous losses of P; (iii) a structural model (path analysis) to study the relationship between parameters important to digestion of P. In Study 1, it was observed that the digestibility of P at the proximal intestine (PI) of rainbow trout was reduced by the presence of phytate-P and tricalcium-P, and calcium (Ca) had a negative effect on Pi absorption. The study provided evidence that the proximal intestine was the primary site for Pi absorption. In Study 2, the validation of a mathematical model evidenced the influence of different forms of dietary P on the rate of absorption and endogenous Pi secretions in different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). A high concentration of low-solubility P compounds decreased the absorption rate of P while it increased the endogenous Pi secretion. Finally, Study 3 revealed that gastric pH directly and indirectly explained 16% and 39% of the variance in P digestibility and absorption, respectively. Gastric pH had a negative relationship with dietary P forms demonstrating that P digestion is highly dependent on gastric acid secretion. Ca indirectly affected P digestibility due to its correlation to dietary P forms. The combination of a comprehensive experimental protocol associated with mathematical modelling used in this thesis improved our understanding on the dynamics of P digestion in trout. In addition, our findings could be used to further investigate nutritional strategies to improve the digestibility of P as well as that of other nutrients by different fish species.

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    Authors: Z. Han; Z. Han; Q. Zhang; Q. Li; +33 Authors

    The mid-Pliocene (∼3 Ma) is one of the most recent warm periods with high CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and resulting high temperatures, and it is often cited as an analog for near-term future climate change. Here, we apply a moisture budget analysis to investigate the response of the large-scale hydrological cycle at low latitudes within a 13-model ensemble from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (PlioMIP2). The results show that increased atmospheric moisture content within the mid-Pliocene ensemble (due to the thermodynamic effect) results in wetter conditions over the deep tropics, i.e., the Pacific intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Maritime Continent, and drier conditions over the subtropics. Note that the dynamic effect plays a more important role than the thermodynamic effect in regional precipitation minus evaporation (PmE) changes (i.e., northward ITCZ shift and wetter northern Indian Ocean). The thermodynamic effect is offset to some extent by a dynamic effect involving a northward shift of the Hadley circulation that dries the deep tropics and moistens the subtropics in the Northern Hemisphere (i.e., the subtropical Pacific). From the perspective of Earth's energy budget, the enhanced southward cross-equatorial atmospheric transport (0.22 PW), induced by the hemispheric asymmetries of the atmospheric energy, favors an approximately 1∘ northward shift of the ITCZ. The shift of the ITCZ reorganizes atmospheric circulation, favoring a northward shift of the Hadley circulation. In addition, the Walker circulation consistently shifts westward within PlioMIP2 models, leading to wetter conditions over the northern Indian Ocean. The PlioMIP2 ensemble highlights that an imbalance of interhemispheric atmospheric energy during the mid-Pliocene could have led to changes in the dynamic effect, offsetting the thermodynamic effect and, hence, altering mid-Pliocene hydroclimate.

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    Climate of the Past
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Qiu, C.; Zhu, D.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; +50 Authors

    Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO2 fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC) observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-to-day variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP) (r2 = 0.76; Nash–Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF = 0.76) and ecosystem respiration (ER, r2 = 0.78, MEF = 0.75), with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, r2 = 0.42, MEF = 0.14) and and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, r2 = 0.38, MEF = 0.26). Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high r2 values (0.57–0.86). For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, r2 values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT) variation was not well predicted (r2 cmax and latitude (temperature), which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average Vcmax value. Source at https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-497-2018.

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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Copernicus Publications
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
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    Authors: Mitterboeck, T. Fatima;

    Molecular evolutionary rates vary dramatically across the tree of life. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, this thesis explores rates and patterns of molecular evolution associated with three major repeated evolutionary transitions that have shaped life: shifts between marine and freshwater environments in diverse lineages of eukaryotes, shifts between freshwater and terrestrial environments in insects, and shifts between flying ability and lack of ability in insects. These studies were novel in taxonomic scope and in the evolutionary transitions examined, as well as by assessing trends in both directions of transition. While rates of molecular evolution were here observed to be relatively equal among habitat categories, freshwater eukaryotes tended to have higher rates than marine or saline eukaryotes, and terrestrial insects tended to have higher rates than freshwater insects. In flightless insects, certain categories of genes more commonly exhibited signatures of positive or relaxed selection than observed in flying insects, and these trends mirrored those previously reported for other flying and secondarily flightless animal groups (birds and bats). Overall, the broad-scale trends observed in these studies support a degree of predictability in molecular evolution in association with biological and ecological traits of organisms. September 2012 to April 2013, May to August 2014: University of Guelph Integrative Biology PhD award to T.F.M. May 2013 to April 2014: Government of Ontario and University of Guelph Ontario Graduate Fellowship to T.F.M. September 2014 to August 2016: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Alexander Graham Bell Graduate Scholarship (CGS-D) and University of Guelph Dean’s Tri-council Scholarship to T.F.M. September 2012 to August 2016: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery Grants to S.J.A. (386591-2010) and J.F. (400479).

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